« 이전계속 »
as of the other States, require that the same should | 30th, and thence debated daily until the 19th be done. " Resolved, That a copy of the above and fore the Senate to admit the State of Maine
of February, when a bill came down from going resolution be transmitted, by the Speaker of the Senate, to each of the Senators and Repre into the Union,” but with a rider authorizing sentatives from this State in the Congress of the the people of Missouri to form a State ConUnited States.”
stitution, etc., without restriction on the sub
ject of Slavery. KENTUCKY.
The House, very early in the session, passed In Senate, January 24th, 1820, Mr. Logan
a bill providing for the admission of Maine
as a State. This bill came to the Senate, communicated the following preamble and and was sent to its Judiciary Committee Resolutions of the Legislature of the State aforesaid, which amended it by adding a of Kentucky, which were read:
provision for Missouri as above. After " Whereas, The Constitution of the United several days' debate in Senate, Mr. Roberts States provides for the admission of new States of Pa. moved to recommit, so as to strike into the Union, and it is just and proper that all such States should be established upon the footing out all but the admission of Maine ; which of original States, with a view to the preservation was defeated (Jan. 14th, 1820)—Yeas 18; of State Sovereignty, the prosperity of such new Nays 25. State, and the good of their citizens; and whereas, (who voted with the majority, as uniformly
Hereupon Mr. Thomas of Ill. and are now making, to prevent the People of the against any restriction on Missouri) gave Territory of Missouri from being admitted into the notice that he should Union as a State, unless trammeled by rules and regulations which do not exist in the original " ask leave to bring a bill to prohibit the introStates, particularly in relation to the toleration of duction of Slavery into the Territories of the Slavery.
United States North and West of the contem“Whereas, also, if Congress can thus trammel or plated State of Missouri.” control the powers of a Territory in the formation of a State government, that body may, on the which he accordingly did on the 19th ; same principle, reduce its powers to little more when it was read and ordered to a third than those possessed by the people of the District reading. of Columbía; and whilst professing to make it a Sovereign State, may bind it in perpetual vas
[NOTE.-Great confusion and misconception ex. salage, and reduce it to the condition of a province ; ists in the public mind with regard to “the Missouri such 'State must necessarily become the dependent Restriction," two totally different propositions of Congress, asking such powers, and not the in- being called by that name. The original Redependent State, demanding rights. And whereas, striction, which Mr. Clay vehemently opposed, ties in their present rights, that no new State tion of Slavery in its exclusion from the State of it is necessary, in preserving the State Sovereign- and Mr. Jefferson in a letter characterized as a
“ fire-boll in the night," contemplated the limita should be subjected to this restriction, any more than an old one, and that there can be no reason
Missouri. This was ultimately defeated, as we or justice why it should not be entitled to the shall see. The second proposed Restriction was same privileges, when it is bound to bear all the
that of Mr. Thomas, just cited, which proposed burdens and taxes laid upon it by Congress.
the exclusion of Slavery, not from the State of " In passing the following Resolution, the Gene- Missouri, but, from the Territories of the United ral Assembly refrains from expressing any opinion States North and West of that State. This either in favor or against the principles of Slavery; proposition did not emanate from the original but to support and maintain State rights, which Missouri Restrictionists, but from their adversait conceives necessary to be supported and main- ries, and was but reluctantly and partially aotained, to preserve the liberties of the free people cepted by the former.] of these United States, it avows its solemn con
The Maine admission bill, with the proviction, that the States already confederated under one common Constitution, have not a right to posed amendments, was discussed through deprive new States of equal privileges with them- several days, until, Feb. 16th, the question selves. Therefore,
was taken on the Judiciary Committee's “ Resolved, by the General Assembly of the amendments (authorizing Missouri to form a in Congress from this State be instructed, and the State Constitution, and saying nothing of Representatives be requested to use their
efforts Slavery), which were adopted by the followto procure the passage of a law to admit the people ing vote : of Missouri into the Union, as a State, whether those people will sanction Slavery by their Con-YEAS— Against the Restriction on Missouri: stitution, or not. “Resolved, That the Executive of this Com
Messrs. Barbour of Va. Logan of Ky.
Brown of La. monwealth be requested to transmit this Resolu
Macon, of N. C.
Eaton of Tenn. tion to the Senators and Representatives of this
Pinkney of Md.
Edwards of Ill. Pleasants of Va. State in Congress, that it may be laid before that
Elliott of Ga.
Smith of S. C. body for its consideration.”
Gaillard of S. C. Stokes of N. C. The bill authorizing Missouri to form a
Johnson of Ky. Taylor of Ind.
Johnson of La. Thomas of Ill. constitution, etc., came up in the House as a special order, Jan. 24th. Mr. Taylor of N.
King (Wm. R.), Ala. Walker of Ala.
Leake of Miss. Walker of Ga. Y. moved that it be postponed for one week : Lloyd of Md.
Williams of Miss Lost: Yeas 87; Nays 88. Whereupon the
Williams of Tenn.--23. House adjourned. It was considered in com- [20 from Slave States ; 3 (in italics) from mittee the next day, as also on the 28th and Free States.]
NAYS_For Restriction :
Lloyd of Md. Williams of Ten. Messrs. Burrill of R. I. Noble of Ind.
Logan of Ky.
Wilson of N.J.-34
NAYS— Against such Restriction :
Messrs. Barbour of Va. Smith (Wm.) of
Elliott of Ga.
Gaillard of S. C.
Taylor of Ind.
Macon of N. C.
Walker of Ga.
Noble of Ind.
Williams of Mellen of Mass. Trimble of Obio,
Pleasants of Va.
Miss.--10. Morrill of N. H. Van Dyke of Del. (It will here be seen that the Restriction ultiWilson of N. J.--21
mately adopted, that excluding Slavery from all [19 from Free States, 2 (in italics) from territory then owned by the United States North Delaware.]
and West of the Southwest border of the State of Mr. Thomas of Ill. then proposed his Missouri, was proposed by an early and steadfast amendment, as follows:
opponent of the Restriction originally proposed, " And be it further enacted, That the sixth relative to Slavery in the contemplated State of article of compact of the Ordinance of Congress, passed July 13th, 1787, for the govern- Missouri, and was sustained by the votes of fourment of the Territory of the United States, north- teen Senators from Slave States, including the west of the river Ohio, shall, to all intents and Senators from Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, purposes, be, and hereby is, deemed and held ap. Tennessee, Alabama, and Louisiana, with one vote plicable to, and shall have full force and effect in and over, all that tract of country ceded by each from North Carolina and Mississippi. France to the United States under the name of The current assumption that this Restriction Louisiana which lies north of thirty-six degrees was proposed by Rufus King of New York, and and thirty minutes, north latitude, excepting only such part thereof as is included within the limits mainly sustained by the antagonists of Slavery contemplated by this act.”
Extension, is wholly mistaken. The truth, doubtOn the following day Mr. Thomas with less, is, that it was suggested by the more moderdrew the foregoing and substituted the fol- ate opponents of the proposed Restriction on Mislowing :
souri-and supported also by Senators from Slave “And be it further enacted, That in all that Ter. States—as a means of overcoming the resistance ritory ceded by France the United States under of the House to Slavery in Missouri. It was, in the name of Louisiana which lies north of thirty effect, an offer from the milder opponents of six degrees thirty minutes, north latitude, excepting only such part thereof as is included within Slavery Restriction to the more moderate and the limits of the State contemplated by this act, flexible advocates of that Restriction—"Let us Slavery and involuntary servitude, otherwise have Slavery in Missouri, and we will unite with than in the punishment of crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall be you in excluding it from all the uninhabited and is hereby forever prohibited. Provided territories North and West of that State.” It always, that any person escaping into the same, from where labor or service is lawfully claimed
was in substance an agreement between the North in any State or Territory of the United States, and the South to that effect, though the more de. such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed and con- termined champions, whether of Slavery Exten. veyed to the person claiming his or her labor or sion or Slavery Restriction, did not unite in it.]. service as aforesaid." Mr. Trimble of Ohio moved a substitute
The bill, thus amended, was ordered to be for this, somewhat altering the boundaries engrossed for a third reading by the followof the region shielded from Slavery, which
ing vote : was rejected : Yeas 20 (Northern); Nays
YEAS-For the Missouri Bill : 24 (Southern, with Noble, Edwards, and Messrs. Barbour of Va. Lloyd of Md. Taylor, as aforesaid).
Brown of La. Logan of Ky.
Eaton of Tenn. Parrott of N. H. T'he question then recurred on Mr. Thom
Edwards of Ill. Pinkney of Md. as's amendment, which was adopted as fol
Elliott of Ga. Pleasants of Va. lows :
Gaillard of S. C. Stokes of N. C.
Horsey of Del. Thomas of Ill. YEAS-For excluding Slavery from all the
Hunter of R. I. Van Dyke, Del. Territory North and West of Missouri :
Johnson of Ky. Walker of Ala.
Johnson of La. Walker of Ga. Messrs. Brown of La.
Mellen of Mass.
King of Ala. Williams of Miss. Burrill of R. I. Morrill of N. H.
Leake of Miss. Williams, Tenn.-24.
Otis of Mass.
NAYS— Against the Bill :
Otis of Mass.
Dana of Conn.
Palmer of Vt. Horsey of Del. Roberts of Pa.
Dickerson of N. J. Roberts of Pa. Hunter of R. I. Ruggles of Ohio,
King of N. Y.
Ruggles of Ohio,
Lanman of Conn. Sanford of N. Y.
Lowrie of Pa.
Smith of S. C. King (Wm. R.) of Ala. Thomas of Ill.
Macon of N. C.
Taylor of Ind. King (Rufus) of N. Y. Tichenor of Vt.
Mellen of Mass.
Tichenor of Vt. Lanman of Conn. Trimble of Ohio,
Morrill of N. H. Trimble of Ohio, Leake of Miss. Van Dyke of Del.
Noble of Ind.
Wilson of N. J.
The bill was thus passed (Feb. 18th) with- of N. J., and Shaw of Mass., voting with the out further division, and sent to the House South] for concurrence. In the House, Mr. Thom- Sec. 9, (the Senate's exclusion of Slavery as's amendment (as above) was at first re- from the Territory north and west of Misjected by both parties, and defeated by the souri) was also rejected-Yeas 160 ; Nays strong vote of 159 to 18. The Yeas (to 14, (much as before.) The Senate there adopt) were,
upon (March 2nd) passed the House's MisMessrs Baldwin of Pa.
Meech of Vt. souri bill, striking out the restriction of Bayly of Md.
Mercer of Va. Slavery by Yeas 27 to Nays 15, and adding Bloomfield of N. J. Quarles of Ky.
without a division the exclusion of Slavery Cocke of Tenn.
Ringyold of Md.
Shaw of Mass.
from the Territory west and north of said Culpepper of N. C. Sloan of Ohio. State. Mr. Trimble again moved the excluKinsey of N. J.
Smith of N. J. sion of Slavery from Arkansas also, but was Lathrop of Mass. Smith of Md.
again voted down ; Yeas 12 ; Nays 30. Little of Md.
Tarr of Pa.-18.
The Senate now asked a conference, which Prior to this vote, the House disagreed to the House granted without a division. The the log-rolling of Maine and Missouri, into Committee of Conference was composed of one bill by the strong vote of 93 to 72. Messrs. Thomas of Ill., Pinkney of Md., and (We do not give the Yeas and Nays on this Barbour of Va. (all anti-restrictionists), on decision ; but the majority was composed of the part of the Senate, and Messrs. Holmes the representatives of the Free States with of Mass., Taylor of N. Y., Lowndes of S. C., only four exceptions; and Mr. Louis McLane Parker of Mass., and Kinsey of N. J., on of Delaware, who was constrained by in- the part of the House. [Such constitution structions from his legislature. His col- of the Committee of Conference was in effect league, Mr. Willard Hall, did not vote.]
a surrender of the Restriction on the part of l'he members from Free States who voted the House.] John Holmes of Mass., from with the South to keep Maine and Missouri this Committee, in due time (March 2nd), reunited in one bill were,
ported that, Messrs. H. Baldwin of Pa. Henry Meigs of N. Y. 1. The Senate should give up the combina
Bloomfield of N. J. Henry Shaw of Mass. tion of Missouri in the same bill with The House also disagreed to the remain- Maine. ing amendments of the Senate (striking out 2. The House should abandon the attempt the restriction on Slavery in Missouri) by to restrict Slavery in Missouri. the strong vote of 102 Yeas to 68 Nays. 3. Both Houses should agree to pass the
[Nearly or quite every Representative of a Free Senate's separate Missouri bill, with Mr. State voted in the majority of this division with Thomas's restriction or compromising prothe following from Slave States :
viso, excluding Slavery from all Territory Louis McLane, Del. Nelson, Md.
north and west of Missouri. Alney McLean, Ky. Trimble, Ky.]
The report having been read, So the House rejected all the Senate's
The first and most important question amendments, and returned the bill with a
was put, viz. : corresponding message.
Will the House concur with the Senate in so The Senate took up the bill on the 24th, strike from the fourth section of the [Missouri]
much of the said amendments as proposes to and debated it till the 28th, when, on, a direct bill the provision prohibiting Slavery or involunvote, it was decided not to recede from the tary servitude, in the contemplated State, otherattachment of Missouri to the Maine bill : wise than in the punishment of crimes ?" Yeas 21 ; (19 from Free States and 2 from On which question the Yeas and Nays Delaware ;) Nays 23 ; (20 from Slave States, were demanded, and were as follow : with Messrs. Taylor of Ind., Edwards and YEAS— For giving up Restriction on MisThomas of Ill.)
souri: The Senate also voted not to recede from
MASSACHUSETTS -Mark Langdon Hill, John its amendment prohibiting Slavery west of Holmes, Jonathan Mason, Henry Shaw-4. Missouri, and north of 36° 30', north latitude.
RHODE ISLAND.-Samuel Eddy-1. (For receding, 9 from Slave States, with
CONNECTICUT.-Samuel A. Foot, James SteMessrs. Noble and Taylor of Ind. : against
New-YORK.-Henry Meigs, Henry R. Storrs it 33—(22 from Slave States, 11 from Free -2. States.) The remaining amendments of the NEW-JERSEY. — Joseph Bloomfield, Charles Senate were then insisted on without division, Kinsey, Bernard Smith—3. and the House notified accordingly,
PENNSYLVANIA.—Henry Baldwin, David Ful.
lerton-2. The bill was now returned to the House, Total from Free States 14. which, on motion of Mr. John W. Taylor DELAWARE.-Louis McLane-1. of N. Y., voted to insist on its disagreement MARYLAND.-Stephenson Archer, Thomas Bay. to all but sec. 9 of the Senate's amendments, ly, Thomas Culbreth, Joseph Kent, Peter Little, by Yeas 97 to Nays 76 : [all but a purely Raphael Neule, Samuel Ringgold, Samuel Smith, sectional vote : Hugh Nelson of Va. voting
VIRGINIA. -- Mark Alexander, William s. with the North ; Baldwin of Pa., Bloomfield Archer, Philip P. Barbour, William A. Burwell,
John Floyd, Robert S. Garnett, James Johnson, with Lemuel Sawyer of N. C., and David Walker
NORTH CAROLINA.-Hutchins G. Burton, John State.
SOUTH CAROLINA. – Josiah Brevard, Elias West of Missouri; but this motion was cat Earle, James Ervin, William Lowndes, James off by the Previous Question (which then McCreary, James Overstreet, Charles Pinckney, cut off amendments more rigorously, accord
GEORGIA.-Joel A. Abbott, Thomas W. Cobb, ing to the rules of the House, than it now Joel Crawford, John A. Cuthbert, Robert R. does), and the House proceeded to concur Reid, William Terrell-6.
with the Senate in inserting the exclusion of ALABAMA.-John Crowell-1.
Slavery from the Territory West and North MISSISSIPPI.-John Rankin-1.
of Missouri, instead of that just stricken out LOUISIANA.-Thomas Butler-1. KENTUCKY.–Richard C. Anderson, jr., William by 134 Yeas to 42 Nays, (the Nays being Brown, Benjamin Hardin, Alney McLean, from the South). So the bill was passed in Thomas Metcalf, Tunstall Quarles, Ġeo. Robert- the form indicated above; and the bill adson, David Trimble-8. Tennessee.-Robert Allen, Henry H. Bryan, conference, from the Missouri rider,) passed
mitting Maine as a State, (relieved, by a Newton Cannon, John Cocke, Francis Jones, John Rhea_ 5.
both Houses without a division, on the folTotal Yeas from Slave States 76 ; in all 90. lowing day. NAYS--- Against giving up the Restriction
Such was the virtual termination of the on Slavery in Missouri :
struggle for the restriction of Slavery in New-HAMPSHIRE.-Joseph Buffum, jr., Josiah Missouri, which was beaten by the plan of Butler, Clifton Clagett, Arthur Livermore, Wil. liam Plumer, jr., Nathaniel Upham_.6.
proffering instead an exclusion of Slavery MassaCHUSETTS (including Maine). -Benjamin from all the then Federal Territory West and Adams. Samuel C. Allen, Joshua Cushman, Ed North of that State. It is unquestionable ward Dowse, Walter Folger, jr., Timothy Fuller, that, without this compromise or equivalent, Jonas Kendall
, Martin Kinsley, Samuel Lathrop, the Northern votes, which passed the bill, Enoch Lincoln, Marcus Morton, Jeremiah Nelson, James Parker, Zabdiel Sampson, Nathaniel Sils could not have been obtained for it. bee, Ezekiel Whitman_16. RHODE ISLAND._Nathaniel Hazard__1.
VERMONT._Samuel C. Crafts, Rollin C. Mal. lary, Ezra Meech, Charles Rich, Mark Richards,
Though the acceptance of Missouri as a William Strong_6.
State, with a Slave Constitution, was forever New.York. _Nathaniel Allen, Caleb Baker, settled by the votes just recorded, a new exRobert Clark, Jacob H. De Witt, John D. Dick citement sprang up on her presenting herself inson, John Fay, William D. James Guyon, jr., Aaron Hackley. jr., George to Congress (Nov. 16, 1820), with a State Hall
, Joseph S. Lyman, Robert Monell, Nathaniel Constitution, framed on the 19th of July, Pitcher, Jonathan Richmond, Randalí s. Street, containing the following resolutions : James Strong, John W. Taylor, Albert H.
“ The General Assembly shall have no power Tracy, Solomon Van Rensselaer, Peter H. Wendover, Silas Wood__22.
to pass laws, First, for the emancipation of slaves NEW-JERSEY. -Ephraim Bateman, John Linn, paying them, before such emancipation, a full
without the consent of their uwners, or without Henry Southard_3.
PENNSYLVANIA Andrew Boden, William equivalent for such Slaves so emancipated; and, Darlington, George Dennison, Samuel Edwards, Second, to prevent bona fide emigrants to this Thomas Forrest, Samuel Gross, Joseph Hemphill, from any of the United States, or from any of
State, or actual settlers therein from bringing Jacob Hibschman, Joseph Heister, Jacob Hostet: their Territories, such persons as may there be ter, William P. Maclay, David Marchand, Robert deemed to be Slaves, so long as any persons of Moore, Samuel Moore, John Murray, Thomas the same description are allowed to be held as Patterson, Robert
Philson, Thomas J. Rogers, Slaves by the laws of this state. John Sergeant, Christian Tarr, James M. Wal
* " It shall be their duty, as soon as lace- 21.
Oh10. -Philemon Beecher, Henry Brush, John may be, to pass such laws as may be necessary, W. Campbell, Samuel Herrick, Thomas R. Ross, from coming to, and settling in, this State, under
First, to prevent free negroes and mulattoes John Sloane_6. INDIANA.-William Hendricks__1.
any pretext whatever.” ILLINOIS..-Daniel P. Cook_1.
The North, still smarting under a sense of Total Nays 87—all from Free States.
its defeat on the question of excluding Slavery
from Missouri, regarded this as needlessly de[The meinbers apparently absent on this im- fiant, insulting, and inhuman, and the last portant division, were Henry W. Edwards of quoted as palpably in violation of that clause Conn., Walter Case and Honorius Peck of N. Y. of the Federal Constitution which gives to the and John Condit N. J., from ree States ; 1 citizens of each State (which blacks are, in
THE THIRD MISSOURI STRUGGLE.
THE ANNEXATION OF TEXAS.
several Free States,) the rights of citizens in undertook the difficult task of engineering every State. A determined resistance to any through Congress a bill including this triangle such exclusion was manifested, and a portion (large enough to form seven Counties) within of the Northern Members evinced a disposi- the State of Missouri ; which they effected, tion to renew the struggle against the further at the long Session of 1835–6, so quietly as introduction of Slaves into Missouri. At hardly to attract attention. The bill was the first effort to carry her admission, the first sent to the Senate's Committee on the House voted it down—Yeas, 79; Nays, 93. Judiciary, where a favorable report was proA second attempt to admit her, on condition cured from Mr. John M. Clayton, of Delashe would expunge the obnoxious clause (last ware, its Chairman ; and then it was floated quoted) of her Constitution, was voted down through both Houses without encountering still more decisively—Yeas, 6 ; Nays, 146. the perils of a division. The requisite Indian
The House now rested, until a joint resolve, treaties were likewise carried through the admitting her with but a vague and ineffect- Senate; so Missouri became possessed of a ive qualification, came down from the Senate, large and desirable accession of territory, where it was passed by a vote of 26 to 18-- which has since become one of her most posix Senators from Free States in the affirma- pulous and wealthy sections, devoted to the tive. Mr. Clay, who had resigned in the growing of hemp, tobacco, etc., and cultirecess, and been succeeded, as Speaker, by vated by Slaves. This is the most pro-Slavery John W. Taylor, of New York, now appeared section of the State, in which was originated, as the leader of the Missouri admissionists, and has been principally sustained, that series and proposed terms of compromise, which of inroads into Kansas, corruptions of her were twice voted down by the Northern ballot-boxes, and outrages upon her people, Members, aided by John Randolph and three which have earned for their authors the apothers from the South, who would have pellation of Border Ruffians. Missouri admitted without condition or qualification. At last, Mr. Clay proposed a
X. Joint Committee on this subject, to be chosen by ballot—which the House agreed to by 101 to 55; and Mr. Clay became its Chair- The name of Texas was originally applied man. By this Committee it was agreed, that to a Spanish possession or province, lying a solemn pledge should be required of the between the Mississippi and the Rio Grande Legislature of Missouri, that the Constitution del Norte, but not extending to either of of that State should not be construed to these great rivers. It was an appendage of authorize the passage of any Act, and that the Viceroyalty of Mexico, but had very few no Act should be passed, “ by which any of civilized inhabitants down to the time of the the citizens of either of the States should be separation of Mexico from Spain. On two excluded from the enjoyment of the privileges or three occasions, bands of French advenand immunities to which they are entitled turers had landed on its coast, or entered it under the Constitution of the United States." from the adjoining French colony of LouisiThe Joint Resolution, amended by the addi- ana ; but they had uniformly been treated as tion of this proviso, passed the House by 86 intruders, and either destroyed or made priYeas to 82 Nays ; the Senate concurred soners by the Spanish military authorities. (Feb. 27th, 1821,) by 26 Yeas to 15 Nays- No line had ever been drawn between the (all Northern but Macon, of N. C.) Mis- two colonies ; but the traditional line between souri complied with the condition, and be them, south of the Red River, ran somewhat came an accepted member of the Union. within the limits of the present State of Thus closed the last stage of the fierce Mis- Louisiana. souri Controversy, which for a time seemed The etymology of Natchitoches, a city of to threaten—as so many other controversies Louisiana on the Red River, several miles have harmlessly threatened—the existence of within the present boundary of that State, the Union.
attests its claims to a Spanish origin. IX.
When Louisiana was transferred by France to the United States, without specification
of boundaries, collisions of claims on this The State of Missouri, as originally or- frontier was apprehended. General Wilkinganized, was bounded on the West by a line son, commanding the United States troops, already specified, which excluded a triangle moved gradually to the west; the Spanish West of said line, and between it and the commandant in Texas likewise drew toward Missouri, which was found, in time, to be the frontiers, until they stood opposite each exceedingly fertile and desirable. It was other across what was then tacitly settled free soil by the terms of the Missouri com- as the boundary between the two countries. pact, and was also covered by Indian reserv- This was never afterward disregarded. ations, not to be removed without a concur- In 1819, Spain and the United States rence of two-thirds of the Senate. Messrs. seemed on the verge of war. General JackBenton and Linn, senators from Missouri, son had twice invaded Florida, on the assump
EXTENSION OF MISSOURI.