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it would be well to think of our dreams as one for we can not hide from ourselves the fact that before us thought of them : “I will not lightly there is a sleep of death, a sleep more irrevocable pass over my very dreams; so neither night nor than the laws of the Medes and Persians, in day shall be spent unprofitably; the night shall which Memory may have to play its part. teach me what I am, the day what I should be ;

.... To die-to sleepfor Sleep is Death's younger brother, and so like To sleep-perchance to dream ;-ay, there's the rub; him that I never dare trust him without my For in that sleep of death what dreams may come prayers.” There is indeed a very serious thought when we have shuffled off this mortal coil!” connected with this subject of dreaming in sleep;

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was not until more than two centuries after yond his intentions, he proceeded at once to de

the famous 5th of November that the idea of nounce the whole affair." The informer having employing a fulminating process against the chief been brought before him, Napoleon at first sugof the state was adopted in France, where, twice gested to the Prefect of Police that he should not within two months, an attempt was made to blow be allowed to go to the opera that evening. It up Napoleon, at that time First Consul. It was, was decided, however, that his absence would in each instance, on the occasion of his visiting awaken the suspicions of the other conspirators; the opera that Napoleon, according to the designs and everything was allowed to go on as though of his enemies, was to be blown to pieces. The the plot had not been discovered. The sentinels Paris Opera-House has, in fact, been the chosen outside Napoleon's box were ordered to let no scene for carrying out a large number of mur- one approach who had not the password, issued derous projects directed against the ruler of the immediately before the Consul's departure for the country. In addition to the two attempts made opera; for it was known that a certain number upon the life of Napoleon I., it was in front of of conspirators had taken up their position in the the opera that the Orsini shells were thrown corridor to extinguish the lights at the moment which so nearly disposed of Napoleon III. in the when the rockets were to be fired and the shells year 1857.

It was beneath the portico, too, of thrown. The opera of the evening was “ Les the old opera in the Rue Richelieu that the Duc Horaces," a work composed by Porta to a lide Berri was assassinated; but it would be too bretto founded on Corneille's tragedy; and the long a story to give even the briefest account of signal for action was to be the delivery of a pas

а attacks made upon sovereigns by ordinary means. sage in which the Horatii swear to conquer or

It was intended to employ against Napoleon die. Then all the lights were to be put out, and, I. a destructive method of a mixed kind. Rock- apart from the shells intended specially for the ets and grenades were to be hurled from various Emperor, fireworks were to be cast indiscrimiparts of the theatre into his box. But, to insure nately about the theatre, while the general conhis death, conspirators armed with daggers and fusion was to be increased by cries of “Fire!” pistols were stationed in the corridor into which The leaders of the plot, like the claqueurs of the the box opened, with orders to shoot and stab present day, had attended the rehearsal of the him if, escaping the missiles, he attempted to opera so as to note the cue given to them for make his way to the outer doors. The conspir- their grand demonstration and attack. But, at acy, according to Napoleon himself, who told the the performance, the Prefecture of Police was story at St. Helena, was revealed by a captain in also largely represented, and there were, altothe line. “What limit is there,” said Napoleon, gether, upward of two hundred persons in the "to the combinations of folly and stupidity ? theatre who were paying no attention to the This officer had a horror of me as consul, but music except with a view to a particular quartet, adored me as general. He was anxious that I in which the old Horatius opened the piece by should be torn from my post, but he would have calling upon his sons to swear“ que le dernier been very sorry that my life should be taken. I de vous sera mort ou vainqueur.” The instruought to be made prisoner, he said, in no way mental introduction to the quartet was, however, injured, and sent to the army to continue to de- the signal for action chosen by the police; and feat the enemies of France. The other conspira- before the singing began the conspirators were tors laughed in his face, and, when he saw them all in custody in one of the vestibules of the distribute daggers and that they were going be- theatre.

The second attempt, on a grand scale, against morbidly vain, but it is difficult to believe that a the life of Napoleon was executed two months mere passion for notoriety could alone have diclater, on the 24th of December, when on his way tated such an act. The construction of the mato the opera he was made the mark of an “infer- chine must have cost a considerable amount of nal machine.” Haydn's “ Creation” was to be money; and it appeared from the trial that he given, and the performance had already com- had been supplied with funds by several workmenced, when, during the soft adagio of the in- men, his accomplices. It was, however, found troduction, the dull report of an explosion was impossible to connect with the attempt any, even heard. Immediately afterward Napoleon entered the remotest, political design. On June 28, 1836, his box, attended by the principal members of his as the King, or rather the King's staff, passed in staff. Josephine's love of dress had saved him. front of the machine, it was exploded and with As she was getting into the carriage she thought terrible results; for Mortier, chief of the staff, of making some change in her toilet, and, going and several officers fell mortally wounded. The back to her apartments for a few minutes, caused King, however, escaped with but slight injuries a delay but for which Bonaparte and herself occasioned by the rearing and plunging of his would, following the other carriages, have passed horse. Fieschi immediately after the explosion before the infernal machine at the moment of its took to flight, and, wounded as he was by the explosion.

bursting of one of the barrels, escaped into an To pass to Louis Philippe's reign, the most adjoining courtyard, where he was arrested and remarkable thing in connection with Fieschi's taken first to prison and afterward to a hospital. crime was the entire absence of political, or, in- Cured of his wounds, he was brought to trial and deed, any other apparent motive. Fieschi was sentenced to death; and his demeanor throughneither a Republican nor a Legitimist; nor had out the examination went far to show that the he any personal grievance against the King, whose origin of his insane and infamous attempt was, life he had resolved to take. Nothing but an in, indeed, nothing more than an absurd longing to sane love of notoriety seems to have impelled him become known to the world, in no matter what toward the commission of the crime. A Genoese character. He assumed in court the attitudes by birth, he had served in the French army under and gestures of a stage-brigand, and made a Napoleon, and had made the campaign of 1812 point of kissing his hand from time to time, and in Russia. He left the army in 1818 with the as often as possible, to his mistress, who made grade of sergeant. Afterward joining Murat's signs to him in return. expedition, he went to Calabria, where he was Some twenty years later, in 1857, Paris was taken prisoner, but, being regarded by the Nea- again the scene of an attempt to destroy the politan Government as a Frenchman, was allowed chief of the state by a means which deserved, to go free. During a portion of the year 1816 quite as much as the machine invented by Fieschi, Fieschi occupied himself with horse-stealing, the epithet of “infernal.” Felice Orsini made his forgery, and similar pursuits—a course of life attack upon Napoleon III, with hand-shells conwhich brought him, without much delay, to a taining a new and terrible fulminating powder penitentiary, where he was confined for ten years. composed, if not invented, by himself. Orsini On his liberation he was engaged as a workman was a born conspirator. His father had conat some factory near Paris; but, honest labor not spired before him; and the young Orsini was being congenial to his disposition, he entered the enabled by his father to take part in various plots police as a spy. With his functions as mouchard before he had attained the age of reason or even he combined other duties; and the opportunity of manhood. The result of the paternal teaching being afforded him of misappropriating a large was, that Felice found himself at twenty-four sum of money intended for the payment of work- years of age sentenced to penal labor for life. men he gladly availed himself of it. In 1835, Restored to liberty in 1846, he took part in varifinding himself at liberty and without employ- ous insurrections. When the revolutionary era ment, he devoted himself to the construction of of 1848 to 1849 had come to an end, Orsini visita so-called “infernal machine”-a sort of mi- ed England, where he made the acquaintance of trailleuse, with no fewer than twenty-five barrels. Mazzini, who intrusted him with several secret Fieschi mounted this species of battery in the missions. In 1854 he was arrested in Hermannthird Aoor of a house which overlooked that por- stadt, the capital of Transylvania, and taken to tion of the boulevards along which Louis Philippe the fortress of Mantua, whence, in 1856, he sucwas to pass after holding a review in commemo- ceeded in making his escape. In 1857 he reration of the fifth anniversary of the events which turned to England, and there published an achad placed him on the throne. What Fieschi count of his captivity, entitled “The Austrian proposed to gain by his project for destroying Dungeons in Italy." This same year he underthe King was never made known. The man was took the most formidable, and, for excellent rea


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sons, the last of his “secret missions.” The afternoon, when Count Berg was driving along object this time was to blow up the Emperor one of the principal streets in Warsaw, several Napoleon, whom he and his confederates regard- shells were hurled at his carriage from a large ed as the great obstacle to revolutionary changes building known as the “ Zamoiski House,” the everywhere, and especially in Italy. Orsini had property of the well-known Polish magnate whose three associates named Pieri, Rudio, and Gomez. name it bore. Five shells were thrown, and sevThe conspirators remained some time in Paris, eral horses and one or two aides-de-camp were preparing the details of their scheme. At last, wounded. Count Berg received the splinter of a on the evening of January 14, 1858, as the Em- shell in his cloak, but was not otherwise injured, peror and Empress were approaching the Grand either in person or in apparel. The Count, withOpera, three shells were thrown under their car- out stopping, drove straight to the Castle, his riage, which, exploding, killed or wounded a large official residence, and immediately afterward number of persons belonging to the imperial troops were dispatched to the Zamoiski House, suite. Orsini, Pieri, and Rudio were sentenced with orders to enter it and arrest the numerous to death. Gomez, however, escaped with hard inhabitants. Artillery was at the same time sent labor for life, and, at the intercession of the Em- forward, and on arrival took up a position in front press, the death-penalty was also commuted in of the building. It appeared certain that the orthe case of Rudio. Orsini went to the scaffold der on the subject of missile-throwing would be calm and courageous; and only a few days be- carried out. But at the last moment it was defore his execution he addressed a letter to the cided not to destroy the Zamoiski House, but to Emperor Napoleon exhorting him to liberate confiscate it, after subjecting it to the process of Italy. Whether or not Orsini's diabolical act had sacking. The soldiers were ordered to seize all any effect upon the Emperor's decision, certain articles of furniture and cast them into the street, it is that a year afterward Napoleon III. made, where they were burned in a huge bonfire, which in alliance with Victor Emanuel, the campaign was fed, among other articles, with valuable hiswhich resulted in the liberation of Lombardy. In torical manuscripts, the property of Prince Luboall probability joint action against Austria had mirski, a great collector of archæological docualready been determined upon at the time of ments, and with Chopin's favorite piano. Some the Crimean war, when the Sardinian contingent four or five different pianos were thrown out of fought with the army of France against the the various floors; and an indignant, but more or Russians.

less self-contained, amateur of music afterward Until 1863 Paris was the only city in which related, to the correspondent of the “Times" endeavors had been made to assassinate the head present on the occasion, in what manner the of the Government by means of shells, many- pianos of Erard, of Pleyel, and of other makers, barreled pieces of artillery, and other “infernal" had borne the effect the fall. The pianos of devices. But the Poles have always prided them- Viennese make were worth nothing, he said, on selves on their aptitude in appropriating French such occasions. They smashed to pieces on conideas; and, toward the close of the year just tact with the ground. A well-made Erard, on mentioned, the members of the revolutionary the other hand, pitched from a second floor, sufbody known as the Polish National Government fered only in its legs. As for Chopin's piano, it resolved to try the effect of explosive missiles on fell, as this observant connoisseur declared, with Count Berg, the Emperor's lieutenant in Poland. a deep sigh, in which he fancied he recognized Count Berg, on assuming the governorship of the soul of the sentimental, romantic, fascinating Pðland at a most critical moment, had formally composer, who had so often given effect to his announced that any future attempt made upon inspiration on its ivory keys; and it was asserted the life of one of the governing authorities (and that one Russian officer of a sympathetic dispothe Grand Duke Constantine, the Marquis Wielo- sition played fragments of one of the composer's bolski, and others had all been attacked with pis- nocturnes on Chopin's piano before he allowed tol or with dagger) would be visited with the se- the instrument-broken into fragments by its fall verest penalties; and it was in particular set forth to be consigned to the flames. that, in the case of shots being fired or missiles From Poland the process of attacking high thrown from a house, the house would be at once authorities by means of “infernal machines" was destroyed by artillery, the question as to how the sure, sooner or later, to reach Russia, as all the occupants would be treated being left in reserve. secret machinery of the Polish insurrection of In the autumn of 1863, when the insurrection was 1863 has penetrated into that country in the form failing, and when the somewhat theatrical interest of Nihilism. But the firing of the mine in the taken in it by the Western powers seemed to be cellars of the Winter Palace need not here be coming to an end, the National Government of spoken of. Poland resolved on striking a great blow. One

Pall Mall Gazette,




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T has not always been the most truly worthy portance, and some of very little importance, has

of the “ things of Spain " which have received its theatre or theatres. The numerous provin-
the most attention. The world has given more cial divisions of the country, which have been
thought to the pronunciamientos than to the politically so fatal to it, have been on the whole
progress made in the Peninsula, and has written favorable to the stage. The actors and play-
and talked ten times as much about its bull-fight wrights of the capital have never dominated their
as about its theatre. The bull-fight is no doubt provincial rivals in Spain as they have done in
a splendid spectacle; but it is by no means the France and England. The continued existence
most creditable to the country which affords it, of dialects independent of the Castilian renders
and, from an historical point of view, scarcely de- it almost as impossible that a successful Catalan
serves its reputation. This show, which is one actor, for example, should seek his fortune in
of the worst, is also one of the newest things in Madrid as that an Englishman should betake
the country, and in its present shape is not a hun- himself to Paris. Then the natural capabilities
dred years old. When a bull-fight-or, as it of the people supply a vast number of actors who
should be, "run"-is mentioned in an old com- can always perform a part with spirit if not with
edy or tale, it is as a sport in which the gentle- very good taste. Many performers of great local
men of the day and their servants took an active reputation have a double profession-following a
part. When Aarsens de Sommelsdyck saw it in trade by day and treading the boards by night.
1655 it had become vulgarized, but the ring was Nor is the acting of plays confined by any means
still open to all comers provided with the neces- to the regular theatres. Societies of amateurs
sary arms and courage. The sober Hollander are to be found even among the work-people ;
even thought it a “pretty sport enough,” though and, though their attempts at acting tragedy or
not one good to take part in. Twenty years high comedy are often absurd enough, they con-
later the Countess d’Aulnoy could, without being trive to look at home on the stage, and are born
ridiculous, select the ring as the scene of one of actors of farce. There is, indeed, nothing in Spain
those romantic love-stories which the reader of like the Français. The Government has never
her book of travels is constantly surprised to find patronized the stage, and if it had it is very

doubtcropping up amid shrewd observations on the ful whether any three Spanish actors of note world of sober reality and lively pictures of the could be got to work together. But the national discomforts of Spanish travel. It was not till stage is not probably inferior to that of

any other comparatively modern times, after generations of European country. Their weak point is unnational decay and of ignorance, that the bullo doubtedly tragedy. The same weakness which ring passed entirely into the hands of professional makes the Spaniard overact dignity in private life fighters. The end of the eighteenth century, the drives him into fustian on the stage. In comedy lowest point of Spain's degradation, saw the com- they are infinitely better, and in the lower kinds plete organization of the bull-fight, and its final of it are second to no people in the world. They victory over the older and nobler amusement of play with an abandon and relish which seem to the theatre, which it has degraded though it could make their work a pleasure to them. The thenot destroy. Old aficionados can still remem- atres are general meeting-places for the whole ber, if not Pepe Illo, the creator of the whole population. Numbers come apparently as much science, at least the men whom Pepe Illo trained. to meet their friends as to witness the performThe theatre is many centuries older, and is by ance. As the right of entering the house is sefar the best of the still surviving historical insti- cured by a payment distinct from that required tutions of Spain. It has naturally been modified for the seat, the theatre lends itself easily to the in the course of time, and during the last century purposes of a club or assembly-room between the in particular was powerfully influenced by the acts. Men smoke in the passages or saloon, and French stage ; but it still retains a marked char- even transact not a little business there. In the acter of its own. The dramatic is still perhaps warm weather they use the gardens attached to the most vigorous branch of Spanish literature. .the regular summer theatres. The ladies mean

Playhouses were probably established earlier while carry on animated conversations with one in Spain than in any European country, and, in another, or with the help of their fans with those spite of the strenuous efforts of the Church to of the other sex. This is one of the most cherclose them, have continued to be numerous and ished customs of a people very conservative of flourishing down to the present day. Every city old customs. A young lady and gentleman will has not a bull-ring, but every town of any im- make signals to one another across a theatre with

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an absence of gêne which is pleasant to see, and quainted with their works. In point of fact, the an almost touchingly good-natured make-believe Spanish comedy is now scarcely seen except by that they are doing something very secret and the light thrown on it by that of France. Guillen romantic.

de Castro is remembered because his “MoceThe general popularity of the play has made dades del Cid " inspired the masterpiece of Corit the most productive of praise and profit of all neille. Every reader of the Médecin malgré forms of literary activity in Spain. The poet or lui” has heard of the “ Acero de Madrid” of novelist, though sure of a better public now than Lope de Vega ; but how many have read it even at any former period, is not nearly so well paid, in a translation? The French theatre even ateither in money or reputation, as the successful tacked and for a time subdued the Spanish in its playright. Hence, to succeed as a writer for the own land. The French dynasty which ascended stage has been and is the ambition of most Span- the Spanish throne in the first years of the ish men of letters. Some of the most successful eighteenth century brought with it French cusplays of modern times were written by Martinez toms and literature. The old national stage had de la Rosa, the Liberal statesman and novelist. expired, as far as that was possible among a What little literature of any value Spain pro- people essentially mimetic, during the evil times duced in the last century was destined for the of Charles II., who figures among Spanish monstage. The comedies of the younger Moratin, a archs as “the bewitched.” When a revival came writer who lived into this century, are still played in happier days it did so under the influence occasionally; and one of his successors, Breton de of the classic school. The highest ambition of los Herreros, is probably the best writer Spain Moratin and his followers was to write with a due has to show for herself since the partial revival regard to the unities and the customs of good of her literature. Nor are plays written only in society. To them the rules of the classic school Castilian. The Catalan stage can show some were the holy of holies, their native dramatists dramatists who rival the great men of old—even of the seventeenth century barbarians, or at best that wonder of ready-writing, Lope de Vega—at beginners, to be patted on the back and condeleast in the quality of fecundity. The popular scended to. Bohl von Faber, a disciple of the Barcelonese Serafi Pitarra is probably the most Schlegels, known as an editor of the Spanish balproductive playright in Europe. With the ex- lads, had to fight Calderon's battles against the ception of Lope de Vega, none of the writers we poet's countrymen. But delivery came from the have mentioned are associated in the minds of country which imposed the yoke. Spain, followforeigners, or indeed of Spaniards, with that ing the lead of her neighbor in literature as in Spanish drama which has taken its place among politics, returned to the study of her own theatre the great literatures of the world. Beginning under the leadership of Victor Hugo, then fresh with Moratin, who was almost a copyist of Mo- from his victory over the classic party. Her nulière, they have been powerfully influenced by merous playwrights now swore by Lope, as they France, which has thus paid back the debt which had lately done by Molière. Gorostiza, Breton it owed to the earlier Spanish stage. During the de los Herreros, Martinez de la Rosa, and many last century that influence was so strong that others, have kept their country supplied with Lope de Vega and Calderon were looked upon plays which rival those of their great days in at by many of their countrymen as little better than least two particulars—their numbet and their barbarians. These writers have, however, had defiance of all rules. They are almost nervously their revenge, and are now as frequently played eager to disclaim any imitation of the French, as the great masters of French or English dra- but we find some difficulty in accepting their promatic literature are in their native countries. testations. They do, indeed, protest too much. Their works are read, and a large party is striving The best proof they give of their nationality is an to bring back the stage to the peculiarly Spanish unconscious one. Their indifference to character models which they created.

and their love of incident and plot make them We are accustomed to hear the Spanish stage give a coloring of their own to the matter they spoken of as a storehouse of plot, intrigue, and in- take from France. The men we have mentioned cident. The reader of Molière is aware that many are undoubtedly clever playwrights, but it is not of the stock incidents, and some of the characters of them we think when we speak of the Spanish of his comedies, were taken from the Spaniards; comedy. that he even directly imitated them in a few of If the Spanish dramatists are more talked the least successful of his works, and that from about than known, it is certainly not due to any him and before his time these intriguing plots neglect on our part of Spanish literature. Don found their way on to our own stage. But this Quixote is probably more read in England than justice is rendered to the Spaniards by tradition, in his native La Mancha. The sins of native edinot because the foreign reader is directly ac- tors have perhaps something to do with it. The

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