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9.–Barrels of PROVISIONS, and TALLOW Casks, allowed to stow six heights. All METALS should be stowed under, and separated from, goods liable to be damaged by contact.
10.—All MANUFACTURED Goods, also DRY HIDES, Bales of SILK, or other valuable articles, should have 2 inches of dunnage against the side, to preserve a water-course. Bundles of SHEET IRON, Rods, pigs of COPPER or IRON, or any rough hard substance, should not be allowed to come in contact with bales or bags, or any soft packages liable to be chafed. When Mats can be procured, they should be used at the sides for Silk, Tea, &c.
11.–TAR, TURPENTINE, RESIN, &c. to have flat beds of wood under the quarters, of an inch thick, and allowed to stow six heights.
12.–Very frequent and serious loss falls on Merchants on the upper part of Cargoes, particularly on vessels that bring Wheat, Corn, Tobacco, Oil Cake, &c. arising from vapourdamage imbibed by Wheat, Flour, or other goods, stowed in the same vessel with Turpentine, or other strong-scented articles : the Shippers are to blame for such negligence, for not making due enquiry before shipping.
13.—Ships" laden with full Cargoes of Coal, bound round Cape Horn or Cape of Good Hope, to be provided with approved ventilators, as a preventive against ignition.
14.-No vessel bound on any over-sea voyage, should on any account be loaded beyond that point of immersion which will present a clear side out of water, when upright, of three inches to every foot depth of hold, measured amidships, from the height of the deck at the side, to the water.
Note.-Shippers abroad, when they know that their cargoes will be stowed properly, will give a preference, and at higher rates, to such commanders of ships as will undertake to guarantee the dunnage. The American shipowners, in the stowage of mixed cargoes in large ships, have, from experience, discovered what " pressure" flour barrels, provision casks, &c. will bear, and so avoid reclamations for damage if otherwise properly stowed : hence, in large ships above 600 tons, with dimensions exceeding in length 41 times the beam, and 21 feet depth of hold, orlop decks will come into general use, so as to relieve the pressure, by dividing a ship’s hold, like a warehouse, into stories. A large ship, called the “ Liverpool,” which left New York with an entire cargo of Flour, has never since been heard of : it is supposed the lower tier of barrels gave way under the pressure, and the cargo having got loose, shifted in a gale of wind, and capsized the vessel.
Ships' cargoes for insurance will also become a matter of special agreement between merchant and shipowner, and merchant underwriters, and the premium vary according to the dunnage agreement. The stowage and dunnage must stand A. 1., and is often of more importance than the class of the vessel, as experience has proved. When ships are chartered for a lump sum, the draft of water should be limited, as it not unfrequently happens that Brokers insert a clause that coals are not to be considered as dead weight, in order to fill the ship up in case of goods falling short to make up the chartered freight.
All Packages, Bales, and Cases, not weighing more than 25 cwt. to the cubic ton measurement, are designated as light freight.
Bale Goods should be stowed on their flats in midships, and on their edges in the wings, because they will then receive less damage.
Iron should be stowed grating fashion.
As Coals are dangerous from their liability to spontaneous combustion, care should be taken that the air is allowed to go down through them by means of a spout with air-holes in it.
Valuable articles and dry goods should be stowed in the after-part of the ship.
FOR PREVENTING COLLISIONS AT SEA, Contained in the Merchant Shipping Amendment Act, 1862.
Section 25.-On and after the first day of June, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, or such later day as may be fixed for the purpose by order in Council, the Regulations contained in the Table marked (C.) in the Schedule hereto shall come into operation and be of the same force as if they were enacted in the body of this Act; but Her Majesty may, from time to time, on the joint recommendation of the Admiralty and the Board of Trade, by order in Council, annul or modify any of the said Regulations, or make new Regulations in addition thereto or in substitution therefor; and any alterations in or additions to such Regulations made in manner aforesaid shall be of the same force as the Regulations in the said Schedule.
TABLE (C.) Article 1.-In the following Rules, every Steam Ship which is under sail and not under steam, is to be considered a Sailing Ship; and every Steam Ship which is under steam, whether under sail or not, is to be considered a ship under steam.
RULES CONCERNING LIGHTS. 2.- The Lights mentioned in the following Articles, and no others, shall be carried in all weathers between sunset and sunrise. 3.-Sea-going Steam Ships when under weigh shall carry :
At the Foremast Head, a bright White Light, so fixed as to show an uniform and unbroken Light over an arc of the horizon of 20 points of the compass, so fixed as to throw the Light 10 points on each side of the ship, viz., from right ahead to 2 points abaft the beam on either side, and of such a character as to be visible on a dark night, with a clear atmosphere, at a distance of at least five miles.
On the Starboard Side, a Green Light, so constructed as to throw an uniform and unbroken Light over an arc of the horizon of 10 points of the compass, so fixed as to throw the Light from right ahead to 2 points abaft the beam on the starboard side, and of such a character as to be visible on a dark night, with a clear atmosphere, at a distance of at least two miles.
On the Port Side, a Red Light, so constructed as to show an uniform unbroken Light over an arc of the horizon of 10 points of the compass, so fixed as to throw the Light from right ahead to 2 points abaft the beam on the port side, and of such a character as to be visible on a dark night, with a clear atmosphere, at a distance of at least two miles.
The said Green and Red Side Lights shall be fitted with inboard Screens projecting at least three feet forward from the Light, so as to prevent these Lights from being seen across the bow.
4.-Steam Ships, when towing other ships, shall carry Two bright White Mast-head Lights vertically, in addition to their Side Lights, so as to distinguish them from other Steam Ships. Each of these Mast-head Lights shall be of the same construction and character as the Mast-head Lights which other Steam Ships are required to carry.
5.—Sailing Ships under weigh, or being towed, shall carry the same Lights as Steam Ships under weigh, with the exception of the White Mast-head Lights, which they shall never carry.
6.-Whenever, as in the case of small vessels during bad weather, the Green and Red Lights cannot be fixed, these Lights shall be kept on deck on their respective sides of the vessel ready for instant exhibition, and shall, on the approach of or to other vessels, be exhibited on their respective sides in sufficient time to prevent collision, in such manner as to make them most visible, and so that the Green Light shall not be seen on the port side, nor the Red Light on the starboard side.
To make the use of these portable Lights more certain and easy, they shall each be painted outside with the colour of the Light they respectively contain, and shall be provided with suitable Screens.
7.--Ships, whether Steam Ships or Sailing Ships, when at anchor in roadsteads or fairways, shall between sunset and sunrise exhibit, where it can best be seen, but at a height not exceeding twenty feet above the hull, a White Light in a globular lantern of eight inches in diameter, and so constructed as to show a clear uniform and unbroken Light visible all round the horizon, and at a distance of at least one mile.
8.-Sailing Pilot Vessels shall not carry the Lights required for other Sailing Vessels, but shall carry a White Light at the Mast-head visible all round the horizon, and shall also exhibit a Flare-up Light every fifteen minutes.
9.—Open Fishing Boats and other open boats shall not be required to carry Side Lights required for other vessels; but shall, if they do not carry such Lights, carry a Lantern having a Green Slide on the one side and a Red Slide on the other side ; and on the approach of or to other vessels such Lantern shall be exhibited in sufficient time to prevent collision, so that the Green Light shall not be seen on the port side, nor the Red Light on the starboard side.
Fishing Vessels and open boats when at anchor or attached to their nets and stationary, shall exhibit a bright White Light.
Fishing Vessels and open boats shall, however, not be prevented from using a Flare-up in addition if considered expedient.
RULES CONCERNING FOG SIGNALS. 10.- Whenever there is Fog, whether by day or night, the Fog Signals described below shall be carried and used, and shall be sounded at least every five minutes, viz.
Steam Ships under weigh shall use a Steam Whistle placed before the Funnel not less than eight feet from the deck.
Sailing Ships under weigh shall use a Fog Horn.
Steam Ships and Sailing Ships when not under weigh shall use a Bell.
STEERING AND SAILING RULES. 11.--If two Sailing Ships are meeting end on, or nearly end on, so as to involve risk of collision, the helms of both shall be put to port, so that each may pass on the port side of the
12.- When two Sailing Ships are crossing so as to involve risk of collision, then if they have the wind on different sides, the ship with the wind on the port side shall keep out of the