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Those thrones, high built upon the beaps
They thought 't was theirs. --but mine the deed!
FALSEHOOD. Brotber! arise from the dainty fare Which thousands have toil'd and bled to bestow, A finer feast for uby hungry car Is the news that I bring of human woe.
VICE. And, secret one! what hast thon done, To compare, in thy tumid pride, with me? I, whose career, through the blasted year, Has been track'd by despair and agony.
Must shine upon our grave.
VICE. And know, that had I disdain'd to toil, Bat sate in my loathsome cave tbe wbile, And ne'er to these hateful sons of heaven, Gold, MOXARCUT, and MURDER, given ; Hadst tbou with all thine art essay'd One of the games then to bave play'a, With all thine overweening boast, Falsehood! I tell thee thou hadst lost! Yet wherefore this dispute --we tend, Fraternal, to one cominon end ; In this cold grave benea h my feet, Will our hopes, our fears, and our labours, weet.
Note 4, page 113, col. 1.
Go to the grave, and issue from the womb. One generation passeth away and another generation cometh, but the earth abideth for ever. The sun also ariseth and the sun goeth down, and basteth to his place where he arose. The wind goeth toward the south and turneth about unto the north, it whirleth about continually, and the wind returneth again according to his circuits. All the rivers run into the sca, yet the sea is not full; upto the place whence the rivers come, thither shall they return again.-- Ecclesiastes, chap. i.
Note 5, page 113, col. 1.
Even as the leaves
Has scatter'd on the forest soil.
JAIAA, Z, 1. 146.
Luc. lib. ii.
FALSEHOOD. I brought my daughter, Religion, on earth: She smother'd Reason's babes in their birth; But dreaded their motber's eye severe, So ibe crocodile slunk off slily in fear, And loosed her bloodhounds from the den .... They started from dreams of slaughter'd men, And, by the light of her poison eye, Did her work o'er the wide varıb frightfully: The dreadful stench of her torches' fare, Fed with baman fat, polluted the air: The curses, i be strieks, tbe ceaseless cries of the many-mingling miseries, As on she trod, ascended bigh And trumpeted my victory: Brother, tell what thou hast done.
YICE. I have extinguish'd the noon-day sun, lo the carpago smoke of battles won : Famine, Murder, Hell, and Power Were cluttel in that glorious hour Which searcbless Fate bad stamp'd for me With the seal of her security.... For the bloated wreich on yonder throne Comranded the bloody fray to riso. Like me he joy'd at ibe stifled moan Wrung from a nation's miseries ; While the spakes, whose slime even him defileil, In ecstasies of malice smiled:
Note 7, page 113, col. 2.
the rich, and from the latter the poor, by the inevitable And statesmen boast
conditions of their respective situations, are precluded. of wealth !
A state which should combine the advantages of both, There is no real wealth but the labour of man. Were would be subjected to the evils of neither. He that is the mountains of gold and the vallies of silver, the deficient in firm bealth, or vigorous intellect, is but half world would not be one grain of corn the richer; no a man: hence it follows, that, to subject the labouring one comfort would be added to the human race. In classes to unnecessary labour, is wantonly depriving consequence of our consideration for the precious me them of any opportunities of intellectual improvement; tals, one man is enabled to heap to himself luxuries at and that the rich are heaping up for their own mischief the expence of the necessaries of his neighbour; a sys- the disease, lassitude and ennui by which their existence tem admirably fitted to produce all the varieties of dis- is rendered an intolerable burthen. ease and crime, which never fail to characterise the two English reformers exclaim against sinecures - but the extremes of opulence and penury. A speculator takes true pension-list is the rent-roll of the landed propriepride to himself as the promoter of his country's pros-tors: wealth is a power usurped by the few, to compel perity, who employs a number of hands in the manu the many to labour for their benefit. The laws which facture of articles avowedly destitute of use, or subser- support this system derive their force from the ignorance vient only to the unballowed cravings of luxury and and credulity of its victims : they are the result of a ostentation. The nobleman, who employs the peasants conspiracy of the few against the many, who are themof bis neighbourhood in building his palaces, until wjam selves obliged to purchase this pre-eminence by the loss pauca aratro jugera regiæ moles relinquunt,, Patters of all real comfort. himself that he has gained the title of a patriot by
The commodities that substantially contribute to the yielding to the impulses of vanity. The show and subsistence of the human species form a very short catapomp of courts adduces the same apology for its conti- logue : they demand from us but a slender portion of nuance; and many a fête has been given, many a wo-industry. If these only were produced, and sufficiently man hias eclipsed her beauty by her dress, to benefit produced, the species of man would be continued. If the labouring poor and to encourage trade. Who does the labour necessarily required to produce them were not see that this is a remedy which aggravates, whilst it equitably divided among the poor, and, still more, if it palliates the countless diseases of society? The poor were equitably divided among all, each man's share of are set to labour,-for what? Not the food for which labour would be light, and his portion of leisure would they famish: not the blankets for want of which their be ample. There was a time when this leisure would babes are frozen by the cold of their miserable hovels : have been of small comparative value : it is to be hoped not those comforts of civilization without which civil- that the time will come, when it will be applied to the ized man is far more miserable than the meanest savage; most important purposes. Those hours which are not oppressed as he is by all its insidious evils, within the required for the production of the necessaries of life, daily and taunting prospect of its innumerable benefits may be devoted to the cultivation of the understanding, assiduously exhibited before him :-no; for the pride of the enlarging our stock of knowledge, the refining our power, for the miserable isolation of pride, for the false taste, and thus opening to us now and more exquisite pleasures of the hundredth part of society. No greater sources of enjoyment. evidence is afforded of the wide extended and radical mistakes of civilized man than this fact: those arts It was perhaps necessary that a period of monopoly which are essential to his very being are held in the and oppression should subsist, before a period of cultigreatest contempt; employments are lucrative in an vated equality could subsist. Savages perhaps would inverse ratio to their usefulness : ' the jeweller, the never have been excited to the discovery of truth and toyman, the actor gains fame and wealth by the exercise the invention of art, but by the narrow motives which of his useless and ridiculous art; whilst the cultivator such a period affords. But surely, after the savage state of the earth, he without whom society must cease to has ceased, and men bave set out in the glorious career subsist, struggles through contempt and penury, and of discovery and invention, monopoly and oppression perishes by that famine which, but for his unceasing cannot be necessary to prevent them from returning to exertions, would annihilate the rest of mankind. a state of barbarism. — Godwin's Enquirer, Essay II.
I will not insult common sense by insisting on the See also Pol. Jus., book VIII. chap. 11. doctrine of the natural equality of man. The question It is a calculation of this admirable author, that all is not concerning its desirableness, but its practicabi- the conveniences of civilized life might be produced, if lity: so far as it is practicable, it is desirable. That society would divide the labour equally among its memstate of buman society which approaches nearer to an bers, by each individual being employed in labour two equal partition of its benefits and evils should, cæteris hours during the day. paribus, be preferred: but so long as we conceive that
Note 8, page 113, col. 2. a wanton expenditure of human labour, not for the ne
Or religion cessities, not even for the luxuries of the mass of soci
Drives his wife raving mad, ety, but for the egotism and ostentation of a few of its
I am acquainted with a lady of considerable accommembers, is defensible on the ground of public justice, plishments, and the mother of a numerous family, so long we neglect to approximate to the redemption of whom the Christian religion has goaded to incurable the human race.
insanity. · A parallel case is, I believe, within the expeLabour is required for physical, and leisure for mo rience of every physician. ral improvement: from the former of these advantages
Nam jam sæpe homines patriam, carosque parentes
Prodiderunt, vitaro Acherusia templa petentes. See Rousseau, - De l'Inégalité parmi les Hommes," note 7.
Note 9, page 114, col. 2.
others; the creed I now profess may be a mass of Even love is sold.
errors and absurdities; but I exclude myself from all Not even the intercourse of the sexes is exempt from future information as to the amiability of the one and the despotism of positive institution. Law pretenils the truth of the other, resolving blindly, and in spite of cven to govern the indisciplinable wanderings of pas- conviction, to adhere to them. Is this the language of sion, to put fetters on the clearest deductions of reason, delicacy and reason? Is the love of such a frigid heart and, by appeals to the will, to subdue the involuntary of more worth than its belief? affections of our nature. Love is inevitably conse The present system of constraint does no more, in quent upon the perception of loveliness. Love withers the majority of instances, than make hypocrites or under constraint: its very essence is liberty: it is com- open enemies. Persons of delicacy and virtue, unhappily patible neither with obedience, jealousy, nor fear: it is united to one whom they find it impossible to love, there most pure, perfect, and unlimited, where its vo- spend the loveliest season of their life in unproductive taries live in considence, equality, and unreserve. efforts to appear otherwise than they are, for the sake
How long then ought the sexual connection to last? of the feelings of their partner, or the welfare of their what law ought to specify the extent of the grievances mutual offspring: those of less generosity and refinewhich should limit its duration ? A husband and wife ment openly avow their disappointment, and linger out ought to continue so long united as they love each the remnant of that union, which only death can disother : any law which should bind them to cohabitation solve, in a state of incurable bickering and hostility. for one moment after the decay of their affection, would The carly education of their children takes its colour be a most intolerable tyranny, and the most unworthy from the squabbles of the parents; they are nursed in of toleration. How odions a usurpation of the right a systematic school of ill humour, violence, and falseof private judgment should that law be considered, hood, Had they been suffered to part at the moment which should make the ties of friendship indissoluble, when indifference rendered their union irksome, they in spite of the caprices, the inconstancy, the fallibility, would have been spared many years of misery; they and capacity for improvement of the human mind. I would have connected themselves more suitably, and And by so much would the fetters of love be heavier would have found that happiness in the society of more and more unendurable than those of friendship, as love congenial partners which is for ever denied them by the is more vellement and capricious, more dependent on despotism of marriage. They would have been sepathose delicate peculiarities of imagination, and less rately useful and happy members of society, who, capable of reduction to the ostensible merits of the whilst united, were miserable, and rendered misanthroobject.
pical by misery. The conviction that wedlock is indisThe state of society in which we exist is a mixture solublc holds ont the strongest of all templations to the cf feudal savageness and imperfect civilization. The
perverse : they indulge without restraint in acrimony, narrow and unenlightened morality of the Christian and all the little tyrannies of domestic life, when they religion is an aggravation of these evils. It is not even know that their victim is without appeal. If this conuntil lately that mankind have admitted that happinessnection were put on a rational basis, each would be is the sole end of the science of ethics, as of all other assured that babitual ill femper would terminate in sciences; and that the fanatical idea of mortifying the separation, and would check this vicious and dangerous flesh for the love of God has been discarded.
I bave propensity. heard, indeed, an ignorant collegian adduce, in favour Prostitution is the legitimate offspring of marriage of Christianity, its hostility to every worldly feeling ! and its accompanying errors. Women, for no other
But if happiness be the object of morality, of all hu- crime than having followed the dictates of a natural man unions and disunjons; if the worthiness of every appetite, are driven with fury from the comforts and action is to be estimated by the quantity of pleasurable sympathies of society. It is less venial than murder: sensation it is calculated to produce, then the connec and the punishment which is inflicted on her who detion of the sexes is so long sacred as it contributes to stroys her child to escape reproach, is lighter than the the comfort of the parties, and is naturally dissolved life of agony and disease to which the prostitute is irwhen its evils are greater than its benefits. There is recoverably doomed. Has a woman obeyed the impulse nothing immoral in this separation. Constancy has of unerring nature ;-society declares war against her, nothing virtuous in itself, independently of the pleasure pitiless and eternal war: she must be the tame slave, it confers, and partakes of the temporising spirit of she must make no reprisals; theirs is the right of pervice in proportion as it endures tamely moral defects of secution, hers the duty of endurance. She lives a life magnitude in the object of its indiscreet choice. Love of infamy: the loud and bitter laugh of scorn scares is free: to promise for ever to love the same woman,
her from all return. She dies of long and lingering is not less absurd than to promise to believe the same disease ; yet she is in fault, she is the criminal, she the creed: such a vow, in both cases, excludes us from all froward and untameable child, -and society, forsooth, inquiry. The language of the votarist is this: The the pure and virtuous matron, wlio casts her as an woman I now love may be infinitely inferior to many abortion from her undefiled bosom! Society avenges
herself on the criminals of her own creation; she is 'The first Christian emperor made a law by which sedaction was punished wilk death : if ihe femalo pleaded her own consent, she
employed in anathematizing the vice today, which also was punished with death; if the parents endeavoured to screen yesterday she was the most zealous to teach. Thus is ibe criminals, they were lanished and their estates were confiscat formed one tenth of the population of London: meaned; the slaves wbo might be accessary were burned alive, or forced while the evil is twofold. Young men, excluded by the to swallow melted lead, The very offspring of an illegal love were involved in the consequences of the sentence.-Giros's Dectine and
fanatical idea of chastity from the society of modest Pall, etc. vol. ii, page 210. See also, for the batred of the primitive and accomplished women, associate with these vicious Christians 10 love, and even marriage, page 269.
and miserable beings, destroying thereby all those ex
No atom of this turbulence fulfils
quisite and delicate sensibilities whose existence cold- of llindostan for their production.' The researches of hearted worldlings have denied; annilıilating all genuine M. Bailly 2 establish the existence of a people who inpassion, and debasing that to a selfish feeling which habited a tract in Tartary 49° north latitude, of greater is the excess of generosity and devotedness. Their antiquity than either the Indians, the Chinese, or the body and mind alike crumble into a hideous wreck of Chaldeans, from whom these nations derived their humanity; idiotcy and disease become perpetuated in sciences and theology. We find, from the testimony of their miserable offspring, and distant generations suffer ancient writers, that Britain, Germany and France were for the bigoted morality of their forefathers. Chastity much colder than at present, and that their great rivers is a monkish and evangelical superstition, a greater foe were annually frozen over. Astronomy teaches us also, to natural temperance even than unintellectual sensu that since this period the obliquity of the earth's position ality; it strikes at the root of all domestic happiness, has been considerably diminished. and consigns more than half of the human race to mi
Note 11, page 116, col. 1. scry, that some few may monopolize according to law. A system could not well have been devised more studi
A vague and unnecessitated task, ously hostile to human happiness than marriage.
Or acts but as it must and ought to act. I conceive that, from the abolition of marriage, the Deux exemples serviront à nous rendre plus sensible fit and natural arrangement of sexual connection would le principe qui vient d'être posé; nous emprunterons result. I by no means assert that the intercourse would l'un du physique et l'autre du moral. Dans un tourbe promiscuous : on the contrary; it appears, from billon de poussière qu'éleve un vent impétueux, quelque the relation of parent to child, that this union is ge- confus qu'il paroisse à nos yeux; dans la plus affreuse nerally of long duration, and marked above all others tempête excitée par des venis opposés qui soulèvent les with generosity and self-devotion. But this is a subject flots, il n'y a pas une seule molécule de poussière ou which it is perhaps premature to discuss. That which d'eau qui soit placée au hasard, qui n'ait sa cause suffiwill result from the abolition of marriage, will be na
sante pour occuper le lieu où elle se trouve, et qui n'atural and right, because choice and change will be ex- gisse rigoureusement de la manière dont elle doit agir. empted from restraint.
Un géométre qui connaitroit exactement les différentes In fact, religion and morality, as they now stand, forces qui agissent dans ces deux cas, et les propriétés compose a practical code of misery and servitude : the des molécules qui sont mues, démontreroit que d'après genius of human happiness must tear every leaf from des causes données, chaque molécule agit précisément the accursed book of God, cre man can read the in comme elle doit agir, et ne peut agir autrement qu'elle scription on his beart. How would morality, dressed up in stiff stays and finery, start from ber own disgust Dans les convulsions terribles qui agitent quelquefois ing image, should she look in the mirror of nature ! les sociétés politiques, et qui produisent souvent le renNote 1o, page 115, col. 1.
versement d'un empire, il n'y a pas une seule action,
une seule parole, une seule pensée, une seule volonté, To the red and baleful sun
une seule passion dans les agens qui concourent à la That faintly twinkles there. The north polar star, to which the axis of the earth, révolution comme destructeurs ou comme victimes, qui
ne soit nécessaire, qui n'agisse commc elle doit agir, qui in its present state of obliquity, points. It is exceedingly probable
, from many considerations, that this n'opère infailliblement les effets qu'elle doit opérer suiobliquity will gradually diminish, until the equator
vant la place qu'occupent ces agens dans ce tourbillon
moral. coincides with the ecliptic : the nights and days will qui sera en état de saisir et d'apprécier toutes les actions
Cela paroîtroit évident pour une intelligence then become equal on the earth throughout the year, et réactions des esprits et des corps de ceux qui conand probably the seasons also. There is no great extravagance in presuming that the progress of the per- vol. 1. page 44.
tribuent à cette révolution.-Système de la Nature, pendicularity of the poles may be as rapid as the progress of intellect; or that there should be a perfect
Note 12, page 116, col. 2. identity between the moral and physical improvement
Necessity, thou mother of the world! of the human species. It is certain that wisdom is not He who asserts the doctrine of Necessity, means that, compatible with disease, and that, in the present state contemplating the events which compose the moral and of the climates of the carth, health, in the true and material universe, he beholds only an immense and uncomprehensive sense of the word, is out of the reach of interrupted chain of causes and effects, no one of wbich civilized man. Astronomy teaches us that the earth is could occupy any other place than it does occupy, or now in its progress, and that the poles are every year acts in any other place than it does act. The idea of becoming more and more perpendicular to the ecliptic. necessity is obtained by our experience of the connecThe strong evidence afforded by the history of mytho- tion between objects, the uniformity of the operations logy, and geological researches, that some event of this of nature, the constant conjunction of similar events, nature has taken place already, affords a strong pre- and the consequent inference of one from the other. sumption, that this progress is not merely an oscillation, Mankind are therefore agreed in the admission of neas has been surmised by some late astronomers. · Bones cessity, if they admit that these two circumstances take of animals peculiar to the torrid zone have been found place in voluntary action. Motive is, to voluntary in the north of Siberia, and on the banks of the river action in the human mind, what cause is to effect in Ohio. Plants have been found in the fossil state in the the material universe. The word liberty, as applied to interior of Germany, which demand the present climate
'Cabanis, Rapports du Physique et du Moral de l'Homme, vol.ii,
page 406. "Laplace, Système du Monde.
· Lettres sur les Sciences, á Voltaire. --Bailly.
mind, is analogous to the word chance, as applied to racters; motive is, to voluntary action, what cause is matter : they spring from an ignorance of the certainly to effect. But the only idea we can form of causation of the conjunction of antecedents and consequents. is a constant conjunction of similar objects, and the
Every human being is irresistibly impelled to act pre-consequent inference of one from the other : wherever cisely as he does act: in the eternity which preceded this is the case necessity is clearly established. his birth a chain of causes was generated, which, ope The idea of liberty, applied metaphorically to the rating under the name of motives, make it impossible will, has sprung from a misconception of the meaning that any thought of his mind, or any action of his life, of the word power. What is power?-id quod potest, should be otherwise than it is. Were the doctrine of that which can produce any given effect. To deny Necessity false, the human mind would no longer be a power, is to say that nothing can or has the power to legitimate object of science; from like causes it would be or act. In the only true sense of the word power, be in vain that we should expect like effects; the it applies with equal force to the loadstone as to the strongest motive would no longer be paramount over human will. Do you think these motives, which I shall the conduct; all knowledge would be vague and unde- present, are powerful enough to rouse him? is a questerminale; we could not predict with any certainty tion just as common as, Do you think this lever has that we might not meet as an enemy to-morrow him with the power of raising this weight? The advocates of whom we have parted in friendship to-night; the most free-will assert that the will has the power of refusing probable inducements and the clearest reasonings would to be determined by the strongest motive : but the lose the invariable influence they possess. The con- strongest motive is that which, overcoming all others, trary of this is demonstrably the fact. Similar circum- ultimately prevails; this assertion therefore amounts to stances produce the same unvariable effects. The pre- a denial of the will being ultimately determined by that cise character and motives of any man on any occasion motive which does determine it, which is absurd. But being given, the moral philosopher could predict his it is equally certain that a man cannot resist the strongactions with as much certainty as the natural philoso-est motive, as that he cannot overcome a physical impher could predict the effects of the mixture of any possibility. particular chemical substances. Why is the aged laus The doctrine of Necessity tends to introduce a great bandman more experienced than the young beginner? change into the established notions of morality, and Because there is a uniform, undeniable necessity in the utterly to destroy religion. Reward and punishment operations of the material universe. Why is the old must be considered, by the Necessarian, merely as mostatesman more skilful than the raw politician? Be- tives which he would employ in order to procure the cause, relying on the necessary conjunction of motive adoption or abandonment of any given line of conduct. and action, he proceeds to produce moral effects, by Desert, in the present sense of the word, would no the application of those moral causes which experience longer have any meaning; and he, who should inflict has shown to be effectual. Some actions may be found pain upon another for no better reason than that he to which we can attach no motives, but these are the deserved it, would only gratify his revenge under preeffects of causes with which we are unacquainted. tence of satisfying justice. It is not enough, says the Hence the relation which motive bears to voluntary ac- advocate of free-will, that a criminal should be pretion is that of cause to effect; nor, placed in this point vented from a repetition of his crines; he should feel of view, is it, or ever has it been the subject of popular pain, and bis torments, when justly inflicted, ought or philosophical dispute. None but the few fanatics precisely to be proportioned to his fault.
But utility who are engaged in the herculean task of reconciling the is morality; that which is incapable of producing hapjustice of their God with the misery of man, will longer piness is useless; and though the crime of Damiens outrage common sense by the supposition of an event must be condemned, yet the frightful torments which without a cause, a voluntary action without a motive. revenge, under the name of justice, inflicted on this unHistory, politics, morals, criticism, all grounds of rea- happy man, cannot be supposed to have augmente sonings, all principles of science, alike assume the truth cven at the long-run, the stock of pleasurable sensation of the doctrine of Necessity. No farmer carrying bis in the world. At the same time, the doctrine of Necescorn to market doubts the sale of it at the market price. sity does not in the least diminish our disapprobation The master of a manufactory no more doubts that he of vice. The conviction which all feel, that a viper is can purchase the human labour necessary for his pur- a poisonous animal, and that a tiger is constrained, by poses, than that his machinery will act as they have the inevitable condition of his existence, to devour men, been accustomed to act.
does not induce us to avoid them less sedulously, or, But, whilst none have scrupled to admit necessity as
even more, to hesitate in destroying them: but he would influencing matter, many have disputed its dominion surely be of a hard heart, who, meeting with a serpent over mind. Independently of its militating with the on a desert island, or in a situation where it was incareceived ideas of the justice of God, it is by no means pable of injury, should wantonly deprive it of existobvious to a superficial inquiry. When the mind ob- ence. A Necessarian is inconsequent to his own prinserves its own operations, it feels no connection of mo- ciples, if he indulges in hatred or contempt; the compastive and action : but as we know nothing more of sion which he feels for the criminal is unmixed with a causation than the constant conjunction of objects and desire of injuring him: he looks with an elevated and the consequent inference of one from the other, as we
dreadless composure upon the links of the universal find that these two circumstances are universally al-chain as they pass before his eyes; whilst cowardice, lowed to have place in voluntary action, we may be curiosity and inconsistency only assail him in proporcasily led to own that they are subjected to the neces- tion to the feebleness and indistinctness with which he sity common to all causes. » The actions of the will has perceived and rejected the delusions of free-will. have a regular conjunction with circumstances and cha Religion is the perception of the relation in which