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never construct at all. We say of another man that he These orders of mind, distinctive of the distinct, are is admirable at details, and can be intrusted with any in their primitive forms so essential to the course of work requiring minute definition, but he has no idea of progress that it is difficult to assign priority of value to putting anything together so as to produce a new result either. The analytical mind seems to be most indusor effect.
trious and soundest in practice : the synthetical, the most Moreover, we assign to these different men distinctive brilliant, and, when on the right track, the most astoundservices in the world. We understand them perfectly, ing, in the effects it produces. The analytical is the first and by an unwritten and, I may almost say, by a spon- parent of knowledge, the synthetical the second-both taneous estimate we reckon them up and give them their necessary. precise place in the affairs of life with which they are To apply this reasoning to our present argument, I connected. It is as if by design of nature these classes maintain that, as the child is the father of the man, so in of men, and it may be of women also, exist as pure types every child there is always to be detected, if it be a child of intellectual form, have always existed and are always of any parts at all, the type of mind. I will undertake being repeated. In other words, it is as if they are defi- to say that every experienced teacher could divide his nite families, and that out of them, as out of a dual na- school into these two great analytical and synthetical ture, that human organization of thought, which we call classes. He might have a few who combine both powers, history, is educed.
and he would no doubt have a residuum, a true caput The elements of the analytical and synthetical minds mortuum, that had no distinctive powers at all; but he appear on a large scale in the pursuits which men follow. would have the two distinctives. He would have the The mathematician is analytical, and he, in whatever scholars who could analyze as easily as they could run or science his powers are called forth, is always working on walk, and to whom the mathematical problem and all the analytical line. He may be an astronomer, a chemist, that may be called analytical is as easy as play, but who a navigator, an engineer, an architect, a physician, a have little inventive or constructive power. He would painter ; but, whatever he is, all his work is by analysis. have the scholars whose minds are ever open to impresWe often wonder at his labor, at his accuracy, at his sions from outer natural phenomena, who have quick fidelity. We may say of him that he approaches Nature original ideas, who have, it may be, the true poetic sentiherself in the magnitude and perfection of his results, ment, but who can not grasp the analytical and detailed but we never say of him that he is inventive or construc- departments of learning at all. ... tive. From him much that is quite new comes forth, but The moral I draw from these outlines of natural fact it is always something that he has hauled out of the dark is that in teaching it is injury of mind, and thereby inrecesses : he lays his treasures at our feet, and we are jury of body, to try to force analytical minds into syn. content to admire and wonder. We may be entranced thetical grooves, or to try to force synthetical minds into with our view of the produce of this man, but he very analytical. rarely kindles our enthusiasm for him as a man, and very often we find that no credit has been given to him as
It must be admitted that Dr. Richardson has himself deserving of it. We praise only his industry. great theoretical and practical knowledge of the subThe poet is, as a rule, synthetical. This does not always jects which he discusses, and that he is generally follow, but it usually does, and I think we may fairly say wise and discriminating ; but assuredly in the passage that every man of a purely constructive mind is a poet, quoted above his generalization is much too broad. albeit we may not be able to say that every poet is con- There are, it is true, just such distinct characteristics structive. But in whatever particular phase of life and of mind as he describes ; but we imagine that, instead action he exists he shows his synthesis distinctively. His of being commonly manifested in two distinct groups tendency is naturally to drift into such labors as are in- of individuals, they generally are more or less effecventive and constructive. Frequently he avails himself tually combined in the same person. Perhaps it would of the labors of the analyst whom he unconsciously fol- be better to say ineffectually combined, for the ma. lows, believing meantime in himself alone. He makes for us romance in literature ; mechanical instruments in jority of mankind appear to have neither analysis handicraft; pictures in art ; tunes and melodies in music; nor synthesis, but live on with a minimum of intelplays and epics and songs in poetry; strategies in war; lectual force. In all cases, when clearly separated, laws in Parliament ; speculations in commerce; methods where the individual is distinctly either analytical or in science.
synthetical, he becomes conspicuous for his successes The two orders of men are often as distinct in feeling and his failures, for the mistakes he makes in one as they are in work. They do not love each other, and direction and the achievements that crown him in they admire each other little. Jealousy does not separate another. This separation gives us what the world them, but innate repulsion. The analytical looks on the
so much delights in—the man of individuality, of synthetical scholar as wild, untrustworthy, presuming, hasty, dangerous. The synthetical looks on the analyti- strong likes and dislikes, of narrow but vehement cal with pity, or it may be contempt, as on one narrow, purpose. The aptitudes of such individuals are too conceited, and so cautious as to be helpless; a bird that manifest for any mistake as to their character of has never been fledged, or, being fledged, has not dared mind; and we may well believe that, if people gento stretch out his wings to fly.
erally fell into two such obvious tendencies, educaIt has in rarest instances happened that the two na- tion would long since have been adapted to their tures have been combined in one and the same person. manifest needs. But the average human mind is far It is, I think, probable that this combination has been too complex to admit of such easy diagnosis. A great the reason for the appearance of the six or seven greatest majority of people seem to have no vocation whatof mankind. As a general fact, however, the combination has not been fortunate. It has most frequently pro- ever, and fall readily into whatever groove circum. duced startling mediocrities, whose claims to greatness stances may place them ; with others, analysis and have been sources of disputation rather than instances of synthesis dispute for sovereignty, leaving it difficult acknowledged excellence.
to determine which tendency is the most marked.
The points of contact and sympathy are, as it is, few dulating and generally well protected, but in the enough, but if the world were generally divided into West the open plains, over which fierce winds sweep two opposing groups, such as Dr. Richardson de- at frequent intervals, show that a style of house well scribes, social life and coöperation would be almost adapted to one section is wholly unsuited to the impossible. No one would love poetry but poets, other; and yet we find commonly the same kind of no one be in sympathy with art but artists; there structure in both. In earthquake-countries houses would be no students of philosophy but philosophers; are built with the danger to which they are exposed a line of demarkation would exist more distinct even kept specially in view ; and now the liability of the than that of race, for races do commingle, while West to tornadoes indicates the necessity of a simithese two mental forces would always stand hostile lar adaptation of architecture. So far, indeed, from or dead to each other. Fortunately, our mentality is there having been any modification to meet the pecatholic enough to bring us all within, at least, a culiar danger to which they are liable, the Western measure of appreciation.
houses are generally peculiarly slight in structure, There is one other consideration. If it were true being constructed of boards on light frames that are that the human mind is separated into two such dis- merely pinned to their foundations. With rightly tinct classes, then ought not education endeavor to constructed houses we should scarcely hear of such correct this one-sidedness rather than administer to destructive work as occurred recently in Missouri, it? It would be unwise, doubtless, to teach mathe- where a whole village was nearly destroyed and matics to one absolutely incapable of mathematics; many lives sacrificed. Low houses with broad walls, but commonly it is not so much incapacity as dis- and with their roofs weighted after the manner of taste that afflicts the person, and education would the Swiss with heavy stones, would, we should perform its very best purpose if it succeeded in de- judge, resist even tornadoes with success. But, of veloping that person's latent powers, and establishing course, the best method can be arrived at only after a balance and harmony of intellectual forces. Power a due examination of all the facts ; and such maof analysis is exactly what the synthetical mind needs terial must be selected as can be readily obtained. in order to fit it for the world's work; why, then, The West is subject, as we all know, to great should not education endeavor to strengthen the con- extremes of heat and cold, as well as to terrible stitutional defect? And, of course, the same prin- winds; and yet houses are ordinarily constructed ciple is true of the exclusively analytical mind. The with no idea of adequate protection against heat, masters of education have not been so blind as Dr. cold, or wind. The summer suns pierce the thin Richardson implies. No doubt the curriculum of clapboards and turn the interior into an oven, while the schools is commonly too rigid, and there are the winter cold as readily penetrates the slight screen probably, now and then, individuals wholly unfitted which it encounters. He would render that section by mental constitution for the studies there set down; a great service who devised a house that would adebut, inasmuch as the real purpose of education is to quately protect its inmates against each of these evils. develop powers, bring forth latent talents, and pro- Houses with open, interior courts, after the manduce harmony and balance of parts, the system pur- ner of those in use in tropical countries, would give sued has not, as a whole, been altogether wrong. comfortable domiciles in the summer season. But
thick walls are the main thing for summer as well as
for winter, for resistance against the rays of the sun WESTERN TORNADOES.
as well as against blasts of wind and the insidi.
ous approaches of frost. To secure these might not The destructive tornadoes that occur now so earth be employed, especially in sections where stone frequently in the West open the question whether is scarce and bricks are costly? All that we can do, a very serious mistake has not been made in the however, is to urge upon the attention of our Weststyle of building in that section. The West, for the ern friends the necessity of some radical change in most part, has in its houses followed the example of their architecture ; and, once this is fully realized, it the Eastern States, without regarding the modifica- is certain that suggestions will abound, and properly tions that difference of climate and other changes of conducted experiments be entered upon in order to conditions require. In the East the country is un- secure the desired result.
Books of the Day.
HE orderly and consecutive publication of the published "Ceremonial Institutions,”* then, is the
“Synthetic Philosophy" has been so often deviated of Sociology," and belongs to an earlier place in the from of late, that with the appearance of each new
* Ceremonial Institutions : Being Part IV. of the volume it is necessary to explain its proper place in Principles of Sociology. (The first Portion of Vol. II.) the general scheme and the relation which it bears By Herbert Spencer. New York: D. Appleton & Co. to the other portions of the exposition. The newly- 12mo, pp. 237.
system than the “Data of Ethics,” which was the keep the head clear in merely reading the intermivolume last issued, and which formed the first divi- nable procession of facts is a task of no small diffision of the “Principles of Morality.” For deciding culty; and, in collecting them and marshaling them to issue by itself this and each succeeding division in their due order and relations, Mr. Spencer has of the “ Principles of Sociology,” Mr. Spencer has performed one of the most impressive of the Hercufound several reasons. “One is that each division, lean labors involved in his long and arduous task. though related to the rest, nevertheless forms a whole So closely interlinked are the various stages of so far distinct that it may be fairly well understood the author's argument, and so dependent upon each without the rest. Another is that large volumes other are the several portions of his exposition, that (and Vol. II. threatens to exceed in bulk Vol. I.) are it would be impossible to detach a series of passages alarming; and that many, who are deterred by their which should serve to exemplify and illustrate the size from reading them, will not fear to undertake whole. We must perforce content ourselves with inseparately the parts of which they are composed. dicating briefly the aim and purport of the book, A third and chief reason is that postponement of since it would be almost frivolous in dealing with a issue until completion of the entire volume necessic work of this character merely to quote a number of tates an undesirable delay in the issue of its earlier disconnected passages because they seemed curious divisions : substantially independent works being or interesting. The fundamental proposition with thus kept in manuscript much longer than need be.” which the book opens, and to the establishing of
Portions of the present work have already been which the rest of the book is devoted, is laid down published as articles in various periodicals in Eng- in the following passage: land and on the Continent, and in “The Popular Science Monthly" in America ; but the last five
If, disregarding conduct that is entirely private, we chapters, composing nearly half the volume, have consider only that species of conduct which involves di
rect relations with other persons; and if, under the name not hitherto appeared either at home or abroad, and of government, we include all control of such conduct, the whole has been subjected to a most careful and however arising ; then we must say that the earliest kind minute revision. In deference to a criticism passed of government, and the government which is ever sponby friends upon the published articles that they were taneously recommencing, is the government of cereoverweighted by illustrative facts, Mr. Spencer has monial observance. More may be said. This kind of diminished in many cases the amount of evidence government, besides preceding other kinds, and besides offered in support of his propositions ; but he ad- having in all places and times approached nearer to unimits in advance that the defect may still be alleged. versality of influence, has ever had, and continues to ". That, with a view to improved effect,” he says in have, the largest share in regulating men's lives. his preface, “I have not suppressed a larger number The next most important proposition, which is of illustrations is due to the consideration that sci- nowhere so distinctly formulated by Mr. Spencer, entific proof, rather than artistic metit, is the end to but which is implied throughout, is that these cerebe here achieved. If sociological generalizations monial observances which constitute the primary and are to pass out of the stage of opinion into the stage most comprehensive form of government, and which of established truth, it can only be through extensive are now distinguished as political, religious, and soaccumulations of instances; the inductions must be cial, had a common origin ; and that this origin is to wide if the conclusions are to be accepted as valid. be found not in conventions at one time or other Especially while there continues the belief that so- deliberately made, as people tacitly assume, but in cial phenomena are not the subject-matter of a sci- usages that are the natural products of social life ence, it is requisite that the correlations among them which have gradually evolved. Adhering tenashould be shown to hold in multitudinous cases. ciously to all his elders taught him, the primitive Evidence furnished by various races in various parts man deviates into novelty only through unintended of the world must be given before there can be re- modifications. Every one now knows that languages butted the allegation that the inferences drawn are are not devised but evolve ; and the same is true of not true. Indeed, of social phenomena more than usages.” all other phenomena, it must, because of their com- The process by which spontaneously arising cusplexity, hold that only by comparisons of many ex- toms gradually crystallize into laws is traced by Mr. amples can fundamental relations be distinguished Spencer along many converging lines of evidence ; from superficial relations.”
and the following passage from his closing chapter We have followed Mr. Spencer's example in contains, perhaps, as convenient a summary of the touching upon this point at the outset, because, to the evidence and the conclusion to which it leads as can general reader coming unprepared to the work, it be quoted: would be apt to seem little more than an aggregation of facts and instances, the vast number and infinite
In primitive headless groups of men, such customs as variety of which confuse the judgment and bewilder regulate conduct form but a small aggregate. A few the memory. The principles with which Mr. Spen- certain cases bodily mutilations, and some interdicts on
naturally prompted actions on meeting strangers, in cer sets out and the conclusions at which he arrives foods monopolized by adult men, constitute a brief code. are comparatively few and simple, but his method of But, with consolidation into compound, doubly comproof is by what we may call cumulative evidence pound, and trebly compound societies, there arise great drawn from an infinite multiplicity of sources. To accumulations of ceremonial arrangements regulating all the actions of life-there is an increase in the mass of ob- was announced and announced because the author had servances. Originally simple, those observances become taken a fancy to the title and proposed to write “up” to progressively complex. From the same root grow up it. We can not say how much of the long interval was various kinds of obeisances. Primitive descriptive names occupied with this endeavor; but certainly the “Capidevelop into numerous graduated titles. From abori- taine Fracasse " is as good as if a quarter of a century ginal salutes come, in course of time, complimentary had been given to it. Besides being his most ambitious forms of address adjusted to persons and occasions. work, it bears more marks of leisure and meditation than Weapons taken in war give origin to symbols of au- its companions. M. Meissonier might have written it, if, thority, assuming, little by little, great diversities in with the same talent and a good deal more geniality, he their shapes. While certain trophies, differentiating into had chosen to use the pen rather than the brush. The badges, dresses, and decorations, eventually in each of subject is just such a one as Gautier was born to apprethese divisions present multitudinous varieties, no longer ciate-a subject of which the pictorial side emphasizes bearing any resemblance to their originals. And, besides itself as naturally as that of “Don Quixote." It is borthe increasing heterogeneity which in each society arises rowed, indeed, but as great talents borrow—for a use among products having a common origin, there is the that brings the original into fashion again. Scarron's further heterogeneity which arises between this aggregate “Roman Comique," which furnished Gautier with his of products in one society and the allied aggregates in starting-point, is as barren to the eye as "Gil Blas" itother societies. Simultaneously there is progress in . self, besides being a much coarser piece of humor. The definiteness ; ending, as in the East, in fixed forms pre- sort of memory one retains of the “Capitaine Fracasse" scribed in all their details, which must not under penalty is hard to express, save by some almost physical analogy. be departed from. And in sundry places the vast assem- We remember the perusal of most good novels as an blages of complex and definite ceremonies thus elaborated intellectual pleasure-a pleasure which varies in degree, are consolidated into coherent codes set forth in books. but is, as far as it goes, an affair of the mind. The hours
spent over the “Capitaine Fracasse " seem to have been The entire book is substantially devoted to fur- an affair of the senses, of personal experience, of obsernishing detailed proofs of these propositions ; and to vation and contact as illusory as those of a peculiarly showing, furthermore, that the growth of ceremonial vivid dream. The novel presents the adventures of a or governmental institutions conforms in every par- company of strolling players of Louis XIII.'s timeticular to the laws of evolution at large. “When their vicissitudes, collective and individual, their miseries
and gayeties, their loves and squabbles, and their final we observe,” says Mr. Spencer, "the original unity exhibited by ceremony as it exists in primitive hordes, symmetrical fashion in which they have so often stood
apportionment of worldly comfort-very much in that in contrast with the diversity which ceremony, un. forth to receive it at the fall of the curtain. It is a fairyder its forms of political, religious, and social, as- tale of Bohemia, a triumph of the picturesque. In this sumes in developed societies, we recognize another case, by a special extension of his power, the author has aspect of the transformation undergone by all prod- made the dramatic interest as lively as the pictorial, and ucts of evolution."
lodged good human hearts beneath the wonderfullypainted rusty doublets and tarnished satins of his mask
ers. The great charm of the book is a sort of combined It may be numbered among the curious incidents geniality of feeling and coloring, which leaves one in of literary history that after nearly twenty years doubt whether the author is the most joyous of painters
or the cleverest of poets. It is a masterpiece of goodhave elapsed since the first publication of Gautier's humor-a good-humor sustained by the artist's indefati“Le Capitaine Fracasse,” without any one thinking gable relish for his theme. In artistic “ bits,” of course, it worth while to introduce it to American readers, the book abounds; it is a delightful gallery of portraits. two rival translations of the story have been issued The models, with their paint and pomatum, their broken simultaneously by different houses in the same city.* plumes and threadbare velvet, their false finery and their This is partly explained, no doubt, by the very high real hunger, their playhouse manners and morals, are praise which Mr. Henry James, Jr., has bestowed certainly not very choice company ; but the author hanupon the work in his “French Poets and Novelists"; dles them with an affectionate, sympathetic jocosity of and, this being so, it may be interesting to the reader
which we so speedily feel the influence that, long before
we have finished, we seem to have drunk with them, one to know precisely what Mr. James has to say about and all, out of the playhouse goblet to the confusion of it. In his charming essay on Gautier occurs the fol- respectability and life before the scenes. If we incline lowing passage :
to look for deeper meanings, we can fancy the work in
the last analysis an expression of that brotherly sympathy If, as an illustration, we could transfuse the essence with the social position of the comedian which Gautier of one of Gautier's best performances into this colorless was too much what the French call an homme de théâtre report, we should choose the “Capitaine Fracasse.” In not to entertain as an almost poetic sentiment. The this delightful work Gautier has surpassed himself, and “Capitaine Fracasse ” ranks, in our opinion, with the produced the model of picturesque romances. The story first works of the imagination produced in our day. was published, we believe, some twenty-five years after it
This fine and true description renders it unne* Captain Fracasse. From the French of Théophile cessary for us to say anything more of the original Gautier. By M. M. Ripley. With Illustrations by Gus work, as a literary product; and such further comtave Doré. Leisure Hour Series. New York : Henry ments as we have to make may be profitably adHolt & Co. 16mo, pp. 411.
dressed to a question which seems to be raised by Captain Fracasse. By Théophile Gautier. Trans- both the translations before us—the question, namelated by Ellen Murray Beam. New York: G. P. Put- ly, of the proper function of a translator. It would nam's Sons. 6mo, pp. 532.
be generally conceded, we suppose, that the primary aim of a translator should be to reproduce the ideas, Mrs. Beam's delinquencies are of a different meaning, and language of the original with the ut- character, though their effect upon the story is hardmost possible fidelity and exactness. Differences of ly less injurious. She has not allowed herself to be structure and idiom between any two languages will intimidaced by the features of which we have spoalways suffice to prevent a literal word-for-word re- ken, and she records the "episodes " that have disproduction, and the extent of the deviation author. appeared entirely from Miss Ripley's text with unized by this has to be left to the taste and discretion shrinking literalness and precision ; but of the deof the translator ; but the fundamental rule of good scriptive portions of Gautier's work she has presented translation is as we have stated it, and applies with little more than a summary or abstract. Miss Ripespecial force to the work of so supreme a literary ley sins in this respect also, but to nothing like the artist as Gautier. Tested by this rule, we regret to extent that Mrs. Beam has done. She has endeavsay that both the translations of “ Captain Fracasse" ored to preserve some, at least, of the original outare not only defective, but inexcusably so. Each lines, while Mrs. Beam has simply picked out phrases translator, in her different way, has seemed to think and sentences here and there, and constructed a sethat she could improve Gautier's work, and has sub- ries of pictures to please herself. This would be a jected it to a process decidedly worse than “that comparatively venial fault in many cases, but Gaulight editorial hacking and hewing to right and left” tier's highest power as an artist is exhibited in the which Carlyle resented so deeply when it was in- opulence and splendor of his pictorial effects; and flicted upon his own manuscript by Jeffrey. Miss in “ Le Capitaine Fracasse " the copious details, Ripley, indeed, frankly confesses in a prefatory note minute and leisurely, but never tedious-display in that certain considerations seemed to furnish" “jus- its most striking aspect his fertility of invention. tification for carrying the translator's work further To quote Mr. James again : "His real imaginative than mere verbal expressions"; and though Mrs. power is shown in his masterly evocation of localiBeam says nothing on the point--thereby implying, ties, and in the thick-coming fancies that minister to we think, that her version has been prepared on the his inexhaustible conception of that pictorial 'setcustomary plan-she has felt no more hesitation than ting' of human life which interested him so much her rival in introducing "some minor changes" of more than human life itself.” her own.
In conclusion, we may say that Miss Ripley's There are certain features of “Le Capitaine version is the more spirited and vivacious-more Fracasse," it may be candidly said, which go far to skillful in its suggestion of Gautier's light and sparexplain if not to justify certain of the omissions kling style ; while Mrs. Beam's gives a more trustwhich Miss Ripley has ventured upon. The man- worthy idea of the character and contents of the ners, the morals, and the language of the age of story. But it will be necessary to read both in order Louis XIII. were much freer than those of our own to get even a tolerably exact notion of the original time, even in France; and Gautier was not the art- work, and a real translation yet remains to be made. ist to soften this feature in any picture of the time that he might undertake to paint. On the contrary, he has depended upon it largely for that “local
Almost at the beginning of English literature color” which is indispensable to the vraisemblance of stands Chaucer, and, of course, the biographer who an historical novel; and, besides the laxity of tone undertakes to deal with him has a much more diffi. which pervades the whole, has introduced a series of cult task than he whose subject stands in the full episodes designed especially to illustrate that con- light of more recent and better recorded times. tempt for conventional restraints which characterizes
Bearing this in mind, it must be admitted, we think, the period he has attempted to depict. All these that Professor Ward's little book is a most praise. episodes, without exception, Miss Ripley has re- worthy achievement.* All that is definitely known, morselessly cut out, and has thereby mutilated the
or even plausibly conjectured, about Chaucer's life story irretrievably as a work of art. We say“ muti- could be adequately stated within the compass of lated," because, aside from the danger of disturbing twenty lines, and to make a biography of him in the the light and shade of a picture as the artist has ordinary sense of the term would of course be imconceived it, these “playhoyse manners and morals,” possible ; yet those who study his works attentively, as Mr. James calls them, form the indispensable and with a proper knowledge of the times and cirbackground to the character of the pure and refined cumstances in which they were produced, can obtain Isabelle and the idyllic love between her and Cap- a clear and probably accurate conception of the tain Fracasse which constitute the great charm of character and personality which lie behind them. the book. We are not to be understood as main
To enable the reader to approach these works taining that such episodes are unobjectionable ; but, with a proper equipment of the knowledge necessary the time to consider them is when deciding whether to interpret them, and to awaken his attention to the the story is one which deserves to be introduced to a personal revelations and implications of the works new circle of readers. If it be decided that, in spite themselves, is the task which Professor Ward has of its faults, it deserves to be so introduced, then there can be no doubt that, in the case of such an
English Men of Letters. Edited by John Morley. author as Gautier, at least it should be presented as Chaucer, by Adolphus William Ward. New York : “one entire and perfect chrysolite."
Harper & Brothers. 12mo, pp. 199.