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the family affections. If a son declared himself tory of the inhabited world. If the wars of England, Protestant, which he might do in boyhood, a third carried on here from the reign of Elizabeth, had been of his father's fortune was at once applied to his use; waged against a foreign enemy, the inhabitants would the father's estate was secured to him as heir, a life- have retained their possessions under the established rent merely being lest to the father. A father's set- law of civilized nations"; but the policy of England tlement to the prejudice of the heir-at-law might be " a declaration of perpetual war against the nainstantly defeated by the heir becoming Protestant. tives of Ireland, and it has rendered her a blank If the heir continued a Papist, the estate gaveled amid the nations of Europe, and retarded her progwen: in equal shares to the sons-a modification of ress in the civilized world." old Irish law introduced to break up the estates of the Papists, so that none should be on the land above

Of the Irish landlords he says that “confiscathe condition of a beggar. If there were no sons it tion is their common title; and from their first gaveled on the daughters; if no children, then on settlement they have been hemmed in by the old the collaterals. Papists who had lost their lands, inhabitants brooding over their discontent in suland had grown rich in commerce, could neither buy len indignation.” One of the great evils of our land nor lend their money on heritable security. dealing with Ireland is, that we have persisted in The Papists could get no hold, direct or indirect, governing her according to English prejudices upon the soil. Even a lease to a Papist, to be legal, and ideas. Not thus have we dealt with India, must have been short. Any Papist above sixteen or French Canada, or even the Isle of Man and years of age might be called on to take the oath of the Channel Islands. The land tenure of Ireland abjuration, and, on thrice declining, he suffered a pramunire. If he entertained a priest or a bishop. The land belonged to the sept, not to the chief,

was altogether different from that of England. he was fined; for a third offense he forfeited his whole fortune. The exercise of his religion was

or to any of his vassals. This was forgotten or forbidden ; its chapels were shut up; its priests ban. ignored when the lands of chiefs were declared ished, and hanged if they returned home. ... A forfeit and granted to fresh landlords. The ocPapist could not enter the profession of the law. cupiers, on the other hand, regarded these lands He could not marry a Protestant (the fatal Kilken- as their own; and this idea, founded originally ny provision against mixing over again). He could in fact, has never passed clean out of their minds, neither vote at vestries, nor serve on grand juries, and it lies at the root of a good deal of the presnor act as a constable, as a sheriff, or under-sheriff, ent land agitation. It was not a mere class which or a magistrate. He could neither vote at elections the confiscations disinherited and uprooted from nor sit in Parliament. In short, he was excluded the soil, but the entire race of Irishmen; and from any office of public trust or emolument. “The these still cherish the tradition that they are the Catholics," says Sir H. Parnell, “ in place of being lawful owners of the land. the free subjects of a prince from whom they were

And, as if it were not enough to have divorced taught to expect only justice and mercy, were made a whole nation from the soil which gave it birth, the slaves of every one, even of the meanest of their and which of right belonged to it, the ingenuity Protestant countrymen.” Had they become mere slaves they might have expected some degree of hu- of English statecraft found other means of commane treatment; but, as the policy which had made pleting the ruin of Ireland. Till Queen Elizathem slaves held them at the same time as the natu. beth's reign the Irish had a flourishing trade in ral and interested enemies of their masters, they supplying England with cattle. This was supwere doomed to experience all the oppression of posed to depreciate rents in England, and Irish tyranny without any of the chances, which other cattle were accordingly declared by act of Parliaslaves enjoy, of the tyrants being merciful, and feel- ment "a nuisance," and their importation was ing their tyranny secure.

forbidden. Thereupon the Irish killed their cat

tle at home and sent them to England as salted In short, the Irish Roman Catholics who sur- meat. This provoked another act of Parliament, vived their persecutions were literally dispossessed forbidding in perpetuity the importation of all of their native country. Lord Clare, the Irish cattle from Ireland, “ dead or alive, great or small, Lord Chancellor at the time of the Union, made fat or lean.” Nevertheless, the Lord-Lieutenant that statement in his place in Parliament. After appealed to Ireland on behalf of the sufferers showing that the whole land of Ireland had from the great fire of London. The Irish were been confiscated, with the exception of the estates wretchedly poor, and had no gold or silver to of five or six families of English blood," and that

spare; but they sent a handsome contribution in “ no inconsiderable portion of the island had been cattle. This gift the landed interest in England confiscated twice, or perhaps thrice, in the course resented in loud and angry tones as “a political of a century,” he goes on to make the following contrivance to defeat the prohibition of Irish catremarkable declaration :

tle.” Driven to their wits' ends, the Irish turned “The situation therefore of the Irish nation at the the hides of their cattle into leather, which they Revolution (of 1688) stands unparalleled in the his- exported to England. But here too they were

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baffled by English jealousy. Then they took to it also; and Manchester, in 1785, sent a petition sheep-farming, and sent excellent wool to Eng- to Parliament, signed by one hundred and sevenland. Again the landed interest of England took teen thousand persons, praying for the prohibialarm, and Irish wool was declared contraband tion of Irish linens. The voice of reason and by act of Parliament in the reign of Charles II. justice for once prevailed, and Derry, and BelThe Irish then manufactured the raw material at fast, and Lisburn flourish to prove what the rest of home, and soon drove a thriving trade in woolen Ireland might now be, if the purblind champions stuffs. The manufacturers of England thereupon of “British interests” had not then, as lately, igrose up against the iniquity of Irish competition, norantly sacrificed, to a purely imaginary danger, and the woolen manufactures of Ireland were the welfare and good will of an oppressed race. promptly excluded from the markets of the Con- The sins of nations, as of individuals, are sure to tinent. They were, however, so excellent and so find them out, and we have no just cause of cheap that the industry still flourished. But Eng- complaint if events should prove that our sins lish jealousy never ceased its clamor against it, against Ireland are not yet expiated in full. We and in the year 1698 both Houses of the English robbed the Irish of their land, and they betook Parliament petitioned the King to suppress it. themselves to other industries for livelihood. Of His Majesty replied to the Lords that he would these we robbed them also, and drove them back “ take care to do what their lordships desired." upon the land exclusively for their support. Yet To the Commons he said, “I shall do all that we wonder that there is now a land question in in me lies to discourage the woolen manufactures Ireland ! of Ireland.” Discouraged they were accordingly; and so effectually that, whereas two centuries ago MALCOLM MACCOLL (Contemporary Rethey held their own against England in foreign view). markets, I find from an official return of 1866 the following significant figures: The value of the woolen exports of Great Britain in that year

BUDDHISM AND JAINISM. was £21,795,971 ; that of Ireland, £246. The woolen industry being destroyed, the Irish tried entitled “ Buddhism and Jainism,” we extract a few

[From an article in “The Contemporary Review," their hand, with marked success, at the manufacture of silk. From that field also British jeal- passages descriptive of the Jains or Jainas, a reli

gious sect of India.] ousy drove them in despair. But they are a pertinacious race, and do not readily “say die." BUDDHISM was destined to become extinct So they tried their hands at the smaller indus- with its founder.' The Buddha died, like other tries, since all the larger ones were tabooed men, and, according to his own doctrine, became them. Availing themselves of Ireland's facilities absolutely extinct. Nothing remained but the for the manufacture of glass, they were sum- relics of his burned body, which were distributed marily stopped by a law which prohibited the in all directions. No successor was ready to step exportation of glass from Ireland, and its im- into his place. No living representative was portation into Ireland from any country save competent to fill up the void caused by his death, England. Cotton, sugar, soap, candle-making, Nothing seemed more unlikely than that the and other manufactures were all tried in turn, mere recollection of his teaching and example, and with a like result. To crush her industries though perpetuated by the rapid multiplication beyond all hope of competition with English mer- of shrines, symbols, and images of his person, chants, all the Mediterranean ports were closed should have power to secure the continuance of against her, and she was at length shut out from his system in his own native country for more commerce with the whole world, Old and New, than ten centuries, and to disseminate his docincluding even our own colonies. To such a trines over the greater part of Asia. What, pitch did this cruel policy, and not more cruel then, was the secret of its permanence and diffuthan stupid, reach, that even the spontaneous sion? It really had no true permanence. Buddhproduce of the ocean which washed his shores ism never lived on in its first form, and never could not be enjoyed by the Irishman without spread anywhere without taking from other systhe jealous interference of English interests; and tems quite as much as it imparted. The tolerant the fishermen of Waterford and Wexford were spirit which was its chief distinguishing characthought presumptuous for pursuing their calling teristic permitted its adherents to please themalong their own coasts because, forsooth! the selves in adopting extraneous doctrines. Hence fish-markets of England might thereby be in- it happened that the Buddhists were always jured. One solitary industry remained to Ire- ready to acquiesce in, and even conform to, the land. She was allowed to cultivate the linen religious practices of the countries to which trade, though “British interests" tried to strangle they migrated, and to clothe their own simple


creed in, so to speak, a many-colored vesture of meditation, and true knowledge. In these crupopular legends and superstitious ideas.

cial doctrines the theory of Brāhmanism is supeEven in India, where the Buddha's memory rior to that of Buddhism and Jainism. Accordcontinued to be perpetuated by strong personal ing to the Brāhmans, the living soul of man has recollections and local associations, as well as by an eternal existence both retrospectively and prorelics, symbols, and images, his doctrines rapidly spectively, and only exists separately from the One lost their distinctive character, and ultimately Supreme Eternal Soul because that Supreme merged in the Brāhmanism whence they original- Soul wills the temporary separate personality of ly sprang

countless individual spirits, dissevering them from Nor is there any historical evidence to prove his own essence, and causing them to pass that the Buddhists were finally driven out of In- through a succession of bodies, till, after a long dia by violent means. Doubtless occasional per- course of discipline, they are permitted to blend secutions occurred in particular places at various once more with their great Eternal Source. With times, and it is well ascertained that fanatical, the Brāhmans existence in the abstract is not an enthusiastic Brāhmans, such as Kumārila and evil. It is only an evil when it involves the conS'ankara, occasionally instigated deeds of blood tinued separation of the personal soul from the and violence. But the final disappearance of impersonal Eternal Soul of the Universe. Buddhism is probably due to the fact that the Very different is the doctrine of Buddhists two systems, instead of engaging in constant and Jains. With them there is no Supreme Beconflict, were gradually drawn toward each other ing, no Supreme Divine Eternal Soul, no separate by mutual sympathy and attraction; and that, human eternal soul. Nor can there be any true originally related like father and child, they ended soul-transmigration. A Buddhist and a Jaina by consorting together in unnatural union and believe that the only eternal thing is matter. The intercourse. The result of this union was the universe consists of eternal atoms which by their production of the hybrid systems of Vaishnavism own inherent creative force are perpetually develand S'aivism, both of which in their lineaments oping countless forms of being in ever-recurring bear a strong family resemblance to Buddhism. cycles of creation and dissolution, re-creation The distinctive names of Buddhism were dropped, and re-dissolution. This is symbolized by a wheel but the distinctive features of the system sur- revolving for ever in perpetual progression and vived. The Vaishnavas were Buddhists in their retrogression. doctrines of liberty and equality, in their absti- What, then, becomes of the doctrine of transnence from injury (a-hinsă), in their desire for migration of souls, which is said to be held even the preservation of life, in their hero-worship, more strongly by Buddhists and Jains than by deification of humanity, and fondness for images; Hindūs? It is thus explained: Every human while the S'aivas were Buddhists in their love for being is composed of certain constituents (called self-mortification and austerity, as well as in their by Buddhists the five Skandhas). These comsuperstitious dread of the power of demoniacal prehend body, soul, and mind, with all the organs agencies. What, then, became of the atheisti- of feeling and sensation. They are all dissolved cal, philosophy and agnostic materialism of the at death, and absolute extinction would follow, Buddhistic creed? Those doctrines were no more were it not for the inextinguishable, imperishexpelled from India than were other Buddhistic able, omnipotent force of Karman or Act. No ideas. They found a home, under changed sooner are the constituents of one stage of exisnames, among various sects, but especially in a tence dissolved than a new set is created by the kindred system which has survived to the present force of acts done and character formed in the day, and may be conveniently called Jainism.... previous stage. Soul-transmigration with Buddh

ists is simply a concatenation of separate exisWhat is the great end and object of Jainism ? tences connected by the iron chain of act. A Briefly, it may be stated that Jainism, like Brāh- man's own acts generate a force which may be manism and Buddhism, aims at getting rid of compared to those of chemistry, magnetism, or the burden of repeated existences. Three root- electricity-a force which periodically re-creates ideas may be said to lie at the foundation of all the whole man, and perpetuates his personal three systems: first, that personal existence is identity (notwithstanding the loss of memory) protracted through an innumerable succession of through the whole series of his separate exisbodies by the almighty power of man's own tences, whether it obliges him to ascend or deacts ; secondly, that mundane life is an evil, and scend in the scale of being. It may safely be that man finds his perfection in the cessation of affirmed that Brāhmans, Buddhists, and Jains all all acts, and the consequent extinction of all per- agree in repudiating the idea of vicarious suffersonal existence; thirdly, that such perfection is ing. All concur in rejecting the notion of a repalone attained through self-mortification, abstract resentative man-whether he be a Manu, a Rishi,


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a Buddha, or a Jina-suffering as a substituted self-mortification (tapas), self-restraint (yama), victim for the rest of mankind. Every being and asceticism. Only twenty-four supreme saints brought into the world must suffer in his own and Tirthan-karas can appear in any one cycle person the consequences of his own deeds com- of time, but every mortal man may be a selfmitted either in present or former states of being. restrainer (yati). Every one born into the world It is not sufficient that he be rewarded in a tem- may be a striver after sanctity (sådhu), and a porary heaven, or punished in a temporary hell. practicer of austerities (tapasvi). Doubtless, at Neither heaven nor hell has power to extinguish first there was no distinction between monks, the accumulated efficacy of good or bad acts ascetics, and ordinary men, just as in the earliest committed by the same person during a long suc- days of Christianity there was no division into cession of existences. Such accumulated acts bishops, priests, and laity. All Jainas in anmust inevitably and irresistibly drag him down cient times practiced austerities, but among such into other mundane forms, until at length their ascetics an important difference arose. One parpotency is destroyed by his attainment of per- ty advocated an entire abandonment of clothing, fect self-discipline and self-knowledge in some in token of complete indifference to all worldly final culminating condition of being, terminated ideas and associations. The other party were in by complete self-annihilation.

favor of wearing white garments. The former And thus we are brought to a clear unders were called Dig-ambara, sky-clothed, the latter standing of the true character of a Jina or self- S'vetāmbara (or, in ancient works, S'veta-pata), conquering saint (from the Sanskrit root ji, to white-clothed.* Of these the Dig-ambaras were conquer). A Jina is with the Jains very nearly chronologically the earliest. They were probwhat a Buddha is with the Buddhists.

ably the first to form themselves into a regular He represents the perfection of humanity, the society. The first Jina, Rishaba, as well as the typical man, who has conquered self and at- last Jina, Mahāvīra, are said to have been Digtained a condition so perfect that he not only ambaras, and to have gone about absolutely naceases to act, but is able to extinguish the power ked. Their images represent two entirely nude of former acts; a human being who is released ascetics, whereas the images of other Jinas, like from the obligation of further transmigration, the Buddhist images, are representations of a and looks forward to death as the absolute ex- sage, generally seated in a contemplative posture, tinction of personal existence. But he is also with a robe thrown gracefully over one shoulder. more than this. He is a being who by virtue of It is not improbable that the S'vetāmbara dithe perfection of his self-mortification (tapas) has vision of the Jainas were merely a sect which acquired the perfection of knowledge, and there- separated itself from the parent stock in later fore the right to be a supreme leader and teacher times, and became in the end numerically the of mankind. He claims far more complete au- most important, at least in western India. The thority and infallibility than the most arrogant Dig-ambaras, however, are still the most numerRoman pontiff. He is in his own solitary person ous faction in southern India, and at Jaipur in an absolutely independent and infallible guide to the north. salvation. Hence he is commonly called a Tir- And, indeed, it need scarcely be pointed out than-kara, or one who constitutes a Tirtha *_ that ascetics, both wholly naked and partially that is to say, a kind of passage or medium clothed, are as common under the Brāhmanical through which bliss may be attained—a kind of system as among Jainas and Buddhists. The ford or bridge leading over the river of life to the god S'iva himself is represented as a Dig-ambara, elysium of final emancipation. Other names for or naked ascetic, whenever he assumes the charhim are Arhat (" venerable "), Sarva-jna (“om- acter of a Mahā-yogi—that is to say, whenever niscient), Bhagavat (“lord”).

he enters on a long course of austerity, with an A Buddha with the Buddhists is a very simi- absolutely nude body, covered only with a thick lar personage. He is a self-conqueror and self- coating of dust and ashes, sitting motionless and mortifier (tapasvi), like the Jina, and is besides a wrapped in meditation for thousands of years, supreme guide to salvation ; but he has achieved that he may teach men by his own example the his position of Buddhahood more by the perfec- power attainable through self-mortification and tion of his meditation (voga, samādhi) than by abstract contemplation. the completeness of his self-restraint and austeri

* The actual color of an ascetic's dress is a kind of ties.

yellowish-pink, or salmon color. Pure white is not much

used by the Hindús, except as mark of mourning, The whole system hinges on the efficacy of when it takes the place of black with us.

+ There is also a very low, insignificant, and intensely * The word Tirtha may mean a sacred ford or cross- atheistical sect of Jainas called Dhundhias. They are ing-place on the bank of a river, or it may mean a holy much despised by the Hindus, and even by the more man or teacher.

orthodox Jainas.


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It is true that absolute nudity in public is now their

mouths, they look very like hooded Roman prohibited by law, but the Dig-ambara Jainas Catholic nuns. who take their meals, like orthodox Hindūs, in strict seclusion, are said to remove their clothes When we come to the Jaina moral code, we in the act of eating. Even in the most crowded find ourselves transported from the mists of fanthoroughfares the requirements of legal decency ciful ideas and arbitrary speculation to a clearer are easily satisfied. Any one who travels in In- atmosphere and firmer ground.

The three gems dia must accustom himself to the sight of plenty which every Jaina is required to seek after with of unblushing, self-asserting human flesh. Thou- earnestness and diligence, are right intuition, sands content themselves with the minimum of right knowledge, and right conduct. The naclothing represented by a narrow strip of cloth, ture of the first two may be inferred from the three or four inches wide, twisted round their explanations already given. Right conduct conloins. Nor ought it to excite any feeling of prud- sists in the observance of five duties (vratas), ish disgust to find poor, hard-working laborers and the avoidance of five sins implied in five protilling the ground with a greater area of sun- hibitions. The five duties are: Be merciful to tanned skin courting the cooling action of air all living things; practice almsgiving and liberaland wind on the burning plains of Asia than ity; venerate the perfect sages while living, and would be considered decorous in Europe. As to worship their images after their decease ; confess mendicant devotees, they may still occasionally your sins annually, and mutually forgive each be seen at great religious gatherings absolutely other; observe fasting. The five prohibitions innocent of even a rag. Nevertheless, they are are: Kill not; lie not; steal not; commit not careful to avoid magisterial penalties. In a se- adultery or impurity; love not the world or cluded part of the city of Patna, I came sudden- worldly honor. ly on an old female ascetic, who usually sits quite If equal practical importance were attached naked in a large barrel, which constitutes her to these ten precepts, the Jaina system could not only abode. When I passed her, in company fail to conduce in a high degree to the happiness with the collector and magistrate of the district, and well-being of its adherents, however pershe rapidly drew a dirty sheet round her body. verted their religious sense may be. Unfortu

In the present day both Dig-ambara and S've- nately, undue stress is laid on the first duty and tambara Jainas are divided into two classes, cor- first prohibition, to the comparative neglect of responding to clergy and laity. When the two some of the others. In former days, when Buddhsects increased in numbers, all, of course, could ism and Jainism were prevalent everywhere, “ kill' not be ascetics. Some were compelled to en- not " was required to be proclaimed by sound gage in secular pursuits, and many developed of trumpet in every city daily. industrious and business-like habits. Hence it And, indee with all Hindūs respect for life happened that a large number became prosper- has always been regarded as a supreme obligaous merchants and traders.

tion. Ahinsă, or avoidance of injury to others All laymen among the Jainas are called S'rā, in thought, word, and deed, is declared by Manu vakas, “hearers or disciples," while the Yatis, or to be the highest virtue, and its opposite the “self - restraining ascetics," who constitute the greatest crime. Not the smallest insect ought only other division of both Jaina sects, are the to be killed, lest the soul of some relation should supposed teachers (Gurus). Many of them, of be there embodied. Yet all Hindūs admit that course, never teach at all. They were formerly life may be taken for religious or sacrificial purcalled Nirgrantha, “free from worldly ties,” and poses. Not so Buddhists and Jainas. With are often known by the general name of Sādhu, them the sacrifice of any kind of life, even for "holy men.” All are celibates, and most of the most sacred purpose, is a heinous crime. In them are cenobites, not anchorites. Sometimes fact, the belief in transmission of personal identity four or five hundred live together in one monas- at death through an infinite series of animal extery, which they call a Upās’raya, “ place of re- istences is so intense that they live in perpetual tirement,” under a presiding abbot. They dress, dread of destroying some beloved relative or like other Hindū ascetics, in yellowish-pink or friend. The most deadly serpents or venomous salmon-colored garments. There are also fe- scorpions may enshrine the spirits of their fathers male ascetics (Sadhvini, or, anciently, Nirgran- or mothers, and are therefore left unharmed. thi), who may be seen occasionally in public The Jainas far outdo every other Indian sect in places clothed in dresses of a similar color. carrying the prohibition, “not to kill," to the When these good women draw the ends of their most preposterous extremes. They strain water robes over their heads to conceal their features, before drinking, sweep the ground with a silken and cover the lower part of their faces with pieces brush before sitting down, never eat or drink in of muslin to prevent animalcula from entering the dark, and often wear muslin before their


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