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This rule shall not give to any vessel or boat engaged in fishing the right of obstructing a fairway used by vessels other than fishing vessels or boats.

GENERAL PRUDENTIAL RULE.

ART. 27. In obeying and construing these rules due regard shall be had to all dangers of navigation and collision, and to any special circumstances which may render a departure from the above rules necessary in order to avoid immediate danger.

SOUND SIGNALS FOR PASSING STEAMERS. ART. 28. The words “short blast' used in this article shall mean a blast of about one second's duration.

When vessels are in sight of one another, a steam vessel under way, in taking any course authorized or required by these rules, shall indicate that course by the following signals on her whistle or siren, namely:

One short blast to mean, “I am directing my course to starboard.”

Two short blasts to mean, “I am directing my course to port.”

Three short blasts to mean, “My engines are going at full speed astern.”

PRECAUTION.

ART. 29. Nothing in these rules shall exonerate any vessel, or the owner or master or crew thereof, from the consequences of any neglect to carry lights or signals, or of any neglect to keep a proper lookout, or of the neglect of any precaution which may be required by the ordinary practice of seamen, or by the special circumstances of the case.

ART. 30. [See page 166.]

DISTRESS SIGNALS.

ART. 31. When a vessel is in distress and requires assistance from other vessels or from the shore, the following shall be the signals to be used or displayed by her, either together or separately, namely:

In the daytime

First. A gun or other explosive signal fired at intervals of about a minute.

Second. The international code signal of distress indicated by N C.

Third. The distance signal, consisting of a square flag, having either above or below it a ball or anything resembling a ball.

Fourth. A continuous sounding with any fog-signal apparatus. At night

First. A gun or other explosive signal fired at intervals of about a minute.

Second. Flames on the vessel (as from a burning tar barrel, oil barrel, and so forth).

Third. Rockets or shells throwing stars of any color or description, fired one at a time, at short intervals.

Fourth. A continuous sounding with any fog-signal apparatus.

PUGSLEY'S EXAMINATION SPECIALTIES

A practical book for every examination by a

practical experienced navigator

NO OTHER BOOKS LIKE THEM

PLAIN,
EXPLANATORY,

TRUTHFUL,

Contains No Misleading Statements to Induce an

Applicant for a License to Attend School.

Send an Account of Your Service, and a
List of Pugsley's Examination Specialties

Will be Mailed to You by

R. M. PUGSLEY 17 SOUTH STREET

NEW YORK

Capt. R. M. Pugsley's

Transparent Storm Cards

Price, $1.00

BOTH HEMISPHERES

FOR SALE BY ALL DEALERS

This instrument is transparent and represents the

rotary storm

Instructions for the Use of CAPT. R. M. PUGSLEY'S STORM CARDS Having acquired a general knowledge of the subject from the accompanying matter, from Bowditch, place the center of the Storm Card for the proper hemisphere on the storm track, so that it will correspond with the magnetic compass. Then locate the ship on the card, and follow the directions given.

Sent to any address on receipt of price, by

CAPT. R. M. PUGSLEY 17 South Street

New York City

Examples: NORTHERN HEMISPHZRE.—Storm track N. E, and the wind S. E. Then the ship is on the storm track and the STORM CARD gives the following directions:

If the wind changes to the southward, heave to on the starboard tack. If the wind changes to the eastward, run N. N. W. or heave to on the port tack.

SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE.—Storm track S. E. and the wind N. E. Then the ship is on the storm track and the STORM CARD gives the following directions:

If the wind changes to the northward, heave to on the port tack. If the wind changes to the eastward, run S. S. W. or heave to on the starboard tack.

If in either case the wind does not change, run on the course indicated on the proper card.

WINDS. The term Variabie has been defined in its general sense, or as compared to the terms Constant and Periodical. But, in Navigation, it is used in a special sense, that is, in designating and recording certain winds in the columns of the Log-Book. It is often misapplied, by seamen, to denote an unsteady wind, which, during the period of observation, may have veered and hauled through several points. In such cases the direction of the wind should be averaged to the nearest whole point. The term Variable should not only be used to designate very light airs flying all round the compass.

It was remarked by Lord Bacon and other writers, both in Europe and America, that the wind more frequently veers with the sun's motion, or passes round the compass in the direction of N., N. E., E., S. E., S., S. W., W., and N. W., to N. This follows in consequence of the influence of the earth's rotation in changing the direction of the wind. Dové has the merit of having, from Hadley's principle, propounded the law of rotation of the wind, and proved that the whole system of atmospheric currents, the permanent, periodical, and variable winds, obey the influence of the earth's rotation.

An important characteristic of winds is their quality, being dry or humid, warm or cold, according to their direction, and the nature of the earth's surface over which they have passed. Thus, in the northern hemisphere southerly winds are and moist, while northerly winds are_cold and dry; and in the southern hemisphere vice versa. In Europe westerly winds are

warm

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