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the knowledge necessary to enable them to pass their Examinations; and Masters will do well to permit apprentices and junior officers to attend schools of instruction, and to afford them as much time for this purpose as possible..

APPROPRIATE CERTIFICATES. A person possessing a Master's Certificate, whether of competency or service, is eligible to command any vessels of whatsoever tonnage, and either Certificate is sufficient for clearance at the Custom-house. But a condition in the charter-party of vessels taken up by government for the conveyance of troops, stores, or emigrants, and also the regulations of the principal Steam Packet Companies, require that the Master and principal Officers shall possess Certificates of Competency.

The First Mate may engage as Mate of any kind.

The Only Mate as First Mate, when there is no other; or as Second Mate, when there is a First Mate.

The Second Mate is not appropriate for any superior station, and must be employed only in cases where a First Mate is also engaged.

Certificates of Competency or Service may be either of a grade appropriate to the stations held for the time being, or of any superior grade.

N. B.-Certificates of character from owners and captains must particularly include the word “sobriety.”

EXAMINATIONS IN STEAM.* Arrangements have been made for giving to those Masters, and First or Only Mates, who desire it, an opportunity of undergoing an examination as to their practical knowledge of the use and working of the steam engine. These examinations are conducted under the superintendence of the Local Marine Boards, at such times as they may appoint for the purpose ; and the Examiners are selected by the Board of Trade from the Engineer Surveyors appointed under the Steam Navigation Act.

The examination will not comprise any intricate theoretical questions, but will be such as to satisfy the Examiner that the applicant is competent to control the working of the engine, and has such a knowledge of the ordinary parts of the machinery, as will enable him to judge of the nature of an accident, and, in the absence of the Engineer, to give the necessary directions in the engine room.

• The Examinations for Engineers’ Certificates, under the Merchant Shipping Act Amendment Act, 1862, will be found at page 81.

The practice will be as follows :--The applicant must deliver to the Superintendent of Mercantile Office a statement in writing to the effect that he wishes to be examined in steam. If he is about to pass a Master's examination in navigation also, this statement must be on or annexed to the form E. E. If he has a Master's Certificate of Competency, it must be delivered to the Superintendent with his Certificate, so that due notice may be given to the Examiner, and so that the Board of Trade, on receiving it, may have the means of indorsing on his Certificate, and recording the fact that he has passed in steam. He must also at the same time pay a fee of £1., which will be applied in remunerating the Examiners. Notice will be given of the time at which the applicant is to attend to be examined ; and if he passes, the result of the examination will be reported to the Board of Trade, and his Certificate of Competency will be issued or returned to him, as the case may be, with an indorsement as abovementioned, shewing that he has passed in steam. If he fails, no notice of the failure will be reported on the Certificate, but no part of the fee will be returned.

Full directions as to the course of Examinations in Steam, and the qualifications required of Candidates, are contained in the instructions issued to Engineer Surveyors appointed as Examiners at the large ports.

Examiners and Teachers to Local Marine Boards.

PORT.

IN NAVIGATION. IN SEAMANSHIP.

IN STEAM.

TEACHERS.*

Bristol.. Wm. McCulloch W. McCulloch... John Croome
Hull.... Jonathan Aylen Jonathan Aylen Robert Taplin
Liverpool J. T. Towson .. Normn. McLeod E. J. Ross .... J. Smart

A. C. Mott ....
London .. Boulter J. Bell John Burnett.. Robt. Galloway J. Newton
John Domett...

.. H. Burchill Newestle Thos. Hayden ...J.W. Armstrong..

.... W. Thorn
Plymth. Wm. Walker .. Wm. Walker .. John E. Mare
Shields ... Thos. Hayden ...J. W. Armstrong
Sunderla Thos. Hayden .. J. W. Armstrong...

jayden ..J. W. Armstrong .............J. J. Stiles Aberdeen P. Robertson .. Shipping Master Thomson, Hall,

| Catto, & Co. E. Henessey Dundee .. Andrew Roy .. Shipping Master J. Z. Kay Glasgow.. Andrew Small .. James Gilkison H. R. Robson .. J. Boss Greenock Andrew Small .. James Gilkison H. R. Robson .. T. Cranston Leith ... John Davidson.. Shipping Master S. D. Davison. . J. Bolam Belfast.. Shipping Master Shipping Master Wm. Rowan .. s. Doran Cork.... Thomas Stuart.. Thomas Stuart.. Paul McSwiney Dublin.. Rawdn. McLean Rawdn. McLean F. Barrington.. D. M-Carthy

* Appointed by the Board of Trade Department of Science and Art.

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MULTIPLICATION.
Multiply

Multiply
21864219

(2) 316724" by 24 347629

(4) 276549375, 39 84216789

67219465 , 129 123456789 ,

3146821 , 345 679543217 , 11

(10) 87964217 , 9862

DIVISION.
Divide

Divide (1) 31421764 by 2 (2) 981234567 by 101 (3) 9164273 , 7

3965217 82462919 ,

72419656 , 875 2146897426 ,,

62418974 1234 (9) 6849765316 , 59 (10) 98762196543 , 6984

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RULES AND EXAMPLES FOR WORKING

THE PAPERS.

Multiplication of Numbers by common Logarithms. Take out the log. opposite to each of the given numbers, add them together, and seek the corresponding one in your table of logs., opposite to this you have the required number. EXAMPLE.—Multiply 36 by 105, by common logs.

36. ............1.556302 105............... 2.021189

3780...............3.577491

Division of Numbers by common Logarithms. Take out the logs. the same as in Multiplication, but subtract and find the number as before. EXAMPLE. --Divide 1860 by 25, by common logs.

1860............... 3.269513

25...............1.397940

74.40...............1.871573

The index to be placed before your log. is always one figure less than the number of given figures; for example,

The index of 8 (or one figure) is 0

, 56 (or two figures) is 1
, 329 (or three figures) is 2
„ 8654 (or four figures) is 3

and so on. In taking out the number corresponding to a given log., the opposite rule is used; for example,

0.799272 gives 6.299
1.799272 gives 62.99
2.799272 gives 629.9
3.799272 gives 6299.

and so on.

PARALLEL SAILING. Add together the log Secant of the latitude and the common log of the departure, rejecting 10 from the index; the number corresponding will be the d. long.

EXAMPLE.-In latitude 26° 45', the departure made good was 16 miles. Required the d. long. by parallel sailing.

Lat. 26° 45'...... Secant 0.049159
Dep. 16 ......... log. 1.204120

D.long. 17.92 ............ 1.253279

MERIDIAN ALTITUDE OF THE SUN. Convert your longitude into time, find the Greenwich time, adding to the given date if your longitude is W., and subtracting if E.

With the Greenwich date, take the declination and hourly diff. from the Nautical Almanac, multiply the hourly diff. of the declination by the number of hours in your Greenwich time, and as many 6's as are in your minutes for tenths of an hour ; then if the declination is greater next day, add your correction ; if less, subtract; then correct your altitude for index error; and from Table IX. take the correction for the altitude, which is always additive; the result will be your true altitude ; which taken from 90° 00'00" will give the zenith distance Name the zenith distance always the opposite to the sun's bearing, that is. if bearing N. call it S., and if bearing S. call it N.; to it apply the leclination, adding if both are the same names, and subtracting if different names; the latitude is the name of the greater.

EXAMPLE.—1864, March 5th, in longitude 51° 28' E., the observed meridian altitude of the Sun's l. 1. was 35° 35' 50". bearing S., index error + 2' 10", height of the eye 20 feet. Required the latitude.

d. h. m. S. Long. 51° 28' E.

Time at ship 5 00 00 00

Long. - 3 25 52

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3 25 52

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