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way of the ship with the wind on the starboard side, except in the case in which the ship with the wind on the port side is close hauled and the other ship free, in which case the latter ship shall keep out of the way ; but if they have the wind on the same side, or if one of them has the wind aft, the ship which is to windward shall keep out of the way of the ship which is to leeward.

13.-If two ships under Steam are meeting end on, or nearly end on, so as to involve risk of collision, the helms of both shall be put to port, so that each may pass on the port side of the other.

14.--If two ships under Steam are crossing so as to involve risk of collision, the ship which has the other on her own starboard side shall keep out of the way of the other.

15.-If two ships, one of which is a Sailing Ship and the other a Steam Ship, are proceeding in such directions as to involve risk of collision, the Steam Ship shall keep out of the way of the Sailing Ship.

16.-Every Steam Ship, when approaching another ship so as to involve risk of collision, shall slacken her speed, or, if necessary, stop and reverse; and every Steam Ship shall, when in a fog, go at a moderate speed.

17.-Every vessel overtaking any other vessel shall keep out of the way of the said last-mentioned vessel.

18.- Where by the above rules one of two ships is to keep out of the way, the other shall keep her course, subject to the qualifications contained in the following Article.

19.-In obeying and construing these Rules, due regard must be had to all dangers of navigation ; and due regard must also be had to any special circumstances which may exist in any particular case rendering a departure from the above rules necessary in order to avoid immediate danger.

20.-Nothing in these rules shall exonerate any ship or the owner or master or crew thereof from the consequences of any neglect to carry Lights or Signals, or of any neglect to keep a proper look-out, or of the neglect of any precaution which may be required by the ordinary practice of Seamen, or by the special circumstances of the case.

ADMIRALTY NOTICE RESPECTING LIGHTS AND SIGNALS TO BE CARRIED BY SEA

GOING VESSELS EMPLOYED IN LAYING TELEGRAPH CABLES. By the Commissioners for executing the Office of Lord High Admiral

of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

By virtue of the power and authority vested in us, we hereby make the following Regulations, and require and direct that they be strictly observed and carried into effect on and after the first day of September next. The following Regulations are to be read with and construed as forming part of the Regulations issued by us, and dated 24th February, 1858, viz., the “ Admiralty Regulations as to Lights and Fog Signals to be carried by Steam and Sailing Vessels under the Merchant Shipping Act, 1854.”

STEAM VESSELS EMPLOYED IN LAYING DOWN

TELEGRAPH CABLES. 1.-All sea-going Steam Vessels employed in laying down Telegraph Cables when under steam shall, between sunset and sunrise, exhibit the following Lights in addition to the Mast-head and coloured Side Lights required by the Regulations issued by us, and dated 24th February, 1858, viz.

Two bright Red Lights hung vertically below the White

Light at the Foremast-head, each of the intervals

· between the Lights to be four feet. The Red Lights required by this Regulation shall be so constructed as to be visible to the same distance and in the same direction as the White Light.

2.-All sea-going Steam Vessels employed in laying down Telegraph Cables when under steam shall, between sunrise and sunset, carry the following distinctive Signals, viz.

Two opaque Black Balls hung vertically from the Fore

mast-head. The lower Ball shall be four feet from the upper Ball. Each of these Balls shall be not less than three feet in

diameter. Dated this 4th day of August, 1862.

By command of their Lordships,

W. G. ROMAINE, Secretary.

RULE OF THE ROAD, &c. Which Tack bears up to avoid collision ?

The Port Tack. Suppose the Look-out reported a Ship a-head, what would you do ? I would go forward first and see what Tack she was on, and

then if necessary shift the helm to get clear of her. Passing down the English Channel, if you see a Ships Green Light,

what Coast will she be steering for ? She would be going towards the English Coast. Suppose you were running with a fair wind, and meet a Ship on a

wind, what would you do ? I would give way to her. Suppose you are close-hauled on the Port Tack, and meet a Ship

close-hauled on the Starboard Tack, what would you do? I would give way to her. With respect to Steamers, they are considered as Vessels with a fair

wind, and consequently they always port their helm.
If you saw a Steamer's Three Lights a-head, what

would you do ?
Port my helm, and pass her on the port side.

INSTRUCTIONS

FOR THE GUIDANCE OF MASTERS AND SEAMEN WHEN USING THE MORTAR AND ROCKET LINES

FOR SAVING LIFE FROM SHIPWRECK. In the event of your vessel stranding within a short distance of the United Kingdom, and the lives of the crew being placed in danger, assistance will, if possible, be rendered from the shore in the following manner, namely

1.-A rocket or shot with a thin line attached will be fired across your vessel. Get hold of this line as soon as you can, and when you have secured it, let one of the crew be separated from the rest, and (if in the daytime) wave his hat or his hand, or a flag or handkerchief ; or (if at night) let a rocket, a blue light, or a gun be fired, or let a light be shown over the side of the ship, and be again concealed, as a signal to those on shore.

2.-When you see one of the men on shore, separated from the rest, wave a red flag, or (if at night) show a red light and

then conceal it, you are to haul upon the rocket line until you get a tailed block with an endless fall rove through it.

3.- Make the tail of the block fast to the mast about fifteen feet above the deck, or if your masts are gone, to the highest secure part of the vessel ; and when the tail block is made fast, and the rocket line unbent from the whip, let one of the crew, separated from the rest, make the signal required by Article 1. above.

4.-As soon as the signal is seen on shore, a hawser will be bent to the whip line, and will be hauled off to the ship by those on shore.

5.- When the hawser is got on board, the crew should at once make it fast to the same part of the ship as the tailed block is made fast to, only about eighteen inches higher, taking care that there are no turns of the whip line round the hawser.

6.-When the hawser has been made fast on board, the signal directed by Article 1. above is to be repeated.

7.-The men on shore will then pull the hawser taut, and by means of the whip line will haul off to the ship a sling life buoy fitted with petticoat breeches. The person to be hauled ashore is to get into this sling, thrusting his legs through the breeches and resting his armpits on the life-buoy. When he is in and secure, one of the crew must be separated from the rest and again signal to the shore as directed in Article 1. above. The people on shore will then haul the person in the sling to the shore, and when he has landed will haul back the empty sling to the ship for others. This operation will be repeated to and fro until all persons are hauled ashore from the wrecked vessel.

8.-It may sometimes happen that the state of the weather and the condition of the ship will not admit of a hawser being set up, in which case the sling will be hauled off instead, and the persons to be rescued will be hauled in it through the surf instead of along the hawser.

Masters and crews of wrecked vessels should bear in mind that the success in landing them may in a great measure DEPEND UPON THEIR COOLNESS AND ATTENTION TO THE RULES HERE LAID DOWN; and that by attending to them many lives are annually saved by the Mortar and Rocket Apparatus on the Coasts of the United Kingdom.

The system of signalling must be strictly adhered to ; and all women, children, passengers, and helpless persons should be landed before the crew of the ship.

CHARTER-PARTY. A CHARTER-PARTY is an agreement between a master, or his owner, or agent, and a merchant, that the ship shall be at the merchant's disposal for the conveyance of merchandise from one place to another at a certain rate, according to the description of goods to be carried.

FREIGHT. Freight is the amount paid by the merchant who hires the ship for his use for a certain time or voyage.

BILL OF LADING. A BILL OF LADING is a receipt, signed by the master, or some person on his behalf, for goods received on board the ship. There are usually three Bills of Lading; one for the captain, one for the shipper, and the other is transmitted to the merchant to whom the goods are consigned.

INVOICE. An Invoice is a description of the cargo on board ship, stating quantity, quality, weight, or measure.

MANIFEST. A MANIFEST is a statement made by the master of the ship, stating her name, register tonnage, and a full and minute description of all the cargo and stores on board the ship, to the best of his knowledge.

BOTTOMRY BOND. A BOTTOMRY Bond is a mortgage of the ship's bottom and cargo (if any) and must be the first thing paid, and within the time specified by the mortgagee. In case of two or three Bottomry Bonds on a ship, the last is payable first. The premium upon a Bottomry Bond varies from 10 to 50 per cent., and is even more in some cases.

PROTEST. A PROTEST is an account given by the master of the damage done either to the ship, or her cargo, masts, sails, anchors, &c., and must be made in order to obtain the insurance. In case a Protest is made in a Foreign Country, it is not necessary to extend the same until after the arrival of the ship in England. A Protest is generally required to be made to enable a master to claim demurrage, and also to claim damages for non-fulfilment of charter.

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