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INTERNATIONAL STEERING AND SAILING RULES.

From the Order in Council, dated 9th January, 1863.

REGULATIONS FOR PREVENTING COLLISIONS AT SEA, &c.

PRELIMINARY. Art. 1. In the following Rules every Steam Ship which is under Sail and not under Steam is to be considered a Sailing Ship; and every Steam Ship which is under Steam, whether under sail or not, is to be considered a Ship under Steam.

RULES CONCERNING LIGHTS. Art. 2. LIGHTS:--The Lights mentioned in the following Articles numbered 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, and no others, shall be carried in all Weathers from Sunset to Sunrise.

Art. 3. LIGHTS FOR STEAM SHIPS :- Seagoing Steam Ships, when under weigh, shall carry :

(a.) AT THE FOREMAST HEAD, a bright White Light, so fixed as to show an uniform and unbroken Light over an arc of the Horizon of 20 Points of the Compass; 80 fixed as to throw the Light 10 Points on each side of the Sbip, viz., from right ahead to 2 Points abaft the Beam on either side; and of such a Character as to be visible on a dark Night, with a clear Atmosphere, at a Distan ce of at least Five Miles :

(6.) ON THE STARBOARD SIDE, a Green Light so constructed as to show an uniform and unbroken Light over an Arc of the Horizon of 10 Points of the Compass; so fixed as to throw the Light from right ahead to 2 Points abaft the Beam, on the Starboard Side; and of such a Character as to be visible on a dark Night, with a clear Atmosphere, at a Distance of at least Two Miles :

(c.) On The PORT SIDE, a Red Light, so constructed as to show an uniform and unbroken Light over an Arc of the Horizon of 10 points of the Compass ; so fixed as to throw the Light from right ahead to 2 Points abaft the Beam on the Port Side; and of such a character as to be visible on a dark Night, with a clear Atmosphere, at a Distance of at least Two Miles:

(d.) The said Green and Red Side Lights shall be fitted with inboard Sereens, projecting at least Three Feet forward from the Light, so as to prevent these Lights from being seen across the Bow.

Art. 4. LIGHTS FOR STEAM SHIPS, WHEN Towing:-Steam Ships, when towing other Ships, shall carry Two bright White Mast-head Lights vertically, in addition to their side lights, so as to distinguish them from other Steam Ships. Each of these Mast-head Lights shall be of the same Construction and Character as the Mast-head Lights which other Steam Ships are required to carry.

Art. 5. LighTS FOR SAILING SHIPs: Sailing Ships under weigh, or being towed, shall carry the same Lights as Steam Ships under weigh, with the Exception of the White Mast-head Lights, which they shall never carry.

Art. 6. EXCEPTIONAL LIGHTS FOR SMALL SAILING VESSELS :- Whenever, as in the Case of small Vessels during bad Weather, the Green and Red Lights cannot be fixed, these lights shall be kept on Deck, on their respective sides of the Vessel, ready for instant Exhibition; and shall, on the approach of, or to other Vessels, be exhibited on their respective Sides in sufficient Time to prevent Collision, in such manner as to make them most visible, and so that the Green Light shall not be seen on the Port Side, nor the Red Light on the Starboard Side.

To make the Use of these portable Lights more certain and easy, the Lanterns contaiving them shall each be painted Outside with the Colour of the Light they respectively contain, and shall be provided with suitable Screens.

Art. 7. LIGHTS FOR SHIPS AT ANCHOR :-Ships, whether Steam Ships or Sailing Ships, when at Anchor in Roadsteads or Fairways, shall exhibit, where it can best be seen, but at a Height not exceeding Twenty Feet above the Hull, a White Light, in a globular Lantern of Eight Inches in Diameter, and so constructed as to show a clear uniform and unbroken Light visible all round the Horizon, and at a Distance of at least One Mile.

Art. 8. LIGHTS FOR Pilot VESSELS :-Sailing Pilot Vessels shall not carry the Lights required for other Sailing Vessels, but shall carry a White Light at the Masthead, visible all round the Horizon,and shall also exhibit a Flare-up Light every Fifteen Minutes.

Art. 9. LIGHTS FOR FISHING VESSELS AND Boats:—Open Fishing Boats and other open Boats shall not be required to carry the Side Lights required for other Vessels; but shall, if they do not carry such Lights, carry a Lantern having a Green Slide on the one side and a Red Slide on the other side ; and on the Approach of or to other Vessels, such Lautern shall be exhibited in sufficient tiine to prevent Collision, so that the Green Light shall not be seen on the Port Side, nor the Red Light on the Starboard Side.

Fishing Vessels and open Boats when at Anchor, or attached to their Nets and stationary, shall exhibit a bright White Light.

Fishing Vessels and open Boats shall, however, not be prevented from using a Flare-up in addition, if considered expedient.

RULES CONCERNING FOG SIGNALS. Art. 10. FOG SIGNALS:- Whenever there is a Fog. whether by Day or Night, the Fog Signals described below shall be carried and used, and shall be sounded at least every Five Minutes; viz. :

. (a.) Steam Ships under weigh shall use a Steam Whistle placed before the funnel, not less than eight feet from the deck .

(6.) Sailing Ships under weigh shall use a Fog Horn: (c.) Steam Ships and Sailing Ships, when not under weigh, shall use a Bell.

STEERING AND SAILING RULES. Art. 11. Two SAILING SHIPS MEETING :-If two Sailing Ships are meeting End on or nearly End on, so as to involve Risk of Collision, the Helme of both shall be put to Port, so that each may pass on the Port Side of the other.

Art. 12. Two SAILING SHIPS CROSSING :—When two Sailing Ships are crossing so as to involve Risk of Collision, then, if they have the wind on different sides, the Ship with the Wind on the Port Side shall keep out of the Way of the Ship with the Wind on the Starboard Side; except in the Case in which the Ship with the Wind on the Port Side is close hauled and the other Slip free, in which case the latter Ship shall keep out of the Way; but if they have the Wind on the same Side, or if one of them has the Wind aft, the Ship which is to wind ward shall keep out of the Way of the Ship which is to leeward.

* LIGHTS REQUIRED BY THE SEA FISHERIES ACT, 1863, TO BE CARRIED BY ENGLISH

AND FRENCH BOATS CONCERNED IN DRIFT-NET FISHING. 1. No boat shall anchor between sunset and sunrise on grounds where drift-net fishing is actually going on,

This does not apply to anchorings which may take place in consequence of accidents, or any other compulsory circumstances; but in such case the master of the boat thus obliged to anchor shall hoist, so that they shall be seen from a distance, two lights placed horizontally about 3 feet (1 metre) apart, and shall keep those lights up all the time the boat shall remain at anchor.

2. Boats fishing with drift-nets shall carry on one of their masts two lights, one over the other, 3 feet (1 metre) apart. To be kept up during all the time their nets shall be in the sea between sunset and sunrise.

Art. 13. Two SHIPS UNDER STEAM MEETING :-If two Ships under Steam are meeting End on or nearly End on so as to involve Risk of Collision, the Helms of both shall be put to Port, so that each may pass on the Port Side of the other.

Art. 14. Two SHIPS UNDER STEAM CROSSING :-If two Ships under Steam are crossing so as to involve Risk of Collision, the Ship which has the other on her own Starboard Side shall keep out of the way of the other.

Art. 15. SAILING SHIP AND SHIP UNDER STEAM:-If two Ships, one of which is a Sailing Ship and the other a Steain Ship, are proceeding in such Directions as to involve Risk of Collision, the Steain Ship shall keep out of the way of the Sailing Ship.

Art. 16. SHIPS UNDER STEAM TO SLACKEN SPEED:-Every Steam Ship, when approaching another Ship so as to involve Risk of Collision, shall slacken her Speed, or, if necessary, stop and reverse; and every Steam Ship shall, when in a Fog, go at a moderate speed.

Art. 17. VESSELS OVERTAKING OTHER VESSELS:-Every Vessel overtaking any other vessel shall keep out of the way of the said last-mentioned Vessel.

Art. 18. CONSTRUCTION OF ARTICLES 12, 14, 15, and 17:—Where by the above Rules One of Two Ships is to keep out of the Way, the other shall keep her Course, subject to the Qualifications contained in the following Article.

Art. 19. PROVISO TO SAVE SPECIAL CASES :-In obeying and construing these Rules, due regard must be had to all Dangers of Navigation, and due regard must also be had to any special Circumstances which may exist in any particular Case rendering a Departure froin the above Rules necessary in order to avoid immediate Danger.

Art. 20. No SHIP UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES TO NEGLECT PROPER PRECAUTIONS:Nothing in these Rules shall exonerato any Ship, or the Owner, or Master, or Crew thereof from the Consequences of any Neglect to carry Lights or Signals, or of any neglect to keep a proper Look-out, or of the Neglect of any Precaution which may be required by the ordinary Practice of Seainen, or by the special Circumstances of the Case.

ADDENDA TO THE REGULATIONS FOR PREVENTING COLLISIONS AT

SEA. From the London Gazette, August 4th, 1868. STEERING AND SAILING RULES:- Whereas there has been doubt and misapprehension concerning the effect of the two Articles 11 and 13 (see p. 1).

Her Majesty, by virtue of the powers vested in Her, and by and with the advice of Her Privy Council, is pleased to make the following additions to the said Regulations by way of explanation of the said two recited Articles; that is to say :

The said two Articles numbered 11 and 13 respectively, only apply to cases where ships are meeting end on, or nearly end on, in such a manner as to involve risk of collision. They, consequently, do not apply to two ships which must, if both keep on their respective courses, pass clear of each other.

The only cases in which the said two Articles apply, are, when each of the two ships is end on, or nearly end on, to the other; in other words, to cases in which, by day, each ship sees the masts of the other in a line, or nearly in a line, with her own ; and, by night, to cases in which each ship is in such a position as to see both the side lights of the other.

The said two Articles do not apply, by day, to cases in which a ship sees another a-head crossing her own course; or, by night, to cases where the red light of one ship is opposed to the red light of the other; or where the green light of one ship is opposed to the green light of the other; or where a red light without a green light, or a green light without a red light, is seen a-head; or where both green and red lights are seen anywhere but a-head.

Explanations of Weather-Glasses in North Latitude

THE BAROMETER RISES

THE BAROMETER FALLS for Northerly wind

for Southerly wind (including from N.W., by the North, to the including from S.E. by the South, to the Eastward),

Westward), for dry, or less wet weather, —for less wind, for wet weather,--for stronger wind, or or for more than one of these changes : for more than one of these changes:EXCEPT on a few occasions when rain (or EXCEPT on a few occasions when moderate snow) comes from the Northward with strong wind with Rain (ór Snow) comes from the wind.

Northward.
A THERMOMETER FALLS

A THERMOMETER RISES For change of wind towards any of the For change of wind towards the upper of above directions.

the above directions. MOISTURE Or DAMPNESS in the air (shown by a HYGROMETER), increases before or with

Rain, Fog, or Dew.

Admiral Fitzroy's contractions for Barometer Scales in North Latitude.

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It should always be remembered that the state of the air foretells coming weather, rather than shows the weather that is present~(an invaluable fact too often overlooked) —that the longer the time between the signs and the change foretold by them, the longer such altered weather will last; and, on the contrary, the less the time between a warning and a change, the shorter will be the continuance of such foretold weather.

To know the state of the air, not only barometers and thermometers should be watched, but the appearance of the sky-clouds should be vigilantly noticed.

If the barometer has been about its ordinary height, say near thirty inches, at the sea level, and is steady, or rising-while the thermometer falls, and dampness becomes lessNorth-westerly, Northerly, or North-easterly wind-or less wind-less rain or snow-may be expected.

On the contrary, if a fall takes place, with a rising thermometer and increased damp. ness, wind and rain may be expected from the South-eastward, Southward, or Southwestward.

In winter, a fall, with low thermometer, foretells snow.

Exceptions to these rules occur when a Northerly wind, with wet (rain, hail, or snow,) is impending, before which the barometer often rises (on account of the direction of the coming wind alone) and deceives persons who, from that sign only (the rising), expect fair weather.

When the barometer is rather below its ordinary height, say down to near twenty-nine inches and a half (at the sea level), a rise foretells less wind, or change in its direction towards the Northward-or less wet; but when it has been very low, about twenty-nine inches, the first rising usually precedes, or indicates, strong wind-at times heavy squalls from the North-westward, Northward, or North-eastward-after which violence a gradually rising glass foretells improving weather-if the thermometer falls. But, if the warmth continue, probably the wind will back (shift against the sun's course), and more Southerly or South-westerly wind will follow, especially if the barometer's rise is sudden.

The most dangerous shifts of wind, or the heaviest Northerly gales, happen soon after the barometer first rises from a very low point; or, if the wind veers gradually, at the same time afterwards with a rising glass.

Indications of approaching change of weather, and the direction and force of winds, are shown less by the height of the barometer than by its falling or rising. Nevertheless, a height of more than thirty (30:3) inches (at the level of the sea) is indicative of fine weather and moderate winds ; except from East to North, occasionally whence it may blow strongly.

A rapid rise of the barometer indicates unsettled weather. A slow movement the contrary; as does likewise a steady barometer, which, when continued, and with dryness, foretells very fine weather lasting for some time.

A rapid and considerable fall is a sign of stormy weather, and rain (or snow). Alternate rising and sinking, or oscillation, indicates unsettled and threatening weather.

The greatest depression of the barometers are with gales from S.E., S., or S.W.; the greatest elevations, with wind from N.W., N., or N.E., or with calm.

Though the barometer generally falls with a Southerly, and rises with a Northerly wind, the contrary sometimes occurs, in which case the Southerly wind is usually dry, with fine weather, or the Northerly wind is violent and accompanied by rain, snow, or hail perhaps with lightning.

When the barometer sinks considerably, much wind, rain (perhaps with hail), or snow will follow, with or without lightning. The wind will be from the Northward, if the thermometer is low (for the season); from the Southward if the thermometer is high. Occasionally a low glass is followed or attended by lightning only, while a storm is beyond the horizon.

A sudden fall of the barometer, with a Westerly wind, is sometimes followed by a violent storm from N.W. or N.E.

If a gale sets in from the E. or S.E., and the wind veers by the South, the barometer will continue falling until the wind is near a marked change, when a lull may occur ; after which the gale will soon be renewed, perhaps suddenly and violently, and the veering of the wind towards the N.W., North, or N... will be indicated by a rising of the barometer with a fall of the thermometer,

SIGNS OF WEATHER.
This account of weather signs is due to Admiral Fitzroy.

Colour of Sky-Clouds Flight of Sea Birds Movements of Animals—Clearness of the

Air-Wind dying down at night.

Whether clear or cloudy-a rosy sky at sunset presages fine weather:-a sickly greenish hue, wind and rain; tawny, or coppery clouds-wind: a dark (or Indian) red, rain ; a red sky in the morning bad weather, or much wind (perhaps also rain):-a grey sky in the morning, fine weather,-a bigh dawn, wind :-a low dawn, fair weather.

NOTE.-A “high dawn” is when the first indications of daylight are seen above a bank of clouds. A “low dawn” is when the day breaks on or near the horizon, the first streaks of light being very low down.

Soft-looking or delicate clouds foretell fine weather, with moderate or light breezes: hard edged oily-looking clouds,-wind. A dark, gloomy blue sky is windy ;-but a light

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