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Trysail, double reefed foresail, and storm jib.
What canvas would you heave to with, heavy gale and sea?
Trysail and storm jib, topmast on deck,
How would you get under weigh?
Heave short, loose sails, hoist the mainsail, trice the tack up, and overhaul

the main sheet. Heave the anchor up, when off the ground run the
foresail up, with sheet to windward, helm down, boom well in; as soon as
the anchor was up, let draw fore sheet, shift the helm, haul in the main

sheet, set the jib, and down tack of the mainsail. Q. How would you tack? A. Ease down helm ; as soon as she comes head to wind slack off jib sheet.

As soon as the jib fills on the other tack, let draw the fore sheet and

haul aft jib sheet, and trim sail.

How would you wear round? A. Up with the helm, trice up the tack and ease down the peak and throat.

When before the wind, shift over the mainboom, get the head sheets over,

and as she rounds to, down tack of mainsail. Q. You are running before the wind, and wish to gybe, what precautions should

you take ? A. Gybing in a fore and aft vessel requires great care, otherwise it is

dangerous, (the manæuvre is the same in both classes of vessels) the chances are that the main boom may be sprung, or the sail split, when the boom is brought up with a jerk, after going over. In a light breeze and smooth water it may be done with a whole mainsail set, but in a strong breeze in a sea-way it requires preparation and care. The first thing is to reduce the power of the mainsail; this is readily done by tricing up the tack of the mainsail, first topping the boom well up, and easing down the peak and throat ; quarter the wind (if running with it aft) and haul in the main sheet, unhook the guy before putting the helm up, and gather in quickly as much of the sheet as possible, while the vessel is paying off and the buom is going over. When you have brought the wind on the other quarter, hook on your guy, slack off the

main sheet, trim and make sail. Suppose your masthead broke off just above the eyes of the rigging, and

carried away your peak halliards and its blocks, how would you set your

mainsail? A. With three reefs, and hoist the peak of the gaff with the lee boom topping

lift or unbend the sail from the gaff, take an Irishman's reef in (that

is, tie up head of the sail, and hoist up with the throat halliards. Your lee boom topping lift is broken, or carried away? I would rig a span from the jaws to the end of the gaff, hook the throat

halliards on to the middle of the span, and hoist the gaff with it. Your bowsprit is carried away near the gammon iron? Luff-up and heave-to by putting down the helm, and haul fore-sheet to

windward. Trice up the tack of the mainsail, top the boom well up, and haul in the main sheet; parbuckle bowsprit alongside to leeward, that is, get a rope round each end of the broken spar, with one part made fast in board, and hauling on them roll the spar in board ; secure the jib and gear, take the shroud iron off the end, unreeve the inner stump of the bowsprit from the bitts, Reeve the long

or outer end of the bowsprit through the bitts and gammon iron, put on the traveller and shruud-iron, sheepshank shrouds and bobstay, run out the bowsprit, lash the heel to the bitts, keeping the sheave in the outer end fair up and down. Set up shrouds, bobstay and topmast stay.

Set a small jib, put the helm up, trim and make sail. Q. Fore stay is carried away. What would you do?

Put the helm down. Trice up the tack and ease down throat and peak

halliards ; down foresail, hook the halliards on to the stem head, haul them taut; send a hand aloft to place a strop round the masthead just over the collar of the forestay, hook on a good double block, and reeve a luff tackle of sufficient length to reach to the stemhead, hook on ; sway away until the strain is taken off the fore halliards, belay securely

and jog on to the nearest port. Q. Your bowsprit shroud is carried away. What would you do? A. In a strong breeze put the helm down and keep her easy to the wind, Ease

in the jib halfway, hoist it well up, and trim the sheet (or bend a smaller jib) after securing the shroud with a shroud knot if it was rope,-if it was chain, and no shackle at hand, reef knot it,-stop the ends, set up

the gear, trim and make sail. Q. How would you anchor on a wind ?

Trice up the tack of the mainsail, take in the jib, slack and trice up the

bobstay, put the helm down, when she comes up head to wind, meet her with the helm, let the foresail run down, keep her head to wind until she loses headway, then let go the anchor, and pay out chain. When she

is brought up, lower the mainsail, and furl sail. Q. How would you anchor when running?

Haul the head sails down, slack and trice up bobstay, trice up the tack of

the mainsail and drop throat and peak, put the helm down, haul in the main sheet amidships; when she comes head to wind, keep her so with the helm, until she loses headway. Let go the anchor, pay out chain, lower

the mainsail, and furl sails. You are on a wind; heave to so as to allow a boat to come up alongside;

smooth water, light wind ? A. Trice tack of mainsail up, haul in mainsheet, and lay both and jib fore sheets

a-weather. Q. Suppose you were in a strong breeze?

Ease off jib sheet, haul foresheet a-weather, and stand by with a line for the

boat. Q. You are close hauled on port tack, and a man falls overboard, what do

you do? Throw the yacht in the wind, throw overboard a life-buoy, grating, oars,

or anything that is at hand. By this time the yacht will be on the other

tack, and standing towards the man.
Q. You are running in a strong breeze, when a man falls overboard ?

Haul in mainsheet, up main tack, round to and get the boat in the water.
You spoke just now of a shroud knot. How is it made ?
It is generally used to repair a broken or stranded shroud, and is made by

taking the two severed ends, unlaying them the same as for a short
splice. Place them together closely, take the outside strand of the
lower part, and pass it round the upper part in a loop ; take the next

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lower strand, pass it under and up through the bight of the firstnamed strand, then take the end of the next lower strand, pass it round the end of the first strand, outside of the second strand, and up through the bight of the first strand, draw hand taut, and do the same with the other part. Draw the strands taut as possible, marl and serve the end

of the strands on each side, and set up your shroud again. Do the above maneuvres apply to a yawl as well as a cutter ? Yes, with two or three exceptions. For instance, in a yawl, when gybing

or going about, the mizen stays (when carried) have to be attended to. Lee one slacked off and weather one hauled taut whilst in stays. The mizen sheet works itself, except when requiring to be eased off or hauled in. In a yawl the mizen will be found of great service in keeping the vessel's head to the sea whilst getting the storm trysail on her, also a yawl can be got under weigh with her mizen and jib alone. This rig is very useful for cruising and fishing, as it does away with the necessity of carrying a heavy main boom, but it will never supersede the cutter rig, which is the more elegant of the two, and the cutter will always be the smarter vessel.

SCHOONER RIG.
What is a Fore-and-Aft Schooner Rig?
That of a Schooner without a square topsail, in place of which she sets a

fore gaff-topsail. Small ones, and most racing craft, have a Cutter's

bowsprit, to run out or in. What is a Topsail Schooner Rig? A fore-and-aft mainsail and gaff-topsail upon the mainmast; gaff foresail,

and staysail set on the fore stay and one or two jibs, square topsail and

top gallant sail on the foremast, and with a standing bowsprit. Q. Where is the fore stay usually set up? Generally to a bull's-eye in an iron band on the bowsprit, just inside or

outside the stem, unless the vessel has a running bowsprit, when it is

fitted to the stemhead. How is the mainmast stayed ? With a triatic stay. That is a stout stay from one lower masthead to

the other. Are any other stays used for this mast? Yes, in large Schooners, a double stay, set up with a runner and tackle,

to eye-boits near the waterways, one on each side, about the after part of the fore rigging. In harbour, both are set up. When under weigh,

the lee one is let go, to be clear of the foresail. How are the peak halliards of the mainsail rove? Through three single blocks on the masthead, and two on the gaff. The

hauling part on one side on deck, and the standing part on the other,

the latter being fitted with a gun-tackle purchase. How are they used when setting the mainsail?

Hoisted taut with the hauling, and then set up with the standing part. Q. How is the outer end, or clew of mainsail secured ? Generally shackled on to a traveller, with about three feet drift, to slack

up, when the sail shrinks with wet.

How are the tack tricing lines fitted ? A. With a gun-tackle purchase; a single block on the tack of the sail, and one

underneath the jaws of the gaff; from this the hauling part leads on deck. How are vangs fitted ? A. With pennants or blocks on the gaff. With the first, a gun tackle purchase;

with the second, single whips. Vangs are now seldom used in yachts. How are boom topping lifts usually fitted? In small vessels from the boom end to the mainmast head leading on deck.

Single block on boom end, the standing part and single block at mast-
head. In large vessels they are fitted one on each side; they are hooked
on to the main boom, half way between the sheet block and the reef
chocks. They then lead through blocks on the cheek of the mast (under
the eyes of the rigging) on to the deck, where they are set up with a

runner and tackle.
Q. Where is the reef tackle of the mainsail usually kept?
A. It is hooked on to eye-bolts under the mainboom.
Q. How are the reef pennants fitted ?

One end is a Matthew Walker, or double wall knot, and it is then rove

through an eye-bolt or bee block, on one side of the boom, then through
the cringle on the after leech of the sail, and down through a chock or
bee block (which has a sheave in it) on the other side of the boom.

This end is made fast to the tackle when reefing.
What is generally used for reef pennants ?
Manilla rope.
Where is the storm trysail gaff usually carried ?
On the top of the mainboom, in chocks or beds, in large vessels.

Proceed to get under weigh, and cast to starboard.
A. Heave short. Set foresail and mainsail, taking care to lead the gaff

between the topping lifts. Trice the tacks up. Loose the head sails, and then heave up the anchor. When the anchor is off the ground, run the jib up. (Starboard the helm.) When the anchor is up, cast loose your square topsail, if you have one, down tacks and make sail ;

shifting the helm as soon as the topsail is filled. How would you put the vessel about, or tack? See the ropes clear fore and aft. Mainstays (when fitted) clear, the lee

one ready for setting up, when she comes head to wind, and the other for letting go. Put the helm down, haul in the main sheet, ease off jib sheets. When head to wind, haul over head sheets, keeping the forestaysail to windward, to help to box off. As soon as she is sufficiently off fill the square topsail, let draw the fore-staysail, and trim sails. Shift

gaff topsail tack and main tack tackle over to windward. Q. How would you wear the vessel round?

Trip up, or haul down the gaff topsail, haul up the tack of the mainsail.

Ease up the peak, and throat halliards if needful, ease off the main sheet, and put the helni up. As she pays off, round in the weather braces, and haul in the slack of main sheet. As she comes round, shift the main boom over, brace up the yards, hoist the peak of mainsail, down

main tack, trim sails and set gaff topsail. R. Suppose your weather boom topping list broke while you were close hauled,

what would you do?

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A. Haul taut the lee one until the other was spliced.
Q. The lee one was unbooked to prevent chafe?
A. In that case I would ease off the gaff topsail sheet, also the throat and

peak halliards, to lower the boom on to the rail, secure it there till the
lee one was shifted over to windward. Hook it on, and trim mainsail.

Splice the broken one, and send it aloft for a lee one. Q. Being on a wind, proceed to trim sail so as to keep the wind nearly dead

aft, say about a point on the quarter. Hook on the guy pennant to the main boom, and pass it outside of the lee

main rigging, bring the end inboard to the lee waist, hook on the guy
tackle from the windlass bitts; trice up the tack of the mainsail; put
the helm up, check the yards, ease off main sheet, and take in the slack
of boom gay tackle; haul flying jib down, and ease away foresail and

fore-staysail sheets.
How would you set the square sail ?
Haul down the fore-staysail.
Why?
Because the sail would not draw, and the halliards are wanted for the

midship halliards of the square sail.
Proceed.
Hook on the yard whips to the head cringles, and the fore-staysail halliards

to the middle of the head, hoist up and trim, having a downhaul to each

halliard. Describe how yard arm whips are fitted. The standing part of whip and a single block on the yard arm, a hook block

on the sail. The whip leads from the yard arm to a block on the yard

truss, or to the lower masthead. From thence on deck. Q. How would you take in the squaresail, supposing it was blowing a strong

and increasing breeze? Slack away the yard arm whips, hauling in on the downhauls, when they are

down as low as possible, slack away the midship halliards, and gather in

the sail. (Tack and sheet to be kept fast till the sail is down.) Q. What is to prevent the head of the sail blowing away from you when you

let go the midship halliards ? A. The lizard, which is bent on to the middle of the head of sail, before

hoisting it up. Describe this. A thimble with a rope tail ; this travels on the topsail sheet in light winds,

or on a wire rope jumper, from the masthead to the deck. A downhaul

is usually bent on to it. How would you reef the square topsail? Lower the yard down. Trim with the braces to keep the sail on the lift.

Haul out reef tackles, haul taut buntlines and clewlines. Send men

aloft to reef. With a reef in, and the sail set, how would you shake it out? Lower the yard down, haul the braces taut, haul out the reef tackles, let go

the reef points, ease off the earings, overhaul the gear, especially your reef tackles, before coming down from aloft, hoist the yard up, and trim

with the braces. Q. How would you reef the mainsail?

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