« 이전계속 »
early editions were shockingly mishandled by reader who is content to look only for amusement pirates, and very little has been done to removę may open their works with full confidence that the traces of their handiwork. Even where zeal- he will be amused. But he must be prepared to ous efforts have been made to restore the purity look for his satisfaction entirely to the plot and of the text, the plays have been left unnoted, the variety of incidents. As a work of which though bristling with references to bygone cus- the interest consists in development of charactoms, persons, and places, which require expla- ter, “Don Quixote" stands alone in Spanish nation to the Spaniard of to-day as much as to literature. In every other work the interest is the foreigner. But bad printing and bad editing centered in the plot. The characters are fixed would not prevent the Spanish dramatists being by custom, and serve all writers alike. The popular. However badly Calderon was edited, Spaniard of the middle ages and of the sixteenth he would be widely read if he possessed one half and seventeenth centuries was essentially a man the great qualities which A. W. Schlegel pro- of action. War and pillage were his favorite fessed to have found in him. Nor is it necessary means of gaining wealth. When the people to be a Spanish scholar in order to gain at least wished for the type of a prosperous man they an approximate idea of his genius. Many of his found him in the soldiers of Cortes or Pizarro. works have been translated ; and part at least of A grant of land in the New World, or a comthe “ Mágico Prodigioso" is to be found consum- mandery of a military order, was the aim of a mately rendered in all the more complete editions gentleman's ambition, and his way of gaining it of Shelley. It is probably less read than any was to serve for it in Flanders. As for thought, other part of the poet's work.
meditation, or the careful weighing of motives The fact would seem to be that injudicious and characters, there was no room for them in friends have done the object of their praise their his life. The Church defined for him with hard usual ill office. Schlegel persuaded a great many and fast rules what was right and what wrong. people that Calderon was another and perhaps It classified his sins and his virtues, assigning to greater Shakespeare. But a little acquaintance each its exact equivalent reward or punishment. with the writers for the Spanish stage will dispel The Inquisition undertook to argue with all who
idea that they belong to the class “ that sees demurred to the Church's teaching. At the play, quite through the deeds of men.” Mr. G. H. therefore, or in his novel, the Spaniard wanted to Lewes, a very competent judge, was at first per- see something going on; he was indifferent to the suaded into believing that they did, and ended by characters of the actors. No books in the world deciding that they were only playwrights, and present less variety of type than the novelas that Calderon in particular was a very overrated picarescas. From the “ Lazarillo" down to the playwright. This writer's indignation against “Gran Tacaño " we find the same hero at work. Schlegel, who had for a time imposed on him, Low-born or base-born, impudent, thievish, and made him a little unjust to the German critic's cowardly, but good-natured and sincerely Cathfavorite, whom he handles in a somewhat disre- olic, he goes through endless exciting and imspectful manner; but in the main he was right. probable adventures, to end his life reflecting And this habit of judging them by the standard on the vanities of the world in the galleys, or of Shakespeare has lowered the Spaniards in the perhaps settling down with the proceeds of his estimation of their most favorable critics. Ford, rogueries as a church-going citizen. The Spanwho knew his “Don Quixote ” by heart, wrote iard read these books with never-failing delight, in the most superficial manner possible about as he had done the monotonous tales of chivalry, the stage. His article on the subject is full of and asked for no greater variety than an occamisplaced pedantry, and enthusiasm about the sional change of sex in the principal character. dances. Even Lord Holland, who had gone the The fact that the female rogue had nothing dislength of reading more than fifty of Lope's plays, tinctively feminine about her, but was only the and who wrote a work on him and on Guillen de male rogue in petticoats, troubled him little. Castro, introduces them to his reader almost as The rogue himself is no doubt a type of a whole if he felt ashamed of them. He stops to tell us class, and is pictured with no small vigor; but that we must not expect from Lope “ deep re- that was by the man who wrote the first picaflections on morals and government,” or “a phil- resque novel; his successors copied him exactly, osophical view of the nature of man and of the and the type having been once created became as construction of society."
conventional as the figure of a saint. But Lope had no intention of being philo- As it was with the novel so it was with the sophical. He wrote his plays to please the vul- stage. There must be an intricate plot and an gar who paid, he tells us in as many words; and abundance of incident; the dramatis persona he fully gained his object. His example was in are merely quantities—forces like the figures on the main followed by other dramatists; and the a chessboard, crossing one another and clashing
in the endless complications of the intrigue. ventures transacted there are the adventures of Rest is given from this confusing movement by fairy-land. The player was not asked “to hold the tirades, hundreds of lines long, which some the mirror up to nature" or the playwright to be of the dramatists put into the mouths of their true to life. What the spectator expected from characters. These harangues are full of con- them was a representation of that ideal life of ceits and hyperbole. The sun, moon, and other movement, love-making, fighting, and moneyheavenly bodies, flowers, jewels, seas, sky, and getting which he would like to lead himself. earth are laid under contribution for metaphors Just as much probability must be given to the to be poured out with the profusion of treasures events of the play as will prevent too great a in a beggar's dream. And the Spaniard seems gulf existing between them and the dull world of to feel the same pleasure in seeing all this mag- reality. They must take place in the world the nificence rolled out before him as the miser in Spaniard saw before his eyes, and the actors are Horace did to see his heaps of gold. At times to be himself and his fellow men, not represented these tirades are not merely ornamental, but con- with any precision of detail or fineness of shadtain a rapid summary of the plot-an occasion- ing of individual character, but by a certain numally indispensable aid for the due understanding ber of well-defined types, which appear in the of the more intricate plays—and were printed sep- earliest dawn of Spanish dramatic literature, and arately in broadsides for the convenience of the remain almost unmodified to the end. The compublic. As in the picaresque novels again, the edy of cloak and sword continued to give to the world of the plays is a half-fantastic one. The last the adventures of the very set of characters players are dressed like Spaniards, the scene is which first appears in the “Celestina" of Rodrilaid in Spanish streets and houses, but the ad- go Cota and Fernando de Rojas.
Pall Mall Gazette.
interview is interesting enough to quote nearly in THE DILEMMA OF A CONNOISSEUR.
full : A
FEW weeks ago the daily papers, in announc- “Mr. Dürr's will," he observed, " directs that the
ing the death of Mr. Louis Dürr, a merchant most meritorious'two hundred and fifty of his pictures of New York, informed their readers that Mr. Dürr shall be selected from his collection and presented to had bequeathed his collection of paintings “to any
some public institution But who is going to make the
selection ?” public art-gallery in the city of New York” that
“The will says the executors." would consent to keep the pictures together, and
“Yes, but a matter of this kind requires the services designate them as the Dürr collection. His execu- of experts, and there are no experts in this country." tors were instructed to select two hundred and fifty
“You mean to say that there is no person in America of the most meritorious of his paintings; to sell the who is competent to decide whether or not the Dürr colremainder, and employ the funds arising therefrom lection contains valuable 'old masters ?!" in the purchase of other paintings, to be added to "I don't know of any one. Certainly there is no the collection. No one seemed to know much about such person in this city.” the character of Mr. Dürr's pictures, excepting that
“ It is possible, then, that, when the executors have they were mostly by earlier masters; but people gen- they have chosen may not be worthy of a home in a pub
performed the task assigned them, the pictures which erally ventured to assume that the collection was
lic gallery of art." a good one, and congratulated each other upon this
“Certainly. A long course of special training is reaccession to the art-treasures of the city. For our. quisite for the successful performance of such a duty. selves, we were taking this hopeful view of the mat. Who has had this training in this country? I don't ter, when we were rather discomfited by the report know of anybody who has. I don't know of any person in the “ Evening Post” of an interview with a well- who could go into Mr. Dürr's gallery and say, 'That picknown art-connoisseur, who thought that “any pub- ture is a Rembrandt,' or ' That is a Titian,' or 'That is lic gallery of art in the city of New York that should a Veronese. Consequently, when the selection has been accept Mr. Dürr's gift would be liable to become made, and the pictures have been labeled, how is one to the repository of what would be an injury rather than know that the latter really are what they profess to be ?”
“You believe, then, that there is danger that the proa glory." This gentleman disclaimed any intention posed gift, if accepted, may become a trial and a burden of giving a judgment upon the worth of Mr. Dürr's to the gallery that houses it?" pictures, because he had never seen them, but he “Precisely. The will provides that the accepted picnevertheless felt there was danger in the air. The tures shall be kept in a room to be called the Dürr Gal
lery of Paintings; but if the paintings are not what they That is to say, no one here can discern between claim to be, if, in a word, they are unworthy of the honor
a genuine old master and a copy, and yet no one demanded for them, why, no institution would care to
can tell whether a painting by an old master, genuown them. But, whether they are worthy or unworthy, ine or not, has any artistic merit—which means that is a question that no person in this country is able to
old art has such occult qualities that no one can answer."
detect them, and yet anybody can imitate them! “They might be by other than the old masters, and Old art, as thus presented by one of its best friends, yet be desirable old pictures ?"
would seem to a wholly ignorant person about the “Ų
Undoubtedly. The true principle of selection would sorriest humbug and emptiest piece of pretension be that of artistic merit, rather than of mere names. Are on the surface of the globe. they useful for purposes of study ?—that is the important But, of course, this presentation is not true. It point. But, again, who is capable of deciding whether is simply impossible for a copyist to reproduce any they are or not?
picture so successfully that it can not be distinThe most skeptical questioner of the pretensions guished from the original—impossible even to do of old art could not for the life of him have more
this with any picture of to-day, let alone one of the effectually demolished those pretensions than this past. A master himself even can not make copies “ well-known art-connoisseur" has done.
of his own pictures that will be of equal quality. It grant what he says to be even no more than approxi- is mentally and physically impossible for an imitamately true, then the claim put forth for old art is tion ever to express every quality of an original ; the veriest piece of charlatanry in the world. Let and hence a very little knowledge of a master ought us follow a few of this gentleman's assertions to their to enable one to detect counterfeits, however well logical consequence. We are assured that, amid all executed. If counterfeits can not be easily detected, the artists and art-students in this country, amid all it is simply because the originals possess no individthe connoisseurs and amateurs, all those who have ual quality, no method of expression peculiar to repeatedly studied the works of the old masters in the painter. As to the charge that no one in Amer. the galleries of Europe, there is not one person ica can detect the artistic merit of the paintings “competent to decide whether or not the Dürr col- under consideration, this is as wild as all the rest. lection contains valuable old masters." There is no
The old masters do not exhibit anything more than person who "could go into the Dürr gallery and say,
art itself exhibits, and art is universal in its princi“That picture is a Rembrandt, that a Titian, that a ples. Principles do not change with place or period; Veronese.'” Now, if among all the instructed art.
a colorist must know color wherever he sees it ; and classes in America there is no one who can do this the laws of drawing and composition are the same thing, what in the name of wonder does it matter to-day as they were in the past. It is thus wholly whether the pictures are genuine or not? If every certain that, if one can detect artistic merit in one characteristic, every quality, every element of worth set of pictures, old or new, he can detect it in any in a Rembrandt, a Titian, or a Veronese, can be so
other set of pictures, old or new-a principle which successfully copied that no one can tell the differ- effectually vacates the final allegation of our “wellence,
then, for every practical reason and every art- known art-connoisseur.” reason, copies are exactly as good as originals. “But we want to know that a painting is an original," says some one. Why? If a painting is to go into
MENTAL APTITUDES. a museum as a relic, as a memorial, distinctly as something rescued from the past, then we want to In a recent article bearing the title of “Health know that the relic is genuine. But in an art-gallery in Education,” Dr. B. W. Richardson, who has rethe case is very different. Here pictures are col- cently made himself an acknowledged leader in lected for the pleasure they give, the sentiments they hygiene and kindred things, deplores the plan which awaken, and as a means of instruction in the prin- now prevails of treating every boy and girl as if ciples of art; and each of these results all copies that every boy and girl had the same nervous construccan not be distinguished from originals must inevi- tion and mental aptitude. He says: tably produce as effectually as originals. There is no disputing this conclusion. If the “ well-known divisions of mental aptitudes as there are two grand divi
As it seems to me, there are as distinctly two grand art-connoisseur" is right, everything that is really sions of sex, and any attempt to convert one into the valuable in old art may be transferred to new can- other is a certain failure. The two divisions I refer to vases with entire success, and the great works of the are the analytical and the synthetical, or, in other words, past be repeated in every gallery in the world. the examining and the constructive types of mind. But this is not all. The art-connoisseur goes on
In our common conversation on living men with to say that the principle of selection with the Dürr whom we are conversant in life we are constantly obpictures should be that of artistic merit, rather than mind. We say of one man that he has no idea or plan
serving upon them in respect to these two qualities of by names. “ Are they useful for purposes of study? of looking into details ; he can not calculate accurately ; --that is the important point.” Having asked this he can not be intrusted with any minute labor of details; question, he declares that even here there are no but he can construct anything. Give him the tools and competent judges — no one capable of deciding materials for work, and he will build a house ; but, if he whether these paintings have artistic merit or not. had to collect and assort the tools and materials, he would
never construct at all. We say of another man that he These orders of mind, distinctive of the distinct, are is admirable at details, and can be intrusted with any in their primitive forms so essential to the course of work requiring minute definition, but he has no idea of progress that it is difficult to assign priority of value to putting anything together so as to produce a new result either. The analytical mind seems to be most indusor effect,
trious and soundest in practice : the synthetical, the most Moreover, we assign to these different men distinctive brilliant, and, when on the right track, the most astoundservices in the world. We understand them perfectly, ing, in the effects it produces. The analytical is the first and by an unwritten and, I may almost say, by a spon- parent of knowledge, the synthetical the second-both taneous estimate we reckon them up and give them their necessary. precise place in the affairs of life with which they are To apply this reasoning to our present argument, I connected. It is as if by design of nature these classes maintain that, as the child is the father of the man, so in of men, and it may be of women also, exist as pure types every child there is always to be detected, if it be a child of intellectual form, have always existed and are always of any parts at all, the type of mind. I will undertake being repeated. In other words, it is as if they are defi- to say that every experienced teacher could divide his nite families, and that out of them, as out of a dual na- school into these two great analytical and synthetical ture, that human organization of thought, which we call classes. He might have a few who combine both powers, history, is educed.
and he would no doubt have a residuum, a true caput The elements of the analytical and synthetical minds mortuum, that had no distinctive powers at all ; but he appear on a large scale in the pursuits which men follow. would have the two distinctives. He would have the The mathematician is analytical, and he, in whatever scholars who could analyze as easily as they could run or science his powers are called forth, is always working on walk, and to whom the mathematical problem and all the analytical line. He may be an astronomer, a chemist, that may be called analytical is as easy as play, but who a navigator, an engineer, an architect, a physician, a have little inventive or constructive power. He would painter; but, whatever he is, all his work is by analysis. have the scholars whose minds are ever open to impresWe often wonder at his labor, at his accuracy, at his sions from outer natural phenomena, who have quick fidelity. We may say of him that he approaches Nature original ideas, who have, it may be, the true poetic sentiherself in the magnitude and perfection of his results, ment, but who can not grasp the analytical and detailed but we never say of him that he is inventive or construc- departments of learning at all. ... tive. From him much that is quite new comes forth, but The moral I draw from these outlines of natural fact it is always something that he has hauled out of the dark is that in teaching it is injury of mind, and thereby inrecesses : he lays his treasures at our feet, and we are jury of body, to try to force analytical minds into syncontent to admire and wonder. We may be entranced thetical grooves, or to try to force synthetical minds into with our view of the produce of this man, but he very analytical. rarely kindles our enthusiasm for him as a man, and very
It must be admitted that Dr. Richardson has often we find that no credit has been given to him as himself deserving of it. We praise only his industry. great theoretical and practical knowledge of the subThe poet is, as a rule, synthetical. This does not always jects which he discusses, and that he is generally follow, but it usually does, and I think we may fairly say
wise and discriminating ; but assuredly in the passage that every man of a purely constructive mind is a poet, quoted above his generalization is much too broad. albeit we may not be able to say that every poet is con- There are, it is true, just such distinct characteristics structive. But in whatever particular phase of life and of mind as he describes; but we imagine that, instead action he exists he shows his synthesis distinctively. His of being commonly manifested in two distinct groups tendency is naturally to drift into such labors as are in- of individuals, they generally are more or less effecventive and constructive. Frequently he avails himself of the labors of the analyst whom he unconsciously fol tually combined in the same person. Perhaps it would lows, believing meantime in himself alone. He makes be better to say ineffectually combined, for the ma. for us romance in literature; mechanical instruments in jority of mankind appear to have neither analysis handicraft; pictures in art; tunes and melodies in music;
nor synthesis, but live on with a minimum of intelplays and epics and songs in poetry; strategies in war; lectual force. In all cases, when clearly separated, laws in Parliament; speculations in commerce; methods where the individual is distinctly either analytical or in science.
synthetical, he becomes conspicuous for his successes The two orders of men are often as distinct in feeling and his failures, for the mistakes he makes in one as they are in work. They do not love each other, and direction and the achievements that crown him in they admire each other little. Jealousy does not separate another. This separation gives us what the world them, but innate repulsion. The analytical looks on the
so much delights in-the man of individuality, of synthetical scholar as wild, untrustworthy, presuming, hasty, dangerous. The synthetical looks on the analyti- strong likes and dislikes, of narrow but vehement cal with pity, or it may be contempt, as on one narrow,
purpose. The aptitudes of such individuals are too conceited, and so cautious as to be helpless; a bird that manifest for any mistake as to their character of has never been fledged, or, being fledged, has not dared mind; and we may well believe that, if people gen. to stretch out his wings to fly.
erally fell into two such obvious tendencies, educaIt has in rarest instances happened that the two na- tion would long since have been adapted to their tures have been combined in one and the same person. manifest needs. But the average human mind is far It is, I think, probable that this combination has been too complex to admit of such easy diagnosis. A great the reason for the appearance of the six or seven greatest of mankind. As a general fact, however, the combina- majority of people seem to have no vocation whattion has not been fortunate. It has most frequently pro- ever, and fall readily into whatever groove circumduced startling mediocrities, whose claims to greatness stances may place them; with others, analysis and have been sources of disputation rather than instances of synthesis dispute for sovereignty, leaving it difficult acknowledged excellence.
to determine which tendency is the most marked.
The points of contact and sympathy are, as it is, few dulating and generally well protected, but in the enough, but if the world were generally divided into West the open plains, over which fierce winds sweep two opposing groups, such as Dr. Richardson de- at frequent intervals, show that a style of house well scribes, social life and cooperation would be almost adapted to one section is wholly unsuited to the impossible. No one would love poetry but poets, other; and yet we find commonly the same kind of no one be in sympathy with art but artists; there structure in both. In earthquake-countries houses would be no students of philosophy but philosophers; are built with the danger to which they are exposed a line of demarkation would exist more distinct even kept specially in view ; and now the liability of the than that of race, for races do commingle, while West to tornadoes indicates the necessity of a simi. these two 'mental forces would always stand hostile lar adaptation of architecture. So far, indeed, from or dead to each other. Fortunately, our mentality is there having been any modification to meet the pecatholic enough to bring us all within, at least, a culiar danger to which they are liable, the Western measure of appreciation.
houses are generally peculiarly slight in structure, There is one other consideration. If it were true being constructed of boards on light frames that are that the human mind is separated into two such dis- merely pinned to their foundations. With rightly tinct classes, then ought not education endeavor to constructed houses we should scarcely hear of such correct this one-sidedness rather than administer to destructive work as occurred recently in Missouri, it? It would be unwise, doubtless, to teach mathe- where a whole village was nearly destroyed and matics to one absolutely incapable of mathematics; many lives sacrificed. Low houses with broad walls, but commonly it is not so much incapacity as dis- and with their roofs weighted after the manner of taste that afflicts the person, and education would the Swiss with heavy stones, would, we should perform its very best purpose if it succeeded in de- judge, resist even tornadoes with success. But, of veloping that person's latent powers, and establishing course, the best method can be arrived at only after a balance and harmony of intellectual forces. Power a due examination of all the facts ; and such maof analysis is exactly what the synthetical mind needs terial must be selected as can be readily obtained. in order to fit it for the world's work ; why, then, The West is subject, as we all know, to great should not education endeavor to strengthen the con- extremes of heat and cold, as well as to terrible stitutional defect? And, of course, the same prin- winds; and yet houses are ordinarily constructed ciple is true of the exclusively analytical mind. The with no idea of adequate protection against heat, masters of education have not been so blind as Dr. cold, or wind. The summer suns pierce the thin Richardson implies. No doubt the curriculum of clapboards and turn the interior into an oven, while the schools is commonly too rigid, and there are the winter cold as readily penetrates the slight screen probably, now and then, individuals wholly unfitted which it encounters. He would render that section by mental constitution for the studies there set down; a great service who devised a house that would adebut, inasmuch as the real purpose of education is to quately protect its inmates against each of these evils. develop powers, bring forth latent talents, and pro- Houses with open, interior courts, after the man. duce harmony and balance of parts, the system pur. ner of those in use in tropical countries, would give sued has not, as a whole, been altogether wrong. comfortable domiciles in the summer season. But
thick walls are the main thing for summer as well as
for winter, for resistance against the rays of the sun WESTERN TORNADOES.
as well as against blasts of wind and the insidi
ous approaches of frost. To secure these might not The destructive tornadoes that occur now so earth be employed, especially in sections where stone frequently in the West open the question whether is scarce and bricks are costly? All that we can do, a very serious mistake has not been made in the however, is to urge upon the attention of our Weststyle of building in that section. The West, for the ern friends the necessity of some radical change in most part, has in its houses followed the example of their architecture ; and, once this is fully realized, it the Eastern States, without regarding the modifica- is certain that suggestions will abound, and properly tions that difference of climate and other changes of conducted experiments be entered upon in order to conditions require. In the East the country is un- secure the desired result,
Books of the Iny.
THE orderly and consecutive publication of the published "Ceremonial Institutions,"* then, is the
successive parts of Mr. Herbert Spencer's first division of the second volume of the “ Principles “Synthetic Philosophy" has been so often deviated of Sociology,” and belongs to an earlier place in the from of late, that with the appearance of each new
* Ceremonial Institutions : Being Part IV. of the volume it is necessary to explain its proper place in Principles of Sociology. (The first Portion of Vol. II.) the general scheme and the relation which it bears By Herbert Spencer. New York: D. Appleton & Co. to the other portions of the exposition. The newly- 12mo, pp. 237.