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under the brow, might be counted, and the shaven pink, and Rubens's madder. It would scarcely portion of the face, which is represented by in- be surprising if such a one were in doubt whethnumerable dots corresponding with those ob- er burnt sienna, mars orange, Chinese orange, servable in a man's beardless countenance, might lemon yellow, burnt brown ochre, warm sepia, be similarly reckoned. In the same manner are sugar of lead, and dragon's blood were not conthe pores of the skin so faithfully transcribed as nected with fruit and confectionery, or whether to bear inspection through the most powerful violet carmine and burnt carmine did not belong magnifying-glass, and the eyes are treated in to heroines and martyrs of romance. Yet these such a way that an oculist might study them with and many equally strange names are perfectly advantage.

comprehensible to artists—more particularly to After contemplating this remarkable produc- those who follow the departments of landscape tion, the spectator wonders whether art has not and water-colors. achieved its completest triumph, and whether it Wilkie's favorite pigment was asphaltum, or is possible to match nature more accurately. bitumen, which at one period he used unsparingBut, with all its marvelous elaboration, and de- ly not only in his flesh-shadows but in other porceptive as the work actually is when closely ex- tions of his work. This rich, transparent brown, amined, many of its merits disappear and give which has a sirange fascination for most artists, place to blemishes when the picture is observed is, nevertheless, a most pernicious pigment, being at a given distance. For some reason, which a far from permanent, with a tendency to crack painter or a connoisseur might explain, the flesh and discolor, as is too clearly shown in many a appears as if composed of cream or wax. chef-d'æuvre of our Scottish genre painter.

Some artists have pet colors, so to speak, From the earliest periods there have been which they use more freely than any others, and fashions in art as in everything else, and hence thus it is that painters of reputation are easily have arisen what are called schools of painting. recognized by the prevailing tone of their work. An artist has but to make himself remarkable Here is one for whom brown seems an indispen- for some distinguishable feature in his art, and sable pigment; here is another who appears to his manner will soon become popular, accomplish nothing without a brick-dust red; a Let him transcribe nature as if seen through third luxuriates in cream color and buff; while, a microscope, which his critics and admirers, for for a fourth, hues resembling brimstone and trea- want of a better title, call pre-Raphaelitism, and cle seem to have a strange fascination. On the soon there will gather a small army of enthusiother hand, there are those who cherish a positive asts, dubbing themselves pre-Raphaelites, who antipathy to certain colors, and who declare war paint after the same pattern. In a few years the to the (palette) knife, now to Vandyke brown, popular one alters his views and adopts the broad now to Indian red, to burnt sienna, to Ant- or slap-dash style, in direct opposition to that werp blue or to crimson lake, pigments which to hitherto approved of. Then the pre-Raphaelites, some are indispensable.

dropping their microscopes, assume the whiteMost strange and varied are the hues em- wash-brush, and lay on their colors after the fashployed by artists, and to the unlearned in such ion of scene-painters. matters it seems incomprehensible how some of Some one presently discovers that animate them should actually be required to do duty, espe- nature is best copied in the open air—an examcially in the portrayal of a human countenance. ple previously set by Titian and other early masThe very names are in many cases unfamiliar. It ters--and forthwith a number of gentlemen of would perhaps never occur to the outsider that the brush, quitting their comfortable studios, be"mummy,” which he had always associated with take themselves to the house-tops or to back-garEgyptian embalmments, was a brown used by dens, and pose their models al fresco; or the some artists for their shadows. He might well master may be impressed by the belief that hube puzzled to comprehend what difference there man flesh shows to best advantage when more existed between this color and bone brown, or be- than half enveloped by shadow, in which case tween the latter and Capphah brown, manganese his enthusiastic followers place their subjects brown, Prout's brown, Vandyke brown, Verona against the solitary window of a dimly lighted brown, madderine brown, and madder brown. chamber and abandon themselves to somberness As well might he be expected to distinguish be- and gloom. tween flake white, Chinese white, permanent Most artists attach great importance to the white, silver white, barytes white; cremnitz backgrounds of their pictures. There are those white, white lead, and zinc white; or, to explain who have a preference for a bright-blue sky or a the precise nature of ceruleum, verdigris, cobalt, cloudy and stormy firmament, while others show orpiment, cadmium, oxide of chromium, smalt, off their flesh-tints against a deep, rich crimson bistre, Cassel earth, verditer, aureolin, Italian ground, a dark brown, or an invisible green. Others again consider drab, yellow, or stone-color of the sitter found to her surprise that her husmore becoming

band had not only one hat on his head but anThe painting of a head with its harmonious other under his arm! surroundings might not inappropriately be com- Others besides Reynolds could doubt?ess suppared to a dramatic performance, in which the ply innumerable stories of a similar character. leading character is rendered more striking when What portrait-painter has not met with the dou. well supported by those who fill subordinate parts ble-chinned dowager who declines to have that and by the scenic accessories. Some painters superfluity of her face introduced in her picture will, however, sacrifice everything in their work on the score of unbecomingness, or the lady with which might otherwise tend to destroy the bril- the prominent teeth who will not be represented liancy and vividness of their flesh-tints, and hence with an open mouth. How often have not gray portrait-painters are frequently careless in the hair been converted into raven black, green eyes matter of hands, dress, and other things. into celestial blue, sallow skins into pink-and

The unfortunate artist who has not yet risen white complexions, and corpulent busts into slim to eminence and consequent independence of ac- and graceful figures ? What limner of faces has tion in his profession is often sadly restricted in not been requested to be particular respecting this respect, when certain of his patrons insist the “ pleasing" but artificial smirk of his sitter, upon the introduction or suppression of details and to bear in mind that there is actually no which as frequently as not prove fatal to his “tone” or “depth,” as the artist would have it, fame. Queen Elizabeth, in sitting for her por- on her fair countenance, but that it is white even trait, made it a condition that the artist should unto chalkiness, just as her skin is smooth and introduce no positive shadow in her royal coun- highly polished, and not rough and thick with tenance, and hence posterity is left with a flat as paint, as in the picture ? well as a flattered representation of her Majesty. How many gaudy costumes, jewel-bedecked The Chinese monarch who regarded the shaded fingers mpossible accessories, have not been inside of Romney's portrait of George III. as so sisted upon by patron or patroness, who is indifmuch dirt is another instance of the difficulties ferent whether the predominance of blue or any which an artist encounters in the matter of satis- other vivid color does or does not spoil the genfying patrons.

eral harmony of the picture? Reynolds has left many stories in connection With such difficulties to contend with, there with fastidious sitters. One of these refers to a is little wonder if a young and promising porgentleman who desired to be painted with his hat trait-painter frequently fails in the matter of his on his head instead of in his hand, the latter po- flesh-color. With a slight paraphrase of the sition being more customary at the period when poet, one might say of him and his handiwork, Sir Joshua chose conventional attitudes after the “Let him paint an inch thick, to this complexion manner of his old master Hudson. It is said it must come.” that when the likeness was sent home the wife

All the Year Round.


OW comes it that so many great men, men which from eight cylinders can print and fold


kind and have left great works behind them, have hour. What but the pressure of necessity could had to live under pressure, with strained ener- ever have made machinery accomplish such wongies, and the sense of having too much to do? ders? It needs something of the same sort to It seems as if men could hardly become great take the most out of human faculties. Under under the conditions of a calm, leisurely life. A the pressure, the faculties become enlarged and man can not run at his fastest, or swim his far- quickened, and are thus capable of producing thest, in ordinary circumstances; he must be results that calm leisure never attains. running in an exciting race, or swimming for Still it is true that overwork is an evil. It is dear life, to do his best. It rarely appears what more—it is often a murderer. Sir Walter Scott, a man is capable of till he is put to his mettle. Sir James Simpson, Dr. Norman Macleod, and Necessity is a wonderful educator, a wonderful many others certainly did not live to the end of enlarger and quickener of men's faculties. We their days, and it was overwork that robbed them lately read an account of a printing-machine of the residue. No doubt, as is often said, it is


not work but worry that does the mischief. But minutes when neither love nor money can eke worry is the daughter of overwork; it is having out the allowance. too little time to be patient that gives the feeling Besides saving time, the pressure of work of worry; it is having the nerves so stretched makes the mental machinery go faster. The that the slightest opposition frets them. When mind comes under an excitement which quickens a celebrated editor complained of being

all its processes. The steam gets up, and the “ Overworked, overworried,

piston flies through the cylinder like lightning. Over-Croker'd, over-Murray'd,"

Pieces of work have been done in these moods

that would not or could not have been done unthe first word of his lamentation explained all the der more still and quiet conditions. If St. Paul rest. Undoubtedly, then, overwork, while a means had not led so busy a life, his epistles would have to good, is itself an evil. A distinguished man borne a different character. They would not of our acquaintance used to say that the most have the stimulating power they have. The rush desirable condition of life was to have just some- and rapidity of the apostle's mind communiwhat more to do than you could possibly accom

cates itself to his readers. The same thing is plish. Not far too much, for that would crush true, in a sense, of the speeches of most great you; but enough to check the tendency to lazi- orators. Such things could not be produced in ness, enough to supply a perpetual spur. The cold blood. Men must be on wings to do them. evil is, that it is so difficult to realize this happy If the rocket were not discharged in a sort of condition; men who are able to do much are frantic excitement, it would not describe the usually pressed to do far too much; and the beautiful curve which it traces. It is certain that warning which so often comes in the form of the leisure which busy men so naturally crave paralysis or of heart-disease comes too late to would greatly restrict and impair many of their admit of a remedy.

Their work might indeed be It must be accepted, we apprehend, as the done with more finish and beauty of detail, but true state of things that, while there are evils in- it would have far less of the living and quickenseparable from high pressure and overwork, the ing power to which, very probably, its chief value best that a strong man is capable of can not be is due. No doubt, if sober thought be the chief done without them. Let us observe, for exam- thing needed in a piece of work, the slower it is ple, how careful an overworked man is to make done the better ; a judge must be deliberate, and the most of his time. What an early riser he solemn, and slow; but, if the purpose be to illubecomes ! Can anything make a man start from minate, to quicken, to impel, the mind will be all the luxury of a half-waking, half-sleeping state the better of the excitement that comes from the in bed like the conviction that if he is not at pressure of too much to do. work at a given minute the whole business of the When able men are urged on in this way, it day will be thrown into arrear and inevitable con- is wonderful what they can do even in their hora fusion ? Dickens has a character somewhere subsecive. Sometimes it seems as if they could who says he always goes to bed with regret and never stop. They go on like the Flying Dutchrises with disgust. The pressure of work re- man, as if they were embodiments of the permoves both the regret and the disgust, for at petual motion. There is Mr. Gladstone, for exbedtime bed is welcome to the busy worker, ample. No sooner is he relieved of the burden while in the morning it is a thief and a robber. of the premiership than he is up to the neck in How much more rapidly one runs through the Homer. When people are wondering how he newspaper when there is but ten minutes for it; gets time to keep up his Greek, he is out with an or how much more quickly one transacts busi- elaborate pamphlet on Ultramontanism. Hardly ness, or makes inquiries, or goes through friendly is the ink dry when a publication is announced greetings, when dozens are waiting in the ante- on the Turkish massacres. And, when people room, let doctors and lawyers say. “Don't go are thinking him fairly exhausted, he goes through to men of leisure when you want anything done an electioneering campaign like a meteor, and -go to busy men,” was a saying of the late delivers a succession of speeches, that for every George Moore's, of Bow Churchyard, himself a quality of powerful and brilliant oratory fill the busy man, the architect of a colossal business, whole world with astonishment. We suppose and yet able to carry on his shoulders the inter- that in his best days a similar activity must have ests of innumerable charities. In the United characterized Lord Brougham. When could he States they have a rule in some of their conven- have written his papers for the Useful Knowledge tions that speakers shall not occupy more than Society, or studied and written his chapters on two minutes. It seems to many as if a speaker Paley's “Natural Theology”? The sparks from would need that time at least to clear his throat; such men's anvils are equal to the chief products and yet it is wonderful what can be said in two of ordinary craftsmen. But even these men

greatest efforts.


would probably have been eclipsed by the activ- brood over it. Disgust is usually the product of ity of the Spanish poet, Lope de Vega. It was leisure and reflection, and comes at a second calculated that twenty-one million three hundred stage. If the work be somewhat varied, the thousand of his lines were actually printed, and pleasure in connection with its completion is no less than eighteen hundred plays of his com- varied too. Hence, perhaps, is the reason why position acted upon the stage. “Were we to the total and sudden giving up of work is often give credit to such accounts," says Lord Holland, attended with evil results. The transition from "allowing him to begin his compositions at the a life full of activity and rich in the enjoyment age of thirteen, we must believe that on an aver- of successful labor to a life of absolute idleness age he wrote more than nine hundred lines a with no such vivid enjoyment has often proved day; a fertility of imagination and a celerity of fatal. There is too little activity in the new life, pen which, when we consider the occupations of and too little of the pleasure of activity. Idlehis life as a soldier, a secretary, a master of a ness, without the excitement and pleasure of family, and a priest, his acquirements in Latin, work, becomes depressing. The vital forces Italian, and Portuguese, and reputation for droop and decay. On the her hand, to the erudition, become not only improbable, but ab- busy worker, rest and recreation have a double solutely, and one may say physically, impossi- relish. No holiday is so refreshing as that in ble."

which he runs away from his labors, and enjoys With such cases before us, we come more himself in quite a different scene. Swiss mounreadily to understand the paradox that the busi- tains and Swiss air have then a double charm. est men are those who have most time, or at The interval is too short to produce the ennui least most capacity, for extra work. The medi- that attends permanent separation from active cal profession is full of instances. It is remark- pursuits. Few things live in the memory more able that the late Sir James Simpson, for instance, vividly than the first month in Switzerland in the in the midst of an unprecedented professional heart of a too busy life. practice should have been a keen antiquary, and Too much to do, besides its direct effect on should have found time to write so many anti- the busy worker, exposes him to certain inconquarian memoirs. It is said of the late Dr. Aber- veniences apt to escape the notice of others. One crombie, that his works on the “Intellectual and of these is the effect produced on his memory. Moral Powers of Man" were composed in his One who leads a rushing life, who has to hurry carriage, as he was driving to see his patients. from one thing to another, and from one person The instances of medical men in the height of to another without a moment's interval, can not practice writing papers for the medical journals, have a vivid remembrance of many things that or preparing professional works for the press, are happen in his experience. He is necessarily liavery numerous. The faculties of such men are ble to forget, in a way that another can not unso ready that in their moments of leisure they derstand. Many a busy physician has found can do more than many another man who has himself at times in serious trouble from this no stated work at all. Even ordinary men un

He has made a promise to a patient, derstand quite well how irksome a very small bit but, before the promise had hardened in his memof work, like the writing of letters, is in a holiday- ory, some exciting case has hurried him away, time, when one is idle in the country; whereas, obliterated the impression, and the promise has in the height of one's activity, a dozen letters been forgotten. Authors' memories have been could be dashed off in an hour, and not even known from a similar cause to play them strange counted in the hard work of the day. An able tricks. We know an author who was engaged man, in the full swing of his manifold work, is in writing a book amid many other absorbing like a machine that by belts and wheels can do occupations. For some weeks the book had to all kinds of by-jobs, besides what engages the be laid aside. When leisure came, he resumed chief share of its activity.

it, as he thought, at the point where he had Nor is such a life necessarily so oppressive as broken it off, and got through a considerable is often thought. Our Maker has so ordered it chapter, when, to his mingled amazement and that one of our chief pleasures is derived from amusement, he found in his drawer another work successfully done. Labor ipse voluptas. manuscript, almost precisely similar, the existThere is always a gratification in “something ac- ence of which he had quite forgotten. So strange complished, something done.” Lope de Vega, and incredible are these tricks of memory that writing his play in a single day, as he often did, sometimes the most honest of men, if examined had no doubt sufficient enjoyment in it to com- in a court of justice, would hardly be believed. pensate him for all the confinement and toil. The non mi ricordo would hardly be accepted Rapid workers have not time to get disgusted by those who have had little experience of the with their work, as those are apt to do who difficulty of carrying in the memory impressions




which have not had time to photograph them- The owner was, of course, entitled to compensaselves on its tablets, or have been blurred by tion, but somehow it had not come. Going to other impressions following too quickly.

the President, he told him his story, and was If a busy man is guilty of some neglect, lei- rather chagrined to be told that it did not lie surely people are apt to fancy an intentional slight with him to pay the money. “Then,” says the where nothing of the kind was dreamed of. In farmer, “will you undertake to write to the Genthe case of such a man, there is a twofold reason eral, and see that the matter is settled properly?" for applying the rule which Elizabeth Barrett, in Poor Lincoln, who never wanted a story to help one of her letters to Mr. Horne, thus gracefully him in an emergency, was ready for his visitor. acknowledged: “In one letter was something “When I was a rail-splitter," he said, “there about neglect; you told me never to fancy a si- lived near us a smart young fellow, the captain lence into a neglect. Was I likely to do it? of a Mississippi boat, who could steer a vessel Was there any room for even fancy to try? That over the rapids with wonderful skill, as hardly would be still more surprising than the fact of any one else could. One day, when he was graspyour making room for a thought of me in the ing the wheel with his utmost strength, at the multitude of your occupations."

most critical point of the rapids, a little boy came In the “ Life of Charlotte Brontë,” if we re- running up to him in great excitement and said, member rightly, it is told how once, at the be- 'Cap'n, stop your ship, my apple has fallen overginning of her literary life, she took it into her board !'” In the “Life of Sir James Simpson' head that an eminent publisher was dissatisfied, there are some curious notices of the extraorbecause he did not at once acknowledge and an- dinary things that patients in the country would swer a letter accompanying a manuscript. At sometimes ask him to do. Once a gentleman Haworth it was not easy to understand the ways wrote to him asking him to send him a copy of of Cornhill or Paternoster Row. We can fancy the prescription which he had given him some the grim smile on the face of the publisher, over- years before, when the doctor could hardly rewhelmed in all likelihood with letters, manu- call the man, much less the prescription. Others scripts, proofs, books, bills, and business of every would ask him to go to Duncan and Flockhart's, sort, at the gentle impatience of the lady. Most and get them some particular medicine. A very publishers, and editors too, have doubtless had busy clergyman of our acquaintance, when over rather amusing experiences of the innocent im- head and ears with many things, once got a letpatience of correspondents. Letters to the edi- ter from a stranger in the United States, explaintor often run as if the poor man had nothing ing that more than a century ago some one of whatever to do from morn to dewy eve but at- the name of G- owned a property near Edintend to their papers. He may be struggling, like burgh which was believed to have been destined a dray-horse in an overloaded wagon, to over- by will in a particular way, so that the relatives take the piles of crabbed handwriting in prose in America thought they had some claim to it. and verse that burden his table, ranging from He was requested to inquire into the matter, find essays in Chinese metaphysics to lines on a snow- out about the will, communicate with the present drop, and possibly, in regard to a given paper, owners of the property, and put everything in thinking of inserting it in the course of the sea- train for a just settlement of the claim. It would son, when down comes a thundering epistle de- have been reasonable for the writer to inclose a manding why it did not appear in the last num- bill for five hundred dollars, but that, unfortuber. Well, the impatience of correspondents is nately, he omitted to do. ‘not always innocent. Some have a spiteful plea- Unreasonable though it be to plague oversure in stinging the editor for “ rejecting" what worked men in this way, it is very interesting to the unhappy man never asked. If he had only find such men volunteering, in the midst of a time, he might explain things, and perhaps pacify hundred other things, to do some useful service them; but perhaps not. Editors, we suppose, to the friendless or the poor. Nothing could have must submit to be counted tyrants, and probably been kinder, for example, than the act of Sir fools to boot, by a large proportion of the ill-fated Walter Scott, writing out sermons for a young volunteers to whose surpassing merits they are aspirant to the Scottish ministry, whose state of so often inveterately blind.

nerves made him unable to grapple with the task, More amusing are the strange fancies that and satisfy his presbytery. Similar, though in a some persons have as to what overworked men quite different sphere, was the kindness shown may be asked to do for them. In the very thick by Vinet, at Lausanne, to a peasant-woman who of the American war, there came to President invaded his solitude one Sunday morning. OverLincoln an Illinois farmer, in a great state of ex- come by toil and illness, Vinet had been obliged citement about a pair of horses that one of Lin- to forbid the visits of strangers, and his family coln's generals had requisitioned for the war. were guarding him with all possible care. The

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