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THE TRAGEDY

OF

JULIUS CÆSAR

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JULIUS CÆSAR.
OCTAVIUS CÆSAR,
MARCUS ANTONIUS, Triumvirs after the death of Julius Cæsar.
M. Æmilius LEPIDUS,)
CICERO,
PUBLIUS, Senators.
POPILIUS LENA,
MARCUS BRUTUS,
CASSIUS,
CASCA,
TREBONIUS,

Conspirators against Julius Cæsar.
LIGARIUS,
DECIUS BRUTUS,
METELLUS CIMBER,
CINNA,
FLAVIUS and MARULLUS, Tribunes.
ARTEMIDORUS, a Sophist of Cnidos.
A Soothsayer.
CINNA, a Poet. Another Poet.
LUCILIUS, TITINIUS, MESSALA, Young Cato, and VOLUMNIUS,

Friends to Brutus and Cassius.
VARRO, CLITUS, CLAUDIUS, STRATO, LUCIUS, DARDANIUS, Ser-

vants to Brutus. PINDARUS, Servant to Cassius.

CALPURNIA, Wife to Cæsar.
PORTIA, Wife to Brutus.
Senators, Citizens, Guards, Attendants, etc.

Scene: During a great part of the Play, at Rome; afterwards at

Sardis and near Philippi.

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Flav. Hence ! home, you idle creatures, get you home:

Is this a holiday? What! know you not,
Being mechanical, you ought not walk

Upon a labouring day without the sign Act I. Scene 1.) In the Folios each act is headed “ Actus Primus, Secundus," etc., “Scæna Prima.” The scenes are not distinguished from one another, nor are the places specified in which the scene is laid.

Marullus) is spelt Murellus or Mur- The ellipse of the verb of motion with rellus, and several other proper names adverbs and adverbial phrases is very are wrongly spelt in the Folios. In common. Compare Marmion's last such cases we may leave the wrong words, “Charge, Chester, charge ! spelling unaltered, when it is in ac- On, Stanley, on!” and line 74. cordance with North's Plutarch. As 3. ought not walk] For the omission Marullus is spelt correctly by North, of “to” before infinitives, where we the wrong spelling of the word may now insert it, and vice versá, see be attributed to the copyist or the Abbott's Shakespearian Grammar, printer rather than to Shakespeare. sec. 351. Therefore the correct spelling is re 4. a labouring day) a working day stored in the text.

as opposed to a holiday. " Labour1. Hence, home] go hence, go home. ing" would usually be explained here

of your profession ? Speak, what trade art thou ?

5 First Com. Why, sir, a carpenter. Mar. Where is thy leather apron, and thy rule?

What dost thou with thy best apparel on?

You, sir, what trade are you?
Second Com. Truly, sir, in respect of a fine workman,

I am but, as you would say, a cobbler.
Mar. But what trade art thou ? Answer me directly.
Second Com. A trade, sir, that I hope I may use

with a safe conscience; which is, indeed, sir, a
mender of bad soles.

15 15. soles] soules F 1, 2; souls F 3; soals F 4. as a verbal noun used adjectivally. sense in Winter's Tale, v. i. 35: Craik compares walking stick” and “There is none worthy, respecting “riding coat.” It may, however, be her that's gone." regarded as an instance of hypallage, 12, what trade art thou ?] The and compared with “idle hours, " second citizen has already declared “idle bed," 11. i. 117, "thirsty evil,” his trade by saying that he is a cobbler Measure for Measure, 1. ii. 134, or mender of shoes. Marullus, howmarried life," "hungry prey," 1 Henry ever, from the context naturally takes VI. 1. ii. 28, “ lovers' absent hours," the word " cobbler” in its other sense, Othello, ii. iv. 174, and morientes as meaning a clumsy workman. voces in Cicero.

12. thou] in Shakespeare's time 4. without the sign] There does not was used in addressing near relations appear to have been any law to this or intimate friends, and, as here, in effect in Elizabethan England or addressing inferiors. When an equal, ancient Rome. There were, how who is not an intimate friend, is ever, sumptuary laws in England up addressed in the singular number, to the reign of James I., requiring men insult is intended. Compare the use to dress in accordance with their

rank, of "thou” as a verb in Twelfth Night, and perhaps custom supplemented this iii. ii. 48. The citizens never venby requiring that artisans should on ture to use the singular pronoun in working days show, by clear external addressing Marullus or Flavius. On signs, what trade they belonged to. the other hand, "you" is often used in

5. what trade] of what trade. Speaking to inferiors to express anger, Compare ii . 301.

as in line 9, where both the “sir" and 7. rule] a piece of wood used by the "you" show that the speaker is carpenters to keep their lines straight. adopting sarcastically the attitude of Compare “Mechanic slaves with mock respect. See Abbott, sec. 233. greasy aprons, rules and hammers," 12. directly] plainly, in a straightAntony and Cleopatra, v. ii. 209. forward manner.

10. in respect of] as compared with. 15. soles] The reference to con“Respecting” is used in the same science is intended to make Marullus

a

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