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Strange the places Fate chooses from which their heavily freighted ships as they pass through to fly her arrows! It was the country whose his territory, borne up, as one might say, upon people had conceived and carried out this gigan- his river of molten gold; together with the more tic fraud (the foundation of Egypt's financial ruin) or less pleasant reflection that he had seen twenty which pushed the late Viceroy from his stool and thousand of his subjects perish miserably, to say drove him, an exile, out of his country.

nothing of his having spent some 500,000,000 But the canal was completed at last. The francs of their money. pageant which inaugurated the opening of the Certainly it can not be said that all of this great route to the use of the world is known to money went into the hands of the canal comus all. How strangers flocked to see the triumph, pany. A great deal of it was interest which the as it was considered, of engineering skill; how Egyptian Government had to pay in order to the Empress came from France to grace the cere- enable it to comply with its agreements, and with mony with her presence; how she was attended the Napoleonic award. But, in so far as Egypt by princes and their trains; how, on the occasion is concerned, it matters not where it went: it is of her going to Cairo, a road was made to the sufficient to know that Egypt had to pay it. pyramids to enable her to ride out to them with- A last reflection : out fatigue ; how a kiosk was erected near M. de Lesseps started out with the propositheir base in which she was to repose after her tion that he could join the two seas at an exjourney, from the windows of which she might pense of 200,000,000 francs. view those splendid monuments without being The canal cost the subscribers to its stock subjected to the sun's powerful rays; how fêtes that amount. In addition it received from the were given; how presents were distributed, open- Khedive : handed and on all sides, and all at the Viceroy's

Francs. expense how like, indeed, it was to a fairy

In interest on his stock....... 8,457,306 pantomime in Eastern land, is known as well to

From the Napoleonic award. 84,000,000 those who kept themselves informed upon the

From his last bargain.... 30,000,000 current topics of the day as to those who par

122,457,306 ticipated in the splendid pageants.

It owes..

135,000,000 In one sense, at least, the Khedive had cause for self-congratulation. Both as regards ancient

257,457,306 and modern times, his country possessed the

Add original stock.... 200,000,000 grandest monuments which have ever been erect

457,457.306 ed by the hand of man, or spared by the hand of Time; and in respect of the first he had large- Assume that every franc of the money was ly contributed, and his name will be associated spent on the canal, and M. de Lesseps was out in with it for ever.

his calculations some 257,000,000 francs. Practically, however, what was the result of Remember that many miles of this canal were the work to him? Nothing, except that he had already dug for him. In former times there were made of Egypt a factor in the constantly recur- lakes in the vicinity of Ismailia ; the water in ring Eastern problem, about which no one un- those lakes had disappeared; he found basins derstands anything except that it is a source of of considerable depth, and all he had to do was never-failing anxiety to European cabinets, which to let the water from the sea into them. Now, neither of them, nor all of them combined have if under all these favorable circumstances, digging ever been, or will ever be, able to solve ; and as he was nearly the whole time in sand, it cost the knowledge that the commerce which had him 457,000,000 francs to join the Red Sea to been a profit to his people now passed them by, the Mediterranean, where on earth is the money and the pleasure of looking at the flags of foreign to come from to enable him to cut through the nations waving in the breeze from the masts of Isthmus of Panama?

P. H. M.

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has a singularly happy meaning, when it is and in which I have taken visiting charge of applied to health and the benefits which spring affected districts, I have found the women by far from health that is good and beautiful. We who the most useful and practical coadjutors. The are engaged in forwarding sanitary work may men sat by the fire if they were at home; the labor our lives out, and still do little service, un- women truly bestirred themselves. They saw til we can get each home, however small it may that the water intended for drinking purposes be, included in the plan of our work. The river was boiled before it was used for drinking purof national health must rise from the homes of poses; they attended to details relating to ventithe nation. Then it will be a great river on which lation and general cleansing ; they washed the every blessing will be borne.

clothing and bedding of the affected persons ; When I, as a physician, enter a house where they attended in the sick-rooms; they prepared there is a contagious disease, my first care is to the food. In a sentence, they were acting forces look at the surroundings. What are the customs for the suppression of the epidemics, and their of the people there? Are they wholesome ? devotion, and I say it faithfully, their readier and Are they unwholesome? If the answer be, superior appreciation of details, were the great “Wholesome and common sense,” then I know saving factors in relation both to preventive and that the better half of success in the way of curative art. treatment and prevention is secured. If the an- That which we sanitarians want, therefore, to swer be, "Unwholesome, slovenly, disorderly, see, is the scientific education of women to precareless,” then I know that all that may be ad- pare them to meet emergencies at once, and not vised for the best will be more than half useless, only so, but to prevent, by forethought and inbecause there is no habit on which any depen- telligent prevision, the necessity for emergencies. dence can be truthfully placed, and because habit We wish them to understand the principles which in the wrong direction is so difficult to move that suggest the details, instead of having to learn not even the strongest ties of affection are a match the details in moments of much excitement and for it even in times of emergency.

anxiety and dread, when details, however imporIf we could, then, get wives, mothers, and tant they may be, seem new, obscure, involved, daughters to learn the habitual practice of all and all but impossible, when habits which have that tends to health, we should soon have an been acquired have to be given up or much modieasy victory, and should ourselves cease to be fied, and when new habits have to be, as it were, known as the pioneers of sanitary work, the work improvised and enforced with regularity at a moitself being a recognized system and a recog- ment's notice. For it is as true as it is simple nized necessity to be practiced by everybody. that good health is after all, and bad health is

To me it always seems that no point in the after all, a matter of habit to an extent which warfare against disease is anything like so impor- few persons in the slightest degree acknowledge tant as that of getting the women of the house- or comprehend. hold to work heart and soul with us sanitarians. To the domestic cleanliness which most I am never tired of repeating this fact, and I women by habit learn to acquire, it should be never shall be until the fact is accomplished. easy to tack on many of the other forms of We always look to women for the cleanliness cleanliness which the physician wishes to enand tidiness of home. We say a home is miser- force, but which the general public does not alable if a good wife and mother be not at the head together or readily recognize. It is in relation to of it to direct the internal arrangements. We this further cleanliness, this more than commonspeak of slovenly women, so much importance place cleanliness—but which should be commondo we attach to orderly women, twenty times to place for all intents and purposes—that I wish to one more frequently than we do of slovenly men. draw attention, and the attention of the women A slovenly woman is a woman of mark for dis- of the nation particularly, in these papers on credit, and there can be no doubt that the natu- Health at Home. I promise to put forward not ral excellences of women in respect to order and one suggestion that can not be carried out. I cleanliness have, without any distinct system or will, in these essays, mode of scientific education, saved us often from severe and fatal outbreaks of disease. In the “Imagination's airy wing suppress,"


and give nothing more than plain rules for plain sons it is very hard to divine, to place sick people people of every grade of life.

in dark and closely curtained bedrooms. The

practice to some extent is continued to this day. SUNLIGHT AT HOME,

When a person goes to bed with sickness it is Whether your home be large or small, give often the first thing to pull down the blinds of it light. There is no house so likely to be un- the windows, to set up dark blinds, or if there be healthy as a dark and gloomy house. In a dark Venetian blinds to close them. On body and and gloomy house you can never see the dirt that spirit alike this practice is simply pernicious. It pollutes it. Dirt accumulates on dirt, and the may be well, if light is painful to the eyes of the mind soon learns to apologize for this condition sufferer, to shield the eyes from the light, or even because the gloom conceals it. “It is no credit shut the light off them altogether; but for the to be clean in this hole of a place" is soon the sake of this to shut it out of all the room, to cut sort of idea that the housewife gets into her off wholesale its precious influence, to make the mind; the “ place is always dingy, do what you sick-room a dark cell in which all kinds of immay,” is another similar and common idea; and purities may be concealed day after day, is an so in a dark house unwholesome things get offense to Nature which she ever rebukes in the stowed away and forgotten, and the air becomes sternest manner. impure, and when the air becomes impure the This remark presses with special force in digestive organs become imperfect in action, and cases where epidemic and contagious diseases soon there is some shade of bad health engen- are the affections from which the sufferers are dered in those persons who live in that dark suffering, for these affections, as they live on house. Flowers will not healthily bloom in a uncleanliness, require for their suppression the dark house, and flowers are, as a rule, good in- broadest light of day. Moreover, I once found dices. We put the flowers in our windows that by experiment that certain organic poisons, analthey may see the light. Are not our children ogous to the poisons which propagate these disworth many flowers ? They are the choicest of eases, are rendered innocuous by exposure to light. flowers. Then again light is necessary in order Thus, in every point of view, light stands forthat the animal spirits may be kept refreshed and ward as the agent of health. In sickness and in invigorated. No one is truly happy who in wak- health, in infancy, youth, middle age, old age, in ing hours is in a gloomy house or room. The all seasons, for the benefit of the mind and for gloom of the prison has ever been considered as the welfare of the body, sunlight is a bearer and a part of the punishment of the prison, and it is sustainer of health. so. The mind is saddened in a home that is not To secure the entrance of sunlight, every flushed with light, and when the mind is saddened house should have a plentiful supply of large the whole physical powers soon suffer; the heart windows, and not an opportunity of any kind beats languidly, the blood flows slowly, the should be lost to let in light to every room. It is breathing is imperfect, the oxidation of the blood very easy to exclude light when it is too bright: is reduced, and the conditions are laid for the it is very hard to let it in when by bad building development of many wearisome and unneces- it is systematically excluded. Lately, by an arsary constitutional failures and sufferings. chitectural perversity which is simply astounding,

Once again, light, sunlight I mean, is of itself it has become a fashion to build houses like those useful to health in a direct manner. Sunlight which were built for our ancestors about two favors nutrition ; sunlight favors nervous func- centuries ago, and which are called Queen Anne tion; sunlight sustains, chemically or physically, houses or mansions. Small windows, small the healthy state of the blood. Children and panes, overhanging window-brows, sharp, longolder persons living in darkened places become roofs enclosing attics with small windows-these blanched or pale; they have none of the ruddy, are the residences to which I refer; dull, red, healthy bloom of those who live in light. We dark, and gloomy. I am told that their excelsend a child that has lived in a dark court in lence lies in their artistic beauty, to which many London for a few days only into the sunlight, and advantages that we sanitarian artists wish for how marked is the change! We hardly know the must necessarily be sacrificed. I would be the face again.

last to oppose either the cultivation of art in deLet us keep, then, this word in our minds, sign or of art in application, and I do not for one light, light, light; sunlight which feeds us with moment believe that such opposition is necessary. its influence and leaves no poisonous vapors in But these beetle-browed mansions are not so its train.

beautiful as health, and never can be. I am Before I leave this subject, I want to say a bound to protest against them on many sanitary word about light in relation to the sick. A few grounds, and on none so much as on their interhundred years ago it became a fashion, for rea- ference with the work of the sun. They pro


duce shade, and those who live in them live in of sleep than we do in the summer. On the shadow.

longest day in the year, seven hours of sleep is In many residences where there is plenty of sufficient for most men and women who are in window-space there is much neglect in keeping the prime of life. On the shortest day, nine the windows clean. Windows should be cleaned hours of sleep is not overmuch, and, for those once a week at least, and a great desideratum is who are weakly, ten or even twelve hours may to bring into general use a simple mechanical be taken with real advantage. In winter, chilcontrivance by which the window-sashes can be dren should always have ten to twelve hours of easily removed and turned into the room, so as sleep. It is not idleness to indulge to that exto enable the cleaning to take place without the tent, but an actual saving, a storing up of invigoperilous process of standing outside on the win- rated existence for the future. Such rest can dow-sill. Among the poor who can not afford only be obtained by going to bed very early, say to have a professed window-cleaner the windows at half-past eight o'clock or nine. often become quite obscured, because the women It is wrong as ever it can be that our legisof the household can not get at them, as they lators should often be sitting up, as we know say, on both sides, and the men are not at home they do, times after times, in the dead of night, in the day to give them assistance. Baker's new trying against life to legislate for life. It is most ventilating window promises to answer best for foolish that public writers, who hold so many the object here stated. The sashes of this win- responsibilities in their hands, should be called dow hang on centers instead of sliding up and upon to exercise their craft at a time when all down. When they are closed the sashes fit neat- their nature is calling out to them, “Rest, rest, ly and exclude draughts and wet effectually ; and rest!" It is said I am foolish for declaring these when they are opened they can be set at any re- things. Is it so? I am standing by Nature, quired angle to admit air. The greatest advan- speaking under her direction, and, without a tage of all is that each window-sash can be thought of dogmatism, I am driven to ask, May turned over, so that it may be cleaned with equal it not be the world that is foolish ?—the world, I facility on its inside and outside surfaces without mean, of fashion and habit, which could, if it exposing the cleaner to the risk of standing out- would, change the present systems as easily as side at any stage of the cleaning process. it criticises the view that it ought to make the

The introduction of daylight reflectors has change. Anyway, this I know, and it is the truth been, in late years, a very great and useful ad- I would here express, that in every man, woman, vance. The dark basements of town-houses can and child there is, at or about the early time I be so often completely lighted by these reflectors have named, a persistent periodical desire for that I wonder they are not universally demanded sleep, which steals on determinately, which, taken in places where their action is effective. The at the flood, leads to a good sound night's rest, light they afford is steady, often actually bright, and which, resisted, never duly returns, but is and always pure.

replaced by a surreptitious sleep, broken by

wearing dreams, restless limbs, and but partial SLEEP AT HOME.

restoration of vital power. I have said before, I have been speaking about sunlight, and am make the sun your fellow workman. I repeat led by this to refer to another and allied topic, I the saying now. I do not say, go to bed at all mean night and hours of sleep. If it be good to seasons with the sun and rise with it, because in make all possible use of sunlight, it is equally this climate that would not be, at all seasons, good to make as little use as possible of artificial possible; but I say, as a general principle, as light. Artificial lights, so far, have been sources closely as you can, make the sun your fellow of waste, not only of the material out of which workman; follow him, as soon as you are able, to they are made, but of the air on which they burn. rest, and do not let him stare at you in bed many In the air of the closed room the present com- hours after he has commenced his daily course. monly used lamps, candles, and gaslights, rob Teach your children, moreover, this same lesson, the air of a part of its vital constituent, and sup- and the practice of it, whereupon there will be, ply in return products which are really injurious in a generation or two, even in this land of fogs to life. Gaslight is in this respect most hurtful, and dullness, a race of children of the sun, who but the others are bad when they are long kept will stand, in matter of health, a head and shoulburning in one confined space. The fewer hours ders above the children of the present generation. after dark that are spent in artificial light the better; and this suggests, of itself, that within

BEDROOMS AND BEDS. reasonable limits the sooner we go to rest after FROM the subject of sleep I am led by as dark the better. We require in the cold season easy and natural a transition to the subject of of winter, when the nights are long, much more bedrooms and beds as I was before led from the subject of light to the subject of sleep. But expressing the whole of the error that really experhaps some one will say, Why, in speaking of ists. a home and fireside topics, should you begin with When we enter the bedroom we too often find bedrooms? There is the drawing-room, surely, it, though it may be a good-sized room, altogethfirst to be thought of; that room in which the er unsuited as a sleeping-apartment. It may be company gathers when company comes together; situated either at the back or the front of the that room in which the lady of the house takes house; it may or may not have a fireplace, and, the most pride, shows the most taste, feels most if it should have a fireplace, the register may or at home. There is also the dining-room, or sit- may not be open. The windows may be large or ting-room, or breakfast-room, or study. Again, small, according to mere caprice of the builder, there is the kitchen-of all rooms, surely, the or of accident, or of necessity; and, whether the most important in every sanitary point of window will open or shut from the top or the view?

bottom sash, or from both, is a matter of smallWe will enter all these rooms in good time; est consequence. As a rule the bedroom-winbut let us go into the bedroom first, and get that dows that have a double sash open only from the in order, because, after all, it is really the most bottom, and it is the most usual occurrence to important room in the house by far and far again. find the sash-lines out of gear altogether, or the I know it is not commonly thought to be so. I frames in a bad state, so that the sash has to be am quite aware from my daily observations, for supported with care, or “ humored," whenever it over thirty years, that this is one of the least has to be opened or closed. Then to the winpopular notions about bedrooms. I often think, dow, that the room may look snug and comfortas I wend my way up ever so many different able, must be muslin blinds (half blinds), rollerkinds of stairs daily, that a doctor's usual jour- blinds, and very often heavy curtains. When ney would be something like that on a tread- the window is opened the roller-blind blows out wheel were it not for the fact that there is always like the sail of a boat, or blows in, at the risk of some new ending to his ascents, and that on his knocking down the looking-glass. Sometimes mission of freedom and usefulness he is carrying Venetian blinds, which are never in order for two the blessings of the services his brethren are months together, take the place of roller-blinds, giving to him, for dispensation, into the sanctua- and it becomes quite an art to manage the laths, ries of sorrow. But one fact would lighten my though these blinds are on the whole the best. heart very much more-I mean the fact, if it Then the walls of bedrooms are in most instances were as fully as it were easily realizable, that I covered with paper, and of all rooms in the house should always find the bedrooms in sickness or they are least frequently papered. “The lower in health befitting their office and the purpose to rooms must be papered, they look so very dirty; which they are assigned.

the bedrooms are dingy, but they may stand over As a rule I regret to record that from want another year; nobody sees them.” To carry out of appreciation of what is most healthy, in oppo- further the idea of snugness, the bedrooms are sition to a keen appreciation of what is most fash- carpeted, it may be over their whole surface right ionable, the bedroom is too often the part of the up to the walls of the rooms, and the carpet is house that is least considered. It may be in any nailed down, so that it may be swept without bepart of the house. There is no room too much ing dragged out of its place. out of the way or too little cared for that may Again, the bedroom is too often made a kind not be a bedroom. “This is only a bedroom,” is of half lumber-room-a place in which things the commonest observation of the woman who is that have to be concealed are carefully stowed deputed to show you over an empty house that away. Under the bed ” is a convenient hidingstands to be let. “We can turn the dressing- place. It is the fact that once in a public instituroom into a bedroom whenever we like,” is not tion for the sick which I inspected there existed unfrequently a housewife's, and even a good an arrangement by which each new patient who housewife's, expression. “Give me a shake-down came in to be cured had his every-day clothes, somewhere,” is the request of the unexpected after they were taken off his body, put into a traveler or visitor who wants to stay with you all rickety old box and pushed under his bed, to renight. Anywhere will do, so long as it is a main there until he was able to put them on again bed." “This is only an attic; but it is large when he “left the house " or until he died, if his enough for one servant, you know, and two have disease ended fatally, and his relatives claimed slept in it many a time before now." These are them. I found eighteen of these boxes of clothes the kind of ordinary terms that are applied to secreted systematically under eighteen beds in bedrooms as apologies for something that is con- one insalubrious sick-room or ward of this fessedly but observedly wrong about them. The establishment. In private houses this same language itself implies error; but it is far from plan of stowing away old clothes, old boots

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