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Mar. What trade, thou knave? thou naughty knave,

what trade? Second Com. Nay, I beseech you, sir, be not out

with me: yet, if you be aut, sir, I can mend you. Mar. What meanest thou by that? Mend me, thou

saucy fellow!
Second Com. Why, sir, cobble you.
Flav. Thou art a cobbler, art thou ?
Second Com. Truly, sir, all that I live by is with the

awl: I meddle with no tradesman's matters, nor
woman's matters : but withal I am, indeed, sir, a
surgeon to old shoes; when they are in great

25

16. Mar.] Fla. Ff. 26. woman's] womens F 1; womans F 2, 3, 4; withal I] F 1; withall I F2, 3; withal, 1 F 4.

think that the citizen is speaking of "out" in the sense of "worn out," souls. Shakespeare makes the same “torn," which sense still survives in play upon words in Romeo and Juliet, the expression, "out at the elbows." 1. iv. 15, and in the Merchant of Venice, Compare the pun in Measure for iv. i. 123:

Measure, 11. i. 59. “Not on thy sole, but on thy soul, 26. woman's] for “tradeswoman's," harsh Jew,

the prefix "trades” being carried on Thou makest thy knife clean,". from “ tradesman's" to a woman's," where some difference of pronuncia- as in Othello, 1. i. 30, where "betion is required to make the meaning lee'd and calm’d" = "be-lee'd and beintelligible to the audience.

calm’d,” and Lear, ill. iv. 135, 16. What trade, etc.] The Folios “The wall-newt and the water," i.e. assign this question to Flavius, and the "water-newt." next question to Marullus. But the 26. withal](= with all, i.e. in addi. word "sme” in line 20 shows that the tion to all) is here an adverb meaning two questions must be assigned to the “moreover,” and introduces addisame speaker, whether that speaker tional information. The sound also be Flavius or Marullus.

suggests “with awl.” Most of the 16. naughty] wicked or worthless. later editors follow Steevens, who reads In Shakespeare's time the term was “with awl," and puts a full stop after applied to inanimate objects and "awl” and a comma before “but.” grown-up men, and not, as now, con- In this case the secondary meaning fined to children. Compare Lear, suggested by the play upon words is III. vii

. 37, Merchant of Venice, v. i. “ with all,” i.e." with everything," so 91, Prov. vi. 12, and Jer. xxiv, 2, that in one sense the sound of the words "very naughty figs."

expresses an apparent contradiction, 18, 19. out with] angry with. Im- namely, that he meddles with everymediately afterwards the cobbler uses thing, but with no kind of trade.

danger, I recover them. As proper men as
ever trod upon neat's-leather have gone upon
my handiwork.

30 Flav. But wherefore art not in thy shop to-day?

Why dost thou lead these men about the streets? Second Com. Truly, sir, to wear out their shoes, to

get myself into more work. But, indeed, sir,
we make holiday to see Cæsar and to rejoice 35

in his triumph. Mar. Wherefore rejoice? What conquest brings he

home? What tributaries follow him to Rome To grace in captive bonds his chariot wheels ? You blocks, you stones, you worse than senseless things!

40
O you hard hearts, you cruel men of Rome,
Knew you not Pompey? Many a time and

oft
Have you climb'd up to walls and battlements,

To towers and windows, yea, to chimney-tops, 42. Pompey?] Pompey Ff; oft) oft? Ff. 44. windows,] windowes? Ff.

28. recover] keeps up the metaphor, the second person singular, because as it means to "restore to health,” as the number and person are sufficiently well as to "mend by covering the indicated by the suffix. The suffix rents with patches," although there "t" is etymologically equivalent to is a slight difference between the “thou.” pronunciation of the verb in these two 34. indeed] introduces the direct senses.

(see line 12), plain, serious answer. 28. proper] fine, good - looking, 38. What tributaries] This is a handsome.

rhetorical question expecting a negaupon neat's · leather] tive answer. walked in shoes. Compare Tempest, 39. captive bonds] Compare “sterile 11. ii. 73, “He's a present for any curse,” ii. 9. emperor that ever trod on neat's 40. stones] See note on 111. ii. 147. leather."

41. hard hearts] For the metonymy 31. art] The ellipse of the pro- compare “slow bellies,” Epistlé to nominal subject is most common in Titus i. 12.

29. trod

45

50

Your infants in your arms, and there have sat
The livelong day, with patient expectation,
To see great Pompey pass the streets of Rome :
And when you saw his chariot but appear,
Have you not made an universal shout,
That Tiber trembled underneath her banks,
To hear the replication of your sounds
Made in her concave shores?
And do you now put on your best attire ?
And do you now cull out a holiday?
And do you now strew flowers in his way,
That comes in triumph over Pompey's blood ?
Be gone!
Run to your houses, fall upon your knees,
Pray to the gods to intermit the plague

That needs must light on this ingratitude.
Flav. Go, go, good countrymen, and for this fault

55

60

Assemble all the poor men of your sort;

48. but appear) only appear, before “Say to your sons-Lo, here his it actually came near and passed grave them. Abbott, sec. 139, takes a but” Who victor died on Gadite with “chariot,” in which case the wave." meaning would be "only his chariot," 56. blood) offspring. Compare Pompey himself being too distant to 1 Henry VI. iv. v. 16: be distinctly visible. His interpreta. “The world will say he is not tion of the passage is supported by III. Talbot's blood, ii. 196.

That basely fled when noble 50. her banks] It is strange to find Talbot stood." the river, whom the Romans adored Cæsar's last triumph here referred to as Father Tiber, personified in the celebrated his victory over the sons of feminine gender here and in line 52. Pompey in Spain. Plutarch says Although all rivers are masculine in that this triumph “did as much Latin, even Milton in Comus personi- offend the Romans and more than fies the Severn as a female goddess anything that he had ever done before ; under the name of Sabrina.

because he had not overcome captains 56. That] has for antecedent the that were strangers, nor barbarous possessive “his” in the preceding line. kings, but had destroyed the sons of This construction is still common in the noblest man of Rome, whom poetry, e.g. Marmion, Int. i. 71: fortune had overthrown."

Draw them to Tiber banks, and weep your tears
Into the channel, till the lowest stream
Do kiss the most exalted shores of all.

65
[Exeunt all the Commoners.
See whether their basest mettle be not mov'd;
They vanish tongue-tied in their guiltiness.
Go you down that way towards the Capitol ;
This way will I. Disrobe the images

If you do find them deck'd with ceremonies. 70 Mar. May we do so?

You know it is the feast of Lupercal. Flav. It is no matter; let no images

66. whether) where Ff; mettle] Ff, metal Johnson and later editors.

sec. 22.

59:

63. Tiber banks] the banks of Flavius and Marullus, went and pulled Tiber. “Tiber is used adjectiv- down(Plutarch). ally. Compare v. i. 34 and Abbott, 70. ceremonies] symbols of honour

and majesty, namely, the diadems 65. the most exalted shores) the mentioned in the above quotation highest banks. The passage is hyper- from Plutarch, which are called bolical. “Lowest " or "highest" is trophies in line 74, and scarfs in ii. 289. redundant, as the lowness of the For this concrete use of " ceremony," stream implies the height of the banks, compare Measure for Measure, II. ii. and vice versa.

66. whether) is spelt " where” in “ No ceremony that to great ones the Folios, which indicates that it must 'longs, be pronounced as a monosyllable. Not the king's crown, nor the Abbott compares the contraction of deputed sword, “other” into "or."

The marshal's truncheon, nor the 66. basest mettle] their disposition judge's robe, base though it be. “Metal" and Become them with one half so “mettle” are etymologically the same good a grace word, although the latter spelling is As mercy does." now preferred to express "courage." 72. the feast of Lupercal] the The two spellings appear to have Lupercalia, a festival celebrated at been used indiscriminately in Shake Rome on 15th February in honour of speare's time. Here “basest” indi. Lupercus, the god who defended sheep cates that the speaker is consciously against wolves. Shakespeare probusing metaphorical language.

ably Anglicises the name of the 69. Disrobe the images] “There feast in this short form for metrical were set up images of Cæsar in the convenience. In Latin lupercal meant city, with diadems upon their heads a cavern on the Palatine hill sacred to like kings. Those the two tribunes, Lupercus.

Be hung with Cæsar's trophies. I'll about
And drive away the vulgar from the streets : 75
So do you too where you perceive them thick.
These growing feathers pluck'd from Cæsar's wing
Will make him fly an ordinary pitch,
Who else would soar above the view of men
And keep us all in servile fearfulness. [Exeunt.

SCENE II.— The Same. A public Place. Enter, in procession, with music, CÆSAR; ANTONY, for the

course; CALPURNIA, PORTIA, DECIUS, CICERO,
BRUTUS, CASSIUS, and CASCA; a great crowd

following, among them a Soothsayer.
Cæs. Calpurnia !
Casca.
Peace, ho! Cæsar speaks.

[Music ceases. Cæs.

Calpurnia !

1, 7, 183. Calpurnia] Calphurnia Ff.

74. Cæsar's trophies] ornaments in participial construction, in which an honour of Cæsar. A trophy now abstract idea is expressed by a conmeans a sign of victory generally con- crete noun and a participle. Compare sisting of spoil taken from the con. P. L. x. 332 and Othello, 11. iii. 350 : quered, but in Shakespeare it means "All seals and symbols of redeemed any honourable decoration, such as sin," i.e. of the redemption of sin. thé diadems on Cæsar's images. In 78. pitch] being a term of falconry, Hamlet, iv. vii. 173, Ophelia's keeps up the metaphor. Compare "coronet weeds” are identical with Richard 11. 1. i. 109: “How high "her weedy trophies " in line 175. a pitch his resolution soars."

74. I'll about] I'll go about. Compare line 1.

Scene II. 75. the vulgar] Compare the use of 1. Calpurnia] The name is gener"the general” in 11. i. 12 and in ally but not always spelt correctly Hamlet

, 11. ii. 465: “Caviare to without the "h" in North's Plutarch. the general.”

1. Peace, ho] Here Casca shows 77. These growing feathers plucked] himself to be one of Cæsar's most the plucking of these growing feathers. servile flatterers, unless he is speaking This is a good instance of the Latin ironically.

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