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After such cleansing the new paper may be laid distemper; ordinary old-fashioned lead paint for on, the ceiling having been previously cleansed walls, when it is laid on properly and is of best and colored.
quality, is always good. It is expensive at first, If paper be not used for the covering of the but it is very durable; it admits of ready cleanswall of the bedroom, recourse may be had to ing, and when it is well varnished the surface of one or other of the following plans :
it may be washed many times without injury. If In a newly-built house there can be no better the paint has been simply flatted it may also be outlay than that which would be devoted to the washed very often, provided that neither soda plan of making the walls of the bedroom quite nor other alkaline substance be used with the impermeable and smooth, by covering them with water. I have, within the last nine years, used a firm cement like parian. The walls ought to the new substance called silicate paint with much be made so readily cleansable that they can at advantage for the bedroom wall. This paint any time be scalded and washed, just as a piece gives, I think, a little more trouble than the ordiof crockery can be scalded and washed. The nary lead paints in its application, and many simple plain surface is better than the tiled sur- painters are much prejudiced against it. One of face; it is more easily cleansed, and it does not these who was working for me was, indeed, so weary by a pattern that is immovable. It has opposed to the use of the silicate paint that he been objected to this plan that when it is adopt- actually threw up his tools and went away, leaved the wall becomes covered with moisture ing the men who were working under him withwhenever the air is charged with moisture. out a leader. Nevertheless, I let the work go The objection would be sound if the air must, on, and a better result could not have been by necessity, be so charged with moisture as to wished for. The extra trouble with the silicate produce the effect stated ; but, in truth, this paint lies in the fact that it does not “cover,” to ought not to be the case. If the air of a room use the term that is employed by the artisan. is so damp that water will condense on the walls, Two layers of the ordinary sound lead paint are, it does not signify whether those walls be per- they say, equivalent to four of the silicate. The meable or impermeable, for the air will be damp paint also has to be laid on with more care than all the same. The only difference will be in the lead paint to prevent it from showing the what is seen. If the walls be impermeable, the lines caused by the brush. When, however, it condensed water will be visible, and will run is completely laid on and the requisite number of down the walls, whereby it will be known as a layers are applied so as to cover thoroughly, it fact that the air is, or has been, loaded with yields a surface which is at once fine, impermemoisture. If the walls be coated with a perme- able, and clean. The surface can be washed able substance, the water, truly, will not be seen with soap and water as freely as if it were a surbut it will be there all the same, for it will have face of cement, and, as far as I can see, so far passed into the permeable covering of the walls, it wears effectually. With these advantages the and will remain until it is given up again to the objections of the workmen pass away, and they air of the room as a drier time or season arrives. ought to be fairly considered by the workmen We may observe this fact well illustrated from themselves, seeing that in the use of the silicate the looking-glasses in a damp room, or from the paint the health is not endangered. The risk of moisture on a damp, permeable wall. The wall being poisoned by the lead which is present in may seem as dry as a bone, but the glass may the lead paints, to which from long custom the be so covered with moisture that there is no re- workman so rigidly pins his faith, does not exist. flection at all from it. The wall here is not less If neither paper nor paint be used for the damp than the glass, but it holds the damp, and bedroom wall, there remains the old and simple is, therefore, the more dangerous. Supposing, plan of coloring with distemper, and really, after then, that a room with an impermeable wall all, this cheap and easy method is as good as shows signs of moisture on the wall, the evi- any. Distemper color is wholesome as a coverdence is definite that such a room is not properly ing, it is cheap, and it suggests more than paper ventilated, or that water vapor has access to it, does, a frequent renewal. or that it is so cold that water easily condenses It is worth noting that, in instances where the upon it; whereupon the effort should be, not to wall has been covered with paper, and where make the wall porous, but to keep the air of the the paper is not broken or torn away at any room warm and dry.
part, and where, for any reason, it is not felt to In houses that are already built and that have be desirable to remove the paper, one or two simply plaster walls, the plan of covering the coats of distemper may be laid on the paper walls with an impermeable cement may be too after a coating of size as a preliminary. if the expensive or otherwise undesirable. In these in- paper be smooth, the pattern of it will entirely be stances we may have recourse to paints or to covered by the wash; if the paper be not smooth
-if, I mean, it has on it a raised pattern—the I can not do better than commence what I distemper will give an outline of the pattern have to say concerning beds and bedding by which, though quite distinct, is not disagreeable protesting against the double bed. The system to the sight.
of having beds in which two persons can sleep Whatever be the substance used for covering is always, to some extent, unhealthy. No two the wall, whether lead paint, silicate paint, or dis- persons are so constituted as to sleep naturally temper, the color should, I think, be the same as under the same weight of bedclothes and on was suggested for paper, namely, a light green, the same kind of bed or mattress. But sleep, to what is, I believe, called a “sea-green” color. be perfect and profound and restorative, should This color, taking it all in all, is more pleasant to be so prepared for that not a single discomfort the sight, as a color to be regularly gazed at. should interrupt it. A good illustration of the When the eye meets it on awaking, it offers no fact to which I am directing attention is shown resistance or sense of unpleasantness, and it bears at the Industrial Schools at Annerley. The visto be looked at more frequently than other colors. itor to those schools, in which children most In this respect it resembles the grass of the fields, unhealthily born are reared into a condition of the verdure of the forest, and the surface of the health which is singularly good, and which seems sea. After the green, gray or russet-red color is to prove that even hereditary evils may be edumost to be desired.
cated out of the body almost in one generationWhile I have advocated a perfectly plain sur- the visitor to those schools will find in the dormiface for the walls of the bedroom—that is to say, tories there that each child has its own little bed. an absence from anything like a staring perma. It will be asked, perhaps—in fact, I heard it nent pattern-I would earnestly encourage the asked whether this plan is not very expensive ornamentation of the walls by objects of good and troublesome, causing double bed-making, art that are easily removed and changed. Good double bed-airing, double laundry-work, and pictures, statuettes, and other ornaments are double cost of bed-linen and coverings. Well, excellent in the bedroom. At the same time, it the reply was, that there is an extra cost in reis wise and wholesome practice to break the uni- gard to those particulars, but that, on the whole
, formity of decoration from time to time. The there is an untold saving in relation to health. health of the body is very much modified by the The children rise from their beds really refreshed, tone and turn of the mind, and whatever creates and in every way better for the separate occupaa pleasurable diversion of mind, however simple tion. In this manner the sick-list is kept free it may be, is wholesome to the body not less than to a great extent; and as one sick child in its to the mind itself.
infirmary sick-couch is an anxiety by night as The ceiling of the bedroom is the next con- well as by day, and as one sick child confined sideration after the walls. This should be at- to its bed by its sickness is more trouble and tended to more frequently than is customary in anxiety than half a dozen healthy children occumost households. The ceiling should be colored pying each a separate bed during sleeping hours, regularly once a year at least, either with ordinary there is a positive saving of trouble and of exwhite- or lime-wash, with distemper, or with zinc- pense in the course of the year from the pracwhite. Zinc-white, which has lately been intro- tice of the single-bed system. It is not difficult duced by Mr. Griffiths, as a paint, answers excel- to discover the reason of the saving of health. lently for ceilings; it covers well, gives a smooth The fact that no two persons are constituted to surface, and is very little more expensive than require the same kind of clothes and the same common lime-wash. The color of the bedroom kind of bedding has been already adverted to, ceiling should not be pure white; it should be to which may be added the further fact that slightly toned toward blue or green.
no children or persons can sleep under the same The bedroom is now lighted, ventilated, covering without one being the cause of some warmed, floored, and carpeted, and its walls are discomfort to the other, by movement, position, colored, and, it may be, decorated. It is ready or drag of clothing. Beyond these discomforts, to receive its furniture, and to the furniture we moreover, there is the question of emanations will therefore direct our attention.
from the breath. At some time or other the
breath of one of the sleepers must, in some deVI.
gree, affect the other; the breath is, heavy, disFURNITURE, BEDS, AND BEDDING.
agreeable; it may be so intolerable that in waking It may be taken as a general rule that a bed- hours, when the senses are alive to it, it would be room should have in it the least possible amount sickening, soon after a short exposure to it. Here of furniture, and that whatever furniture there is in bed, with the senses locked up, the disagreein it should be as free as possible of all that can able odor may not be realized; but, assuredly, hold dust and fluff.
because it is not detected, it is not less injurious.
I need not pursue this subject much further; tion of the curtains. I am of opinion that this common sense will tell everybody who will reflect complete change is not beneficial. Two light on the subject with common sense that I am cor- side head-curtains, with a curtain at the back of rect, and that it is best for persons of every age the head and a small tester, are, I think, very to have to themselves the shelter within which good parts of a bedstead. The curtains fulfill a they pass one third of their whole lives—thirty doubly useful purpose: they shield the head and years of life, if they live to be ninety years old. I face of the sleeper from draughts, and they endwell, therefore, only on one point more in favorable the sleeper to shut out the direct light from of the single bed, and that is to enforce the lesson the window without in any way necessitating him that under the single-bed system it is rendered to shut the light out at the window itself. The impossible to place very old and very young per- room may be filled with light, and yet the sleeper sons to sleep together. To the young this is a may be shielded from the direct action of it upon positive blessing, for there is no practice more his eyes if he have the curtain as a shield. deleterious to them than to sleep with the aged. The kind of bed on which the body should The vital warmth that is so essential for their rest is a question on which there is extreme digrowth and development is robbed from them by vergence of opinion. Whenever we leave our the aged, and they are enfeebled at a time when own bed to go to sleep elsewhere, in an hotel or they are least able to bear the enfeeblement. in the house of a friend, it is almost certain that
The single bed for every sleeper determined we shall find a bed differing from that to which on, the size of the bedstead and the number of we are accustomed. We may find a bed of down bedsteads in the room, according to space, should so soft that to drop into it is like dropping into be considered. For ordinary adult persons the light dough ; we may find a soft feather bed, or bedstead need not exceed three feet six inches in a soft mattress, or a spring mattress, a moderwidth by six feet six inches in length; and in no ately hard mattress, or a mattress as hard, I had room, however well it may be ventilated, should nearly said, as the plank bed for which our prisa bedstead be placed in less than a thousand ons are now so unenviably notorious. These cubic feet of breathing-space. A bedroom for differences are determined by the taste of the two single beds should not measure less than owner of the bed, without much reference to sixteen feet long by twelve feet wide and eleven principle, or to the likings of any one else in the feet high. There are some sanitarians who would world; not a very good or satisfactory state of not be satisfied with those dimensions for a room things. There ought to be some principle for to be occupied by two persons, and I frankly ad- guidance in a trial so solemn as that which setmit the dimensions are close to the minimum, tles the mode in which our bodies shall rest for a though with good ventilation they may, I think, third of our mortal existence. suffice. With bad ventilation they are confess- I fear it is hard to fix on definite principles, edly out of court, and I name them merely for but there is one principle, at any rate, which may the sake of meeting the necessities of the limited be relied on, and which, when it is understood, bedroom space that pertains to the houses of goes a long way toward solving the question of great cities. In my own mind I do not consider the best kind of bed for all sleepers. The printwice the amount of space named at all too ciple is, that the bed, whatever it be made of, much, even with the ventilation as free as I have should be so flexible, if I may use the term, that suggested in previous chapters of this essay. all parts of the body may rest upon it equally. It
There can be no mistake that the bedstead ought to adapt itself to the outline of the body in should be constructed of metal, of iron or brass, whatever position the body may be placed. The or a combination of those metals. Wooden bed- very hard mattress which yields nothing, and steads are altogether out of date in healthy which makes the body rest on two or three points houses. They are not cleanly, they harbor the of corporeal surface, is at once excluded from use unclean, and they are not cleansable like a metal by this principle, and I know of no imposition framework. The framework of the bed should that ought to be excluded more rigorously. On the be so constructed that the bed or mattress is other hand, the bed that is so soft that the body raised two feet from the floor of the room, and is enveloped in it, though it may be very luxurithe whole framework should be steady and so ous, is too oppressive, hot, and enfeebling; it well knit together that the movements of the keeps up a regular fever which can not fail to exsleeper should cause neither creaking nor vibra- haust both physical and mental energies, and at tion.
the same time it really does not adapt itself perA good deal of controversy has been raised fectly to the outline of the body. on the matter of curtains for beds. From the The best kind of bed, taking everything into old system of curtains all round the bed, like a consideration, is one of two kinds. A fairly soft tent, there has been a reaction to an entire aboli- feather bed laid upon a soft horsehair mattress, or a thin mattress laid upon one of the elastic much clothing that the body becomes excessively steel-spring beds which have lately been so in- heated, feverishly heated. This condition gives geniously constructed of small connected springs rise to exhaustion, to disturbing dreams, to headthat yield in a wave-like manner to every motion. ache, to dyspepsia, and to constipation. It is so It is against my inclination to try to write out injurious that it is better to learn to sleep with the time-honored old feather bed and mattress, even too little than with too much clothing over but I am forced to state that the new steel-spring the body. This, specially, is true for the young bed is, of necessity, the bed of the future. It and the vigorous. It is less true for the old, but fulfills every intention of flexibility; it is durable; in them it holds good in a modified degree. it goes with the bedstead, as an actual part of it, The position of the bed in the bedroom is of and it can never be a nest or receptacle of con- moment. The foot of the bed to the fireplace is tagion or impurity.
the best arrangement when it can be carried out. On the subject of bedclothes, the points that The bed should be away from the door, so that have most to be enforced are that heavy bed- the door does not open upon it, and it should clothing is always a mistake, and that weight in never, if it can be helped, be between the door no true sense means warmth. The light down and the fire. If the head of the bed can be quilts or coverlets which are now coming into placed to the east, so that the body lies in the general use are the greatest improvements that line of the earth's motion, I think it is in the best have been made, in our time, in regard to bed- position for the sleeper. clothes. One of these quilts takes well the place The furniture of the bedroom, other than the of two blankets, and they cause much less fatigue bed, should be of the simplest kind. The chairs from weight than layer upon layer of blanket should be uncovered, and free from stuffing of covering
woolen or other material; the wardrobe should As to the actual quantity of clothes which have closely fitting doors; the utensils should should be on the sleeper, I can lay down no rule have closely fitting covers; and everything that of numbers or quantities, because different peo- can in any way gather dust should be carefully ple require such different amounts. I can, never- excluded. theless, offer one very good practice which every In a word, the bedroom, the room for the person can learn to apply. It should be the rule third of this mortal life, and that third the most to learn so to adapt the clothing that the body is helpless, should be a sanctuary of cleanliness never cold and never hot while under the clothes. and order, in which no injurious exhalation can The first rule is usually followed, and need not remain for a moment, and no trace of uncleanlibe dwelt on; the last is too commonly broken. ness offend a single sense. It is a practice too easily acquired to sleep under so
B. W. RICHARDSON, M. D. (Good Words). (To be continued.)
SECOND SERIES OF SELECTIONS.*
Senior. Wisely for the purpose of keeping SAGACITY OF JURIES.
power in the hands of the people ?
Erle. Wisely for all purposes. SEPTEMBER 1st (1861). – I will throw together my conversations of the last two days
Senior. Including the discovery of truth? with Sir W. Erle.f
Erle. Including the discovery of truth. I beI mentioned that in all the Swiss constitutions lieve that a jury is in general far more likely to trial by jury in criminal matters was required.
come to a right decision than a judge. Erle. And very wisely.
Senior. That seems to me strange. The
judge has everything in his favor-intelligence, * See “ Appletons' Journal” for May.
education, experience, and responsibility. + Sir William Erle was appointed, in 1844, one of the Erle. With respect to intelligence, a judge is Judges of the Court of Common Pleas; in 1846 he was certainly superior to an ordinary juryman; but transferred to the Court of Queen's Bench ; in 1859 he among the twelve there will generally be found was promoted to the Chief Justiceship of the Court of Common Pleas, on the elevation of Lord Campbell to one, often two men, of considerable intelligence, the Woolsack. He retired into private life, taking his and they lead the rest. As to education, the jury farewell of the Bench on November 26, 1866.-ED. have decidedly the advantage. The education
of a judge, as far as relates to deciding fact, is face of all his neighbors, than in that of a judge the education of a practicing barrister who is im- who is doing to-day what he has been doing permersed in the world of words, and removed from haps every day for ten years before. I have seen acting in the commercial, agricultural, and manu- dreadful carelessness in judges. Again, a judge facturing facts which form the staple of contest. is often under the influence of particular counHe is so accustomed to deny what he believes to sel; some he hates, some he likes, some he relies be true, to defend what he feels to be wrong, to on, and some he fears. It is easy for a judge to look for premises, not for conclusions, that he be impartial between plaintiff and defendant-inloses the sense of true and false—i. e., real and deed, he is almost always so; it is difficult to be unreal. Then he is essentially a London gentle- impartial between counsel and counsel. man; he knows nothing of the habits of thought, Senior. I have felt that myself, but in general or of feeling, or of action in the middle and lower the feeling of dislike was stronger than that of classes who supply our litigants, witnesses, and liking. There were men on whose side I could prisoners. And it is from barristers thus 'edu- decide only by an effort; they were so false, so cated that judges are taken.
sophistical, so anxious to dress up a cause which When tried by a jury, the prisoner is tried by was sufficiently good if merely clearly and simply his peers, or by those who are a little above his stated, that I was almost ashamed to decide for peers, who are practically accustomed to the facts them lest I should be supposed to have been adduced as probantia, and can truly appreciate deceived. But I do not recollect having had their value. I have often been astonished by the favorites. sagacity with which they enter into his feelings, Erle. Perhaps you had them without knowsuppose his motives, and from the scattered in- ing it, and attributed solely to the argument a dicia afforded by the evidence conjecture a whole force which was partly due to your good opinion series of events. For, after all, the verdict, if it of the speaker. be a conviction, must always be a conjecture. Senior. Just as a juryman, who had been in
Experience the judge certainly has. As coun- court during the whole sitting at Liverpool, consel or as judge he has taken part in many hun- gratulated Scarlett on having been always emdreds of trials. The juryman may never have ployed by the side that was in the right. What served before. But this long experience often class give you the best jurymen ? gives the judge prejudices which warp his judg- Erle. The respectable farmers and the higher ment. The counsel who are accustomed to plead shopkeepers in the country towns. The men before him find them out and practice on them. from the great cities, accustomed to excess in I was counsel in a case of assault
. My client trade speculations, are inferior to them, especially had had three ribs broken by a drunken barge- in an honest sense of duty. The worst juries that man. The opposite counsel cross-examined as I have known came from such places. Their adto whether since the accident, he had not been venturous gambling trade seems to make them a field-preacher, whether he had not actually reckless. At one time they appeared to have preached from a tub. He admitted that he had. pleasure in deciding against what they supposed I did not see the drift of this, for, though a man to be my opinion, which I counteracted by seemcould not easily preach directly after his ribs had ing to give more emphasis to the reasons in favor been broken, he might when they had reunited. of the decision to which I was opposed. One of The judge summed up strongly against me, and the things which used at first to surprise me is, my client got nothing. I afterward found that the very small motive which is enough to lead men the judge had an almost insane hatred of field- to commit atrocious crimes. Smethurst's * mopreachers. It is true that each juryman may tive, for instance, was a small one. have prejudices equally absurd, but they are neu- Senior. You hold Smethurst guilty ? tralized by his fellows, and, above all, they are Erle. Certainly I do. If the evidence against not known. They can not be turned to account him was insufficient, almost all circumstantial eviby counsel.
dence must be insufficient, for it scarcely ever is As for responsibility, a judge being a perma- stronger. nent officer, especially a judge sitting alone, is Senior. Sir George Lewis was partly influmore responsible to public opinion than any indi- enced by the want of motive. vidual juryman, who is one of a body assembled
* Dr. Smethurst was accused of marrying Miss Bankes only once and immediately dissolved. But I be- during the lifetime of his wife. He caused her to make lieve that the feeling of moral responsibility is a will in his favor, and she died soon afterward of slow much stronger in the case of the juryman, to poison. He was convicted and sentenced to execution, whom the situation is new, whose attention is but Sir George Lewis, who was Home Secretary at that
time, did not consider the evidence sufficient, and granted. excited, who for the first time in his life is called him a free pardon. Smethurst was afterward tried, conupon to exercise public important functions in the victed, and imprisoned for bigamy.—ED.