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sentiment was reïterated and amplified in a Every day will tend to weaken that combi. a great Convention of the Democracy, which nation of political causes which led to the opposimet at Herkimer, in the autumn of this year. conviction that it was not only expedient, but
tion of the measure, and to strengthen the The contest proceeded with great earnest- just and necessary. ness throughout the Free States, the sup
“You were right in making the distinction be. porters of Polk and of Birney (the Aboli- tween the interests of France and England in tion candidate for President), fully agreeing reference to Texas-or rather, I should say, the in the assertion that Mr. Clay's position was apparent interests of the two countries. France equally favorable to Annexation with Mr. interests in desiring to see her preserve her sepaPolk's. Mr. Birney, in a letter published rate independence, while it is certain that England on the eve of the Election, declared that he looks beyond, to political interests, to which she regarded Mr. Clay's election as more favor- apparently attaches much importance. But, in able to Apnexation than Mr. Polk's, because,
our opinion, the interest of both against the mea
sure is more apparent than real; and that neither while equally inclined to fortify and extend France, England, nor even Mexico herself, has Slavery, he possessed more ability to influ- any in opposition to it, when the subject is fairly ence Congress in its favor. He says:
viewed and considered in its whole extent, and
in all its bearings. Thus viewed and considered, “I have no reasons for opposing Mr. Clay on and assuming that peace, the extension of compersonal grounds. On the contrary, the inter- merce, and security, are objects of primary policy course we have had has been of the most friendly with them, it may, as it seems to me, be readily character. I oppose his election, because he dis- shown that the policy on the part of those powers believes the great political truths of the Declara- which would acquiesce in a measure so strongly tion of Independence, the foundation of all just desired by both the United States and Texas, for government, and because he repudiates the para- their mutual welfare and safety, as the annexation mount objects of the Union, the perpetuation of of the latter to the former, would be far more liberty to all. On the same ground, I oppose the promotive of these great objects than that which election of Mr. Polk. But I more deprecate the would attempt to resist it. election of Mr. Clay-because, possessing abili. "It is impossible to cast a look at the map of ties superior to Mr. Polk's, he would proportion- the United States and Texas, and to note the long, ately weaken the influence of those truths on the artificial and inconvenient line which divides minds of our countrymen.
them, and to take into consideration the extraor. Respectfully, &c.,
dinary increase of population and growth of " James G. BIRNEY." the former, and the source from which the latter
must derive its inhabitants, institutions, and
laws, without coming to the conclusion that it is Before this time, but as yet withheld from, their destiny to be united, and of course, that and unknown to the public, Mr. Calhoun, mode. Thus regarded, the question to be decided now President Tyler's Secretary of State, would seem to be, whether it would not be better and an early and powerful advocate of An- to permit it to be done now, with the mutual con. nexation, had addressed to Hon. Wm. R. sent of both parties, and the acquiescence of King, our Embassador at Paris, the follow- these powers, than to attempt to resist and defeat
it. ing official dispatch :
" If the former course be adopted, the certain
fruits would be the preservation of peace, great Mr. Calhoun to Mr. King.
extension of commerce by the rapid settlement “ DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
and improvement of Texas, and increased secuWashington, August 12, 1844. rity, especially to Mexico. The last, in reference “SIR-I have laid your dispatch, No. 1, before to Mexico, may be doubted; but I hold it not the President, who instructs me to make known less clear than the other two. to you that he has read it with much pleasure, " It would be a great mistake to suppose that especially the portion which relates to your cor this Government has any hostile feelings toward dial reception by the King, and his assurance of Mexico, or any disposition to aggrandize itself at friendly feelings toward the United States. The her expense. The fact is the very reverse. President, in particular, highly appreciates the “It wishes her well, and desires to see her setdeclaration of the King, that, in no event, would tled down in peace and security; and is prepared, any, steps be taken by his government in the in the event of the Annexation of Texas, if not slightest degree hostile, or which would give to forced into conflict with her, to propose to settle the United States just cause of complaint. It with her the question of boundary, and all others was the more gratifying from the fact, that our growing out of the Annexation, on the most libeprevious information was calculated to make the ral terms. Nature herself has clearly marked impression that the government of France was the boundary between her and Texas by natural prepared to unite with Great Britain in a joint limits, too strong to be mistaken. There are few protest against the annexation of Texas, and a countries whose limits are so distinctly marked ; joint effort to induce her Government to with and it would be our desire, if Texas should be draw the proposition to annex, on condition that united to us, to see them firmly established, as Mexico should be made to acknowledge her in the most certain means of establishing permanent dependence. He is bappy to infer from your peace between the two countries, and strengthendispatch that the information, so far as it relates ing and cementing their friendship. Such would to France, is, in all probability, without founda- be the certain consequence of permitting the Antion. You did not go further than you ought, in nexation to take place now, with the acquiescence assuring the King that the object of Annexation of Mexico ; but very different would be the case would be pursued with unabated vigor, and in if it should be attempted to resist and defeat it, giving your opinion that a decided majority of whether the attempt should be successful for the the American people were in its favor, and that present or not. Any attempt of the kind would, it would certainly be annexed at no distant day. not improbably, lead to a conflict between us and I feel confident that your anticipation will be Mexico, and involve consequences, in reference fully realized at no distant period.
to her and the general peace, long to be deplored
on both sides, and difficult to be repaired. But, ments, furnished proof not less conclusive. That should that not be the case, and the interference one of the objects of abolishing it there is to faof another power defeat the Annexation for the cilitate its abolition in the United States, and present, without the interruption of peace, it throughout the continent, is manifest from the would but postpone the conflict, and render it declaration of the Abolition party and societies more fierce and bloody whenever it might occur. both in this country and in England. In fact,
" Its defeat would be attributed to enmity and there is good reason to believe that the scheme ambition on the part of that power by whose in- of abolishing it in Texas, with a view to its aboterference it was occasioned, and excite deep jeal. lition in the United States, and over the conti. ousy and resentment on the part of our people, nent, originated with the prominent members of who would be ready to seize the first favorable the party in the United States; and was first opportunity to effect by force what was prevent- broached by them in the (so called) World's Coned from being done peaceably by mutual con- vention, held in London in the year 1840, and sent. It is not difficult to see how greatly such a through its agency brought to the notice of the conflict, come when it might, wonld endanger British Government. the general peace, and how much Mexico might “Now, I hold, not only that France can be the loser by it.
have no interest' in the consummation of this “In the mean time, the condition of Texas grand scheme, which England hopes to accomwould be rendered uncertain, her settlement and plish through Texas, if she can defeat the Annexprosperity in consequence retarded, and her com. ation, but that her interests, and those of all the merce crippled; while the general peace would Continental powers of Europe are directly and be rendered much more insecure. It could not deeply opposed to it. but greatly affect us. If the Annexation of Texas "It is too late in the day to contend that hushould be permitted to take place peaceably manity or philanthropy is the great object of the now, (as it would, without the interference of policy of England in attempting to abolish Afri. other powers,) the energies of our people would, can Slavery on this Continent. "I do not question for a long time to come, be directed to the peace but humanity may have had a considerable able pursuits of redeeming and bringing within influence in abolishing Slavery in her West India the pale of cultivation, improvement, and civil. possessions, aided, indeed, by the fallacious calization, that large portion of the continent lying culation that the labor of the Negroes would be between Mexico on one side and the British at least as profitable, if not more so, in consepossessions on the other, which is now, with lit- quence of the measure. She acted on the princi. tle exception, a wilderness, with a sparse popula- ple that tropical products can be produced tion, consisting, for the most part, of wandering cheaper by free African labor and East India Indian tribes.
labor, than by slave labor. She knew full well " It is our destiny to occupy that vast region; the value of such products to her commerce, navi. to intersect it with roads and canals; to fill it with gation, navy, manufacturers, revenue, and pow. cities, towns, villages, and farms; to extend over er. She was not ignorant that the support and it our religion, customs, constitution, and laws, maintenance of her political preponderance de and to present it as a peaceful and splendid addi. pended on ber tropical possessions, and had tion to the domains of commerce and civilization. no intention of diminishing their productiveness, It is our policy to increase by growing and nor any anticipation that such would be the efspreading out into unoccupied regions, assiinilat- fect, when the scheme of abolishing Slavery in ing all we incorporate : in a word, to increase by her colonial possessions was adopted. On the accretion, and not through conquest, by the addi contrary, she calculated to combine philanthrotion of masses held together by the adhesion of py with profit and power, as is not unusual with force.
fanaticism. Experience has convinced her of “ No system can be more unsuited to the lat- the fallacy of her calculations. She has failed in ter process, or better adapted to the former, than all her objects. The labor of her Negroes has our admirable federal system. If it should not proved far less productive, without affording the be resisted in its course, it will probably fulfill its consolation of having improved their condition. destiny without disturbing our neighbors, or “The experiment has turned out to be a costly putting in jeopardy the general peace; but if it one. She expended nearly one hundred millions be opposed by foreign interference, a new direc of dollars in indemnifying the owners of the emantion would be given to our energy, much less cipated Slaves. It is estimated that the increased favorable to harmony with our neighbors, and to price paid since, by the people of Great Britain, the general peace of the world.
for sugar and other tropical productions, in cun“ The change would be undesirable to us, and sequence of the measure, is equal to half that much less in accordance with what I have as. sum; and that twice that amount has been exsumed to be primary objects of policy on the pended in the suppression of the Slave-trade; part of France, England, and Mexico.
making together two hundred and fifty millions “ But, to descend to particulars : it is certain of dollars as the cost of the experiment. Instead that while England, like France, desires the in- of realizing her hope, the result has been a sad dependence of Texas, with the view to commer- disappointment. Her tropical products have cial connections, it is not less so that, one of the fallen off to a vast amount. Instead of supplying leading motives of England for desiring it, is the her own wants, and those of nearly all Europe hope that, through her diplomacy and influence, with them, as formerly, she has now, in some of Negro Slavery muy be abolished there, and ulti- the most important articles, scarcely enough to mately, by consequence, in the United States and supply her uwn. What is worse, her own colothroughout the whole of this continent, That nies are actually consuming sugar produced by its ultimate abolition throughout the entire conti- Slave-labor, brought direct to England, or refined nent is an object ardently desired by her, we in bond, and exported and sold in her colunies as have decisive proofs in the declaration of the cheap, or cheaper, than can be produced there; Earl of Aberdeen, delivered to this Department, while the Slave-trade, instead of diminishing, has and of which you will find a copy among the been in fact carried on to a greater extent than documents transmitted to Congress with the ever. So disastrous has been the result, that her Texan treaty. That she desires its abolition in fixed capital invested in tropical possessions, estiTexas, and has used her influence and diplomacy mated at the value of nearly five hundred milto effect it there, the same document, with the lions of dollars, is said to stand on the brink of correspondence of this Department with Mr. ruin. Packenham, also to be found among the docu- “ But this is not the worst; while this costly scheme has had such ruinous effects on the tropi- stripped her in consequence of her error. In purcal productions of Great Britain, it has given a suit of the former, she has cast her eyes to her powerful stimulus, followed by a corresponding East India possessions—to Central and Eastern increase of products, to those countries which had Africa—with the view of establishing colonies had the good sense to shun her example. There there, and even to restore, substantially, the Slavehas been vested, it has been estimated by them, trade itself, under the specious name of transport in the production of tropical products, since 1808, ing her free laborers from Africa to her West in fixed capital, nearly $4,000,000,000, wholly de- India possessions, in order, if possible, to compete pendent on Slave-labor. In the same period, the successfully with those who have refused to follow value of their products has been estimated to her suicidal policy. But these all afford but unhave risen from about $72,000,000, annually, to certain and distant hopes of recovering her lost nearly $220,000,000; while the whole of the fixed superiority. Her main reliance is on the other capital of Great Britain, vested in cultivating alternative-to cripple or destroy the productions tropical products, both in the East and West of her successful rivals. There is but one way by Indies, is estimated at only about $830,000,000, which it can be done, and that is by abolishing and the value of the products annually at about African Slavery throughout this continent; and $50,000,000. To present a still more striking view that she openly avows to be the constant object of three articles of tropical products (sugar, coffee, of her policy and exertions. It matters not how, and cotton), the British possessions, including the or from what motive, it may be done--whether it East and West Indies, and Mauritius, produced be by diplomacy, influence, or force ; by secret or in 1842, of sugar, only 3,993,771 pounds; while open means; and whether the motive be humane Cuba, Brazil, and the United States, excluding or selfish, without regard to manner, means, or other countries having tropical possessions, pro- motive. The thing itself, should it be accomduced 9,600,000 pounds; of coffee, the British plished, would put down all rivalry, and give her possessions produced only 27,393,003 pounds, the undisputed supremacy in supplying her own while Cuba and Brazil produced 201,590,125 wants, and those of the rest of the world; and pounds; and of cotton, the British possessions, thereby more than fully retrieve what she lost by including shipments to China, only 137,443,446 her errors. It would give her the monopoly of pounds, while the United States alone produced tropical productions, which I shall next proceed 790,479,275 pounds.
to show “The above facts and estimate have all been “What would be the consequence if this object drawn from a British periodical of high standing of her unceasing solicitude and exertions should and authority,* and are believed to be entitled to be effected by the abolition of Negro Slavery credit.
throughout this continent, some idea may be “The vast increase of the capital and produc- formed from the immense diminution of production on the part of those nations, who have con- tions, as has been shown, which has followed tinued their former policy toward the negro race, abolition in her West India possessions. But, as compared with that of Great Britain, indicates a great as that has been, it is nothing compared corresponding relative increase of the means of with what would be the effect, if she should succommerce, navigation, manufactures, wealth, ceed in abolishing Slavery in the United States, and power. It is no longer a question of doubt, Cuba, Brazil, and throughout this continent. The that the great source of wealth, prosperity, and experiment in her own colonies was made under power of more civilized nations of the tem- the most favorable circumstances. It was brought perate zone (especially Europe, where the arts about gradually and peaceably by the steady and have made the greatest advance), depends, in a firm operation of the
parent country, armed with great degree, on the exchange of their products complete power to prevent or crush at once all with those of the tropical regions. So great has insurrectionary movements on the part of the been the advance made in the arts, both chemical negroes, and able and disposed to maintain to the and mechanical, within the few last generations, full
, the political and social ascendancy of the that all the old civilized nations can, with but a former Masters over their former Slaves. It is not small part of their labor and capital, supply their at all wonderful that the change of the relations respective wants; which tends to 'limit, within of Master and Slave took place, under such cir. narrow bounds, the amount of the commerce be- cumstances, without violence and bloodshed, and tween them, and forces them all to seek for mar- that order and peace should have been since prekets in the tropical regions, and the more newly served. Very different would be the result of settled portions of the globe. Those who can abolition, should it be effected by her influence best succeed in commanding those markets, have and exertions in the possessions of other countries the least prospect of outstripping the others in the on this continent—and especially in the United career of commerce, navigation, manufactures, States, Cuba, and Brazil, the great cultivators of wealth, and power.
the principal tropical products of America. To This is seen and felt by British statesmen, and form a correct conception of what would be the has opened their eyes to the errors which they result with them, we must look, not to Jamaica, have committed. The question now with them but to St. Domingo, for example. The change is, how shall it be counteracted? What has been would be followed by unforgiving hate between done cannot be undone. The question is, by the two races, and end in a bloody and deadly what means can Great Britain regain and keep a struggle between them for the superiority. One superiority in tropical cultivation, commerce, and or the other would have to be subjugated, extirinfluence? Or, shall that be abandoned, and pated, or expelled; and desolation would overother nations be suffered to acquire the supremacy, spread their territories, as in St. Domingo, from even to the extent of supplying British markets, which it would take centuries to recover. The to the destruction of the capital already vested in end would be, that the superiority in cultivating their production? These are the questions which the great tropical staples would be transferred now profoundly occupy the attention of her states from them to the British tropical possessions. men, and have the greatest influence over her • They are of vast extent, and those beyond the councils.
Cape of Good Hope, possessed of an unlimited " In order to regain her superiority, she not only amount of labor, standing ready, by the aid of Beeks to revive and increase her own capacity to British capital, to supply the déficit which produce tropical productions, but to diminish and would be occasioned by destroying the tropical destroy the capacity of those who have so far out- productions of the United States, Cuba, Brazil, successful competition of that labor which keeps "Dismissing, then, the stale and unfounded plea the prices of the great tropical staples so low as of philanthropy, can it be that France and the to prevent their cultivation with profit in the other great continental powers-seeing what must possessions of Great Britain, by what she is be the result of the policy, for the accomplishpleased to call free-labor.
and other countries cultivated by Slave-labor
on this continent, as soon as the ncreased prices, * Blackwood's Magazine for June, 1841. in consequence, would yield a profit. It is the
ment of which England is constantly exerting “If she can destroy its competition, she would herself, and that the defeat of the Annexation of have a monopoly of these productions. She has Texas is so important towards its consummation all the means of furnishing an unlimited supply -are prepared to back or countenance her in her -vast and fertile possessions in both Indies, efforts to produce either ? What possible motives boundless command of capital and labor, and can they have to favor her cherished policy? Is ample power to suppress disturbances and pre. it not better for them that they should be supBerve order throughout her wide domain.
plied with tropical products in exchange for “ It is unquestionable that she regards the their labor from the United States, Brazil, Cuba, abolition of Slavery in Texas as a most import and this continent generally, than to be depend ant step toward this great object of policy, so ent on one great monopolizing power for their much the aim of her solicitude and exertions : supply? Is it not better that they should receive and the defeat of the Annexation of Texas to our them at the low prices which competition, cheapUnion as indispensable to the abolition of Sla- er means of production, and nearness of market, very there. She is too sagacious not to see what would furnish them by the former, than to give a fatal blow it would give to Slavery in the the high prices which monopoly, dear labor, and United States, and how certainly its abolition great distance from market, would impose? Is with us will abolish it over the whole continent, it not better that their labor should be exchanged and thereby give her a monopoly in the produc- with a new continent, rapidly increasing in popu. tions of the great tropical staples, and the com- lation and capacity for consuming, and which mand of the commerce, navigation, and manu would furnish, in the course of a few generafactures of the world, with an established naval tions, a market nearer to them, and almost of ascendancy and political preponderance. To unlimited extent, for the products of their industhis continent, the blow would be calamitous be- try and arts, than with old and distant regions, yond description.. It would destroy. in a great whose population has long since reached its measure, the cultivation and productions of the growth ? great tropical staples, amounting annually in " The above contains those enlarged views of value to nearly $300,000,000, the fund which policy which, it seems to me, an enlightened Eustimulates and upholds almost every other branch ropean statesman ought to take, in making up of its industry, cominerce, navigation, and manu- his opinion on the subject of the Annexation of factures. The whole, by their joint influence, are Texas, and the grounds, as it may be inferred, rapidly spreading population, wealth, improve on which England vainly opposes it. They cerment and civilization over the whole continent. tainly involve considerations of the deepest imand vivifying, by their overflow, the industry of portance, and demanding the greatest attention. Europe, thereby increasing its population, wealth, Viewed in connection with them, the question of and advancement in the arts, in power, and in Annexation becomes one of the first magnitude, civilization.
not only to Texas and the United States, but to “Such must be the result, should Great Britain this continent and Europe. They are presented, bucceed in accomplishing the constant object of that you inay use them on all suitable occasions her desire and exertions—the abolition of Negro where you think they may be with effect, in your Slavery over this continent—and towards the ef- correspondence, where it can be done with profecting of which she regards the defeat of the priety or otherwise. The President relies with Annexation of Texas to our Union so important. confidence on your sagacity, prudence, and zeal.
“Can it be possible that governments so en. Your mission is one of the first magnitude at all lightened and sagacious as those of France and times, but especially now; and he feels assured the other great continental powers, can be so that nothing will be left undone on your part to blinded by the plea of philanthropy as not to see do justice to the country and the Government in what must inevitably follow, be her motive what reference to this measure. it may, should she succeed in her object? It is “I have said nothing as to our right of treaty little short of mockery to talk of philanthropy, with Texas, without consulting Mexico. You so with the example before us of the effects of abol- fully understand the grounds on which we rest ishing Negro Slavery in her own colonies, in St. our right, and are so familiar with all the facts Domingo, and in the Northern States of our necessary to maintain them, that it was thought Union, where statistical facts, not to be shaken, unnecessary to add anything in reference to it. prove that the free Negro, after the experience of
"I am, Sir, very respectfully, sixty years, is in a far worse condition than in the
Your obedient Servant, other States, where he has been left in his former
"J. C. CALHOUN." condition. No: the effect of what is called abo. “WILLIAM R. KING, Esq., &c., &c." lition, where the number is few, is not to raise the inferior race to the condition of freemen, but
The election of James K. Polk as Presito deprive the Negro of the guardian care of his dent, and George M. Dallas as Vice-Presiowner, subject to all the depression and oppres- dent, (Nov. 1844) having virtually settled, sion belonging to his interior condition. But, on affirmatively, the question of annexing Texbears a large proportion to the whole population, as, the XXVIIIth_Congress commenced it would be still worse. It would be to substitute its second session at Washington on the 2nd for the existing relation a deadly strife between of December, 1844-Mr. John Tyler being the two races, to end in the subjection, expulsion, still acting President up to the end of the Conor extirpation of one or the other, and such would be the case over the greater part of this gress, March 4th following: continent where Negro Slavery exists. It would
Dec. 19. Mr. John B. Weller, (then memnot end there ; but would, in all probability, ex. ber from Ohio, now Senator from California) tend, by its example, the war of races over all by leave, introduced a joint resolution, No. South America, including Mexico, and extending 51, providing for the annexation of Texas to make the whole one scene of blood and devasta- the United States, which he moved to the tion.
Committee of the Whole.
pay them all.
Mr. E. S. Hamlin of Ohio moved a re- Yeas~ All the Whigs and most of the ference of said resolve to a committee of Democrats from the Free States, with Messrs. one from each State, with instructions to re- Duncan L. Clinch and Alex. H. Stephens port to the House,
of Georgia, and Geo. W. Summers of Va. “1st. Whether Congress has any constitutional
Nays -- All the members from Slave power to annex a foreign, independent nation to States, except the above, with the following this Government, and if so, by what article and from Free States : section of the Constitution it is conferred; whether it is among the powers expressly granted, or
MAINE.-Sheppard Cary-1. among those which are implied; whether it is ne
New-HAMPSHIRE.-Edmund Burke, Moses cessary to carry into effect any expressly-granted Norris, jr_2. power; and if so, which one.
NEW-YORK.-James G. Clinton, Selah B. “2d. Whether annexation of Texas would not Strong—2. extend and perpetuate Slavery in the Slave States,
PENNSYLVANIA, -James Black, Richard Brodand also, the internal slave-trade; and whether head, Henry D. Foster, Joseph R. Ingersoll, the United States Government has any constitu- Michael H, Jenks-5. tional power over Slavery in the States, either to
Oh10.-Joseph J. McDowell-1. perpetuate it there, or to do it away.
INDIANA.— William J. Brown, John W. Davis, "3d. Whether the United States, having ac- John Pettit—3. knowledged the independence of Texas, Mexico
ILLINOIS.—Orlando B. Ficklin, Joseph P. is thereby deprived of her right to reconquer that Hoge, Robert Smith-3. province. “4th. That they report whether Texas is owing
Total Democrats from Free States, 17. any debts or not; and, if she is, what is the amount, and to whom payable; and whether, if from the Committee on Foreign Affairs, re
Dec. 12th.—Mr. C. J. Ingersoll of Pa., she should be annexed to the United States, the United States Government would be bound to ported a Joint Resolution for annexing
Texas to the Union, which was committed 5th. That they report what treaties are in ex- and discussed in Committee of the Whole istence between Texas and foreign governments ; from time and, if she should be annexed to the United States,
to time, through the next whether the United States Government would be
month. bound, by the law of nations, to fulfill those
Jan. 7th.—Mr. J. P. Hale presented retreaties."
solves of the Legislature of New Hampshire,
thoroughly in favor of Annexation, and The question on commitment was insisted upon, and first taken–Yeas, 109 (Demo- follows :
silent on the subject of Slavery, except as crats) ; Nays, 61 (Whigs) ; whereupon it was held that Mr. Hamlin's amendment was de- “Resolved, That we agree with Mr. Clay, that feated, and the original proposition alone the re-annexation of Texas will add more Free
than Slave States to the Union; and that it would committed.
be unwise to refuse a permanent acquisition, Jan. 10th, 1845. Mr. John P. Hale, N. which will exist as long as the globe remains, H., (then a Democratic Representative, now on account of a temporary institution.” a Republican Senator) proposed the follow
Jan. 13th.-Mr. Cave Johnson of Tenn. ing as an amendment' to any act or resolve contemplating the annexation of Texas to moved that all further debate on this subthis Union :
ject be closed at 2 P. M. on Thursday next.
Carried-Yeas, 126 ; Nays, 57; (nearly all “ Provided, That immediately after the ques: the Nays from Slave States). tion of boundary between the United States of America and Mexico shall have been definitively
Jan. 25th.-The debate, after an extensettled by the two governments, and before any sion of time, was at length brought to a State formed out of the territory of Texas shall be close, and the Joint Resolution taken out of admitted into the Union, the said territory of Texas Committee, and reported to the House in the a point on the Gulf of Mexico, midway between following form; (that portion relating to the Northern and Southern boundaries thereof on Slavery, having been added in Committee, the coast ; and thence by a line running in a on motion of Mr. Milton Brown (Whig) of northwesterly direction to the extreme boundary Tennessee : thereof, so as to divide the same as nearly as possible into two equal parts, and in that portion of
“ Resolved, by the Senate and House of Repsaid territory lying south and west of the line to be resentatives in Congress assembled, That Conrun as aforesaid, there shall be neither Slavery gress doth consent that the Territory properly nor involuntary servitude, otherwise than in the included within, and rightfully belonging to the punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall Republic of Texas, may be erected into a new have been duly convicted.
State, to be called the State of Texas, with a " And provided further, That this provision republican form of government, to be adopted shall be considered as a compact between the peo- by the people of saià republic, by deputies in ple of the United States and the people of the convention assembled, with the consent of the said territory, and forever remain unalterable, existing government, in order that the same may unless by the consent of three-fourths of the States be admitted as one of the States of this Union. of the Union.”
“ 2. And be it further resolved, That the fore.
going oonsent of Congress is given upon the folMr. Hale asked a suspension of the rules, lowing conditions, and with the following guaranto enable him to offer it now, and have it tees, to wit :
“First. Said State to be formed, subject to the printed and committed. Refused-Yeas, 92,
djustment by this Government of all questions (not two-thirds ;) Nays, 81.
of boundary that may arise with other govern.