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Haul the boom well in, hook the tackle on to the reef pennant. Lower

the throat and peak halliards sufficiently to take in the reef, haul on the reef tackle till the cringle on the after leach of the sail is down on the boom. Pass the tack earing. Tie the reef points. Hoist up throat and peak, and trim sail. Take in the slack of the vangs (if any) and

peak line. Q. You are running with the wind on the port quarter, moderate wind, smooth

water. The man at the helm lets her run off so as to bring the wind on

the starboard quarter; what would you do? A. Hard-a-starboard the helin, ease down the throat, aud peak halliards, and

trice the tack of the mainsail up. When she has come back, hoist up

the peak and down with the tack. Suppose this happened in a strong breeze, what danger would you appre

hend, supposing your guy pennant had broken? A. That the bight of the boom sheet, as the boom was going over might sweep

everything off the deck that it came in contact with. The sudden jerk also might spring the boom, carry away the main sheet, or split the

sail.

What is meant by the term goose wing? A. Running with the gaff foresail guyed out on one side, and the mainsail on

the other. Where do the guys lead ? Main one between the fore and main rigging to the windlass bitts, and the

Fore one through a block at the bowsprit end. Sometimes the fore guy

is led to the catheads. Suppose you were running in a gale, with the wind dead aft, what canvas

would you carry ? A. Close reefed square topsail. Having the storm trysail and fore staysail

reefed and ready for setting when required. Your topsail blows away, and the vessel will not keep ahead of the sea.

What would you do? A. Down helm, and heave to under the storm trysail, and storm fore staysail

with sheet a-weather. Q. On what occasion would you set your storm trysail in preference to a close

reefed mainsail ? A. When it was likely that I should be compelled to heave to, or when the

sea was getting heavy. Q. Why in the latter case ? A. To take the weight of the main boom off the vessel. I would secure

main boom in the crutch or on the rail before setting the storm trysail. Q. Describe a storm trysail. A. It is made of No. 1 canvas (roped in proportion) either with a jib head or

with three cloths in the head; if the latter, it is bent on to a short
gaff, and hoisted up as far as the throat halliards of the main gaff will
take it. The clew is hauled aft by a luff tackle on deck. The luff of the
sail is either laced round the mast or fitted with rope beckets, on which

travelling trucks are rove.
Q. Why is it made to hoist so high?
A. To catch the wind in a heavy sea.
Q. How would you gybe it if you were taken aback?

A. By the weather tackle, which is hooked on over the main boom, and gaff.

The peak halliards of the latter, and the topping lifts of the former being unhooked, and taken into the mast, to be out of the way of the

storm trysail. Q. You are in a gale, no storm trysail on board. What canvas would you

heave to under?
A. A balance reefed mainsail, or a jib abaft the mast.

Describe a balance reef.
It is used after the third or close reef has been taken in. The eyelet-holes

for the reef-points extend from the close reef cringle on the after leach
up to the throat earing (in small vessels), but in large vessels from the
cringle in the after leach to about two or three feet below the throat
earing, and on to the luff of the sail, where a cringle is worked in to

hook on the tack tackle. How would you take in a balance reef, close reef being in? Ease the peak halliards to take the strain off the after leach, lower the

jaws of the gaff down by the throat halliards. Hook on the tack tackle to the cringle on the luff of the sail, reeve the points, tie them, set up

throat and peak halliards, shorten vangs if any and peak line. Q. Under sail on a wind with a jump of a sea, what precautions would you

take to prevent the main boom from jerking up and down? A. A guy for this purpose is usually put on the boom, just inside of the main · sheet, and led to the main rigging. It is usually called a lazy guy.

Describe it, and how it is put on?
A stout rope (about three fathoms) with a thimble in one end ; this is

clove hitched round the boom, leaving the thimble about a foot below
the boom. The bight of the rope is then put under a cleat or chock,
and the end rove through the thimble and belayed. It can be let go and

cleared in a moment. Q. You lose your bowsprit; it breaks off outside of gammoning; you are on

a wind. What would you do? A. Shorten sail, clear away the wreck, and secure the head stays to the stump

of the bowsprit. You are running in the Atlantic to the eastward, under a three-reefed

mainsail, close reefed forestaysail, and double reefed foresail. The wind at South West, with heavy sea and rain. Your foremast carries away about six feet above the deck, taking the forestaysail and foresail with it. The triatic stay had broken the head of the mainmast off above the eyes of the rigging, when the foremast fell and also broke the peak halliards of the mainsail, which caused the peak of the main

gaff to drop. What would you do? Port the helm, round to on the starboard tack, and clear away the wreck. Why on the starboard tack? Because it would prevent gybing, and as the wind might draw round to the

westward, the vessel would come up and head the sea. Q. What would you do next?

Balance reef the mainsail, and lie to till the weather moderated, attending

to the pumps during the interval. How would you hoist the peak of your main gaff with a balance reef in,

the masthead and peak halliards having carried away above the rigging?

A. Hoist the peak of the gaff up with the lee boom topping lift, or unbend

the sail from the gaff, take an Irish reef in it, and hoist it by the throat

halliards.
The foremast being gone, she will not lie to with a balance reefed mainsail.

What would you do?
A. Lower it down, and try her under a small jib abaft the mast.
Q. What would you do when it moderated ?

Take the main boom and rig it for a foremast, and after it was secured to

the stump of the old mast I would take the storm main trysail and gaff

and rig and set it as a fore trysail.
Q. How would you set your mainsail without a boom?

Treble reefed, with a luff tackle for a sheet.
How would you proceed to ship your main boom as a foremast?
Unship the boom from mainmast. Get the jaws of the boom against the

stump of foremast on the deck. Lift the after end of the boom, with
one of the boom topping lifts, high enough for a tackle from the bowsprit
to bowse it perpendicularly, having a guy on each side to keep the head
of the boom amidships. I would clove hitch a warp over the upper end
of the boom for two stays before hoisting the boom up. For shrouds I
would use the two main boom topping lifts, one on each side, which are
fitted with a runner and tackle. When perpendicular, lash and wedge

the heel of the boom to the stump of foremast. Q. How would you anchor in the Downs, wind at S.W., tide setting North

East, and you were running in from the southward ? A. Shorten sail to forestaysail and scandalized mainsail. Starboard the

helm, haul down forestaysail, haul in the main sheet, and round to to leeward of Deal Bank Buoy. When head to wind, keep her so till she has lost headway. Down anchor and pay out chain. Lower the mainsail

and furl sails. Q. How would you moor?

Bring up with best bower anchor, slack away chain (say about sixty

fathoms), and if the vessel would not drift to a position suitable for letting go the second anchor, send out a kedge anchor with a warp, and warp her to it. Let go the second anchor, slack away the chain, heaving in the best bower chain at the same time, until I had equal

lengths out on both cables. Q. How would you proceed to unmoor ?

Slack away on the weather cable, heave up the lee anchor, cat and fish it;

then heave short on the weather cable, ready for getting under weigh. What is a lee tide ?

A tide setting to leeward, and with the wind.
Q. How would you tend a vessel in a tideway?

A light vessel to leeward, a loaded vessel to windward.
Suppose you were at anchor in a calm, how would you keep the chain clear

of the anchor ?
By heaving in the cable quite short without tripping the anchor.
What is meant by tide-rode?
Swung round by the tide, and riding head to it, at anchor,
What is meant by wind-rode ?
When swung round by the force of the wind at anchor against the tide.
How would you place a kedge in a boat for carrying out ?

A.

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A. Stock over the stern, flukes in the boat on a plank or spar for canting

overboard. Q. How would you carry out a bower anchor ? A. The crown under the boat with a slip rope, and a ring rope over the stern. Q. You are on a lee shore, on anchorage ground, she will not stay, and there

is no room to veer (or wear), how would you get her round? A. Let go the anchor, or, if time allow, unshackle lee anchor, bend on a warp

from the lee quarter, let go the anchor when the helm is put down, gather in the slack, and hold on the warp, this will check her round.

When round slip the warp. How would you construct a raft to rescue a crew ? Three spare spars lashed as a triangle, with water casks lashed inside of

the triangle, and small spare spars lashed on top. Your rudder is carried away ; what do you do? If running, lower down the foresail, get mainsheet in, and fore-staysail

sheet to windward Get three spars, and make a triangle, secure a sail over them, bend on a span and sling some pieces of iron to the lower spar, bend on a stout warp to the span, heave over to windward, veer out the hawser, and the vessel will lie-to comfortably while you are rigging a

jury rudder.

You have no time to do this ; you are on a lee shore ? A. Get a spare topsail yard, nail a couple of stout boards to one end at

right angles to each other, pass it out under the tafrail, lash it amidships, get a laff tackle on the inboard end, and you will find she will steer

unless a very unbandy vesscl. Q. You have no time for this even?

Then let go both anchors, and cut away the masts, if she won't ride to it

without. What is a spinnaker ? A lofty triangular-shaped sail made of light canvas, used in modern

racing yachts instead of a squaresail for running before the wind. It can also be used as a balloon jib for reaching in light winds. The foot of it is extended by means of a long spar called the spinnaker boom,

which works with a goose neck on the fore-side of the mast. Q. How do you set and take in a spinnaker ?

Get the inner end of the boom over the tafrail on the side opposite to

that on which you are carrying the main boom, light it along until the outer end is far enough aft to clear the head sheets, then launch forward, hook on the topping lift, bend on a couple of whips purchased to the outer end, lead one forward and the other aft, hoist away on the topping lift until it takes the weight of the boom, shove it forward until the goose neck can be shipped in its place on the mast. Bend on the halliards to the head of the sail, and the outer clew to the outhaul on the boom, taking care that it is on the fore side of the topping lift. Hoist away on the halliards and at the same time haul out the clew; when it is chock up to the topmast head, the clew close out, and the inner clew fast, slack down your topping lift until the boom is just clear of the rail and trim with the after guy. In large vessels it is usual to have another guy from the outer end to the side of the vessel to keep the boom from rising when the sail is distended by the pressure

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of the wind. In taking in a spinnaker, top the boom well up, ease in the outhaul, and slack away the halliards at the same time, and gather in the sail as it comes down. Ease away the after guy until the boom is fore and aft, unship the goose neck, and stow along the deck ; or the boom may be hoisted up with the topping lift until it is

parallel with the mast. Q. How would you set it as a jib? A. Lash a small tail block on the bowsprit outside the shroud iron, reeve a

rope through it, bend it on to the outer clew of your spinnaker and haul chock out, belay and hoist away on the halliards; use the balloon jib

sheets for spinnakers sheets. Q. You have not said anything about preventer backstays. What are they ? A. Temporary stays leading in yachts from the topmast head to the quarters.

They are used when the jib topsail or spinnaker is set. Q. You have spoken several times about “heaving to.” Now you are

running in a strong gale with heavy sea, and it is necessary to “heave to" to shorten sail, how would you do it so as not to run the risk of

having the decks swept ? A. Batten down the hatches, get every body aft to the mainsheet, watch for a

smooth sea, and as the yacht begins to descend ease down the helm, and as the vessel comes up to the wind get in the mainsheet foot by foot, haul foresheet to windward, lash the helm a lee and proceed to reduce

your canvas. Q. Suppose you are beating through a crowded channel, with a very light'

breeze and strong tide and find that you are drifting foul of other

vessels, what would you do? A. If the tide was adverse, bring up. If the tide was favourable I would get

the anchor or kedge over to leeward with plenty of chain, bend on a stout hawser to the chain within a couple of feet of the anchor, and lead it aft to the quarter. Put the helm down and let her come to; when she begins to lose way, let go the anchor to leeward and haul on the hawser ; when she is fairly round, slip your cable and haul in the anchor

over the stern, Q. You are trying to claw off a lee shore in a gale under storm jib and three

reefed mainsail and your vessel persists in running off her helm in the

squalls, what would you do? Get everything below that was at all weighty into the fore peak and sail

her with the head-sheets very flat. Why? Because the head sails (especially the jib) have a tendency to lift the

bow when slack, but when flattened in very taut they depress the lee bow in the water and make a vessel gripe to windward.

FINIS.

R. BARHAM, Printer, 1, Queenhithe, Upper Thames Street, London, E.C.

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