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House of Lords ; nor is it our own judgment after reading one of Lord Dufferin's speeches in Canada. Here, at least, are ideas of policy, vigorous, sagacious, and imperial. We believe that the English aristocracy are still animated by the old principle of noblesse oblige, on which all great patrician orders must build their success. Protection—the word is by no means synonymous with restriction-has been the chief feature of their policy in all ages of their history. In the Catholic days protection flourished under the form of religious and military tutelage ; it was afforded by monastic charity and feudal obligation. When the order of the national life was modified by the Reformation, it identified itself with patriotism, and assumed the guardianship of the national liberties. And now, when the people has declared itself free from the state of pupilage, protection may take its last, perhaps its noblest form, of leadership and example. The lifelong devotion of some members of the aristocracy to the cause of their poor and suffering countrymen ; the large enterprise of others in the field of material improvement ; the opportunities that all of them

-inheriting as they do the best English tradition of art, letters, and breeding-possess for elevating the standard of taste and manners, too long debased and vulgarized by the predominant influence of money : all this seems to point to the wide field of action and administration that opens before them in the future. As the leaders of free opinion among their countrymen they may find some compensation for the loss of the old protective and paternal system of government which they fought so valiantly to retain under the banner of the Duke of Wellington.

ART. IV.-1. The History and Antiquities of the Archiepiscopal

Palace of Lambeth ; with an Appendix. By Dr. A. C. Ducarel. 2. A Concise Account of Lambeth Palace. By W. Herbert and

E. W. Brayley. London, 1806. 3. The History and Antiquities of the Parish of Lambeth and the

Archiepiscopal Palace. By Thomas Allen. London, 1827. 4. Ditto Ditto. By John Tanswell, of the Inner Temple, &c.

London, 1858. 5. Stray Studies from History of England, fc. By John

Richard Green. London, 1876. TOR nearly seven centuries, and during a succession of

T exactly fifty occupants of the See, Lambeth Palace, or, as it was formerly called, Lambeth House, has been the official residence of the Archbishops of Canterbury. That they should

have taken up their abode here, on the banks of the Thames, outside their own diocese, at a time when they already possessed nearly a dozen palaces within it, is itself a fact of historical interest, and indeed one of no little political and ecclesiastical significance ; for it is nothing less than a standing memorial of a great struggle with the Papacy: a protest of the English Church against the dictation of Rome; and also of her championship of the interests of the people.

It arose thus. In the latter part of the twelfth century, there had been a long-protracted contest between the two conjoint yet often rival authorities at Canterbury, the Archbishops of the Province and the monks of the Priory of Christ Church. To escape from an interference of these his nominal counsellors and coadjutors, to free himself from the control which these Regulars were seeking to exercise, not only in minor points of local administration, but even in the election of the Metropolitan-a claim advanced on the ground that the election had formerly lain with them when the Archbishop was also their Prior-Archbishop Baldwin (1185-1193), backed by Henry II., resolved to have a Collegiate body outside the Cathedral City, where, with a residence for himself, he could gather round him a Chapter of Secular Canons, independent of the Canterbury monks.

Hackington, now commonly called St. Stephen's, about half a mile from Canterbury, was the spot first selected ; and a Bull was obtained from Urban III. : but Hackington proved to be too near to Canterbury. The monks saw the work beginning, and, suspecting ulterior motives in the Archbishop's designs, hurried off emissaries to Rome to intrigue against him. The original Bull was revoked; prohibitory mandates were obtained ; and the project was so far abandoned, that the Hackington site was given up. But Archbishop Baldwin was not disposed to yield altogether. Having obtained a suitable site at Lambeth, which presented other and far more powerful attractions, the materials he had collected were all transferred thither, and the building was commenced ; yet the same influences were brought to bear against him even here. His death, soon after, gave the monks their opportunity, and, vacante sede, they demolished the unfinished chapel. However, under Hubert Fitzwalter (A.D. 1193–1207), who after a short interval succeeded Archbishop Baldwin, a fresh and more vigorous effort was made; additional ground was obtained, and the chapel was again commenced on its new site (A.D. 1197). Yet even this prelate was not permitted to carry out his plan; three Papal mandates in succession, accompanied by dire anathemas, were launched against him, and prevailed.


ected, yet the sam enth, soon after, molished

The great anxiety of the monks doubtless arose, not only from the fear lest their Metropolitical Priory of Christ Church should cease to be paramount among the monasteries of England, but from the dread of losing the prestige and the offerings which were now centering round the shrine of St. Thomas-à-Becket. They felt that the glory and the wealth of their own body might be seriously lessened by the foundation of a distinct and probably rival power. All this stimulated them to the persevering opposition which eventually proved successful. Within two years the final mandate was issued, accompanied by the threat of an Interdict. King and Primate combined had not the courage to resist this; and so the chapel, which had made considerable advance towards completion, as the nucleus of the future College, was again demolished (A.D. 1199); and with it fell to the ground all hopes of a Lambeth Chapter. But, though Archbishop Fitzwalter might not have his College and his Canons, he was resolved to have his residence at Lambeth.

It may be well to explain how the possession of this now historic site had been obtained. The manor and advowson of Lambeth, according to Domesday Book, belonged to the Countess Goda, sister of Edward the Confessor, and wife of Eustace, Earl of Boulogne, to whom the Registrum Roffense assigns the credit of having granted the manor to the Bishop and Convent of Rochester. During the wars between the Saxons and the Danes, Lambeth became a position of some strategical importance, being the western termination of the ditch, or canal, which Canute dug to bring up his ships from below the bridge for the attack on the western side of London. Harold, therefore, seized it as a vantage-ground; and from him it passed to William the Conqueror, who gave part of the manor to his half-brother Odo, Bishop of Bayeux; but William Rufus restored it to the See and Priory of Rochester, and added also the advowson of the parish church.

Now it lay at an inconvenient distance from the Cathedral City of Rochester; while the much more handy manor of Darente (Dartford), with the Church and Chapel of Helles, and the grounds adjacent (which had also the additional.advantage of being far more valuable land for grazing), belonged to the Archbishops of Canterbury. So Darente was exchanged for Lambeth ; an arrangement effected, A.D. 1197, between Archbishop Hubert Fitzwalter and Gilbert de Glanville, Bishop of Rochester, at that time also Rector of Lambeth. Lambeth, no doubt, then retained much of the character to which it is believed to owe its name, being little more


the adj network of serheen amply. cence was granth well,

than a muddy river bank.* It nevertheless was not without its local advantages. Both land and water could be put into requisition to supply the monastic larders—no trifling consideration in those days. It is evident that the Thames abounded with lamprey ; for Gundulph, the great and good Bishop of Rochester, ordered a supply of five hundred to be sent every year from this manor to enable him and the monks to exercise hospitality. A successor of his, Bishop Earnulph, seeking specially to honour the memory of one who was regarded as their founder and benefactor, ordered that one salmon should always be supplied from Lambeth to the monks on Bishop Gundulph's anniversary. So late as Queen Elizabeth's time, the adjacent marsh and low lands, now teeming with human life, and a network of streets and alleys only broken by occasional factories, must have been amply provided with game; for in the seventh year of her reign a licence was granted to Andrew Perne, D.D., Dean of Ely, then residing at Stockwell, for the killing of bustards, wyld swans, barnacles, all manner of sea fowls and fen fowls, teals, cootes, ducks, and all manner of deare, red, fallow, and roo.' The sporting tastes of this Dr. Perne would, by the way, seem to have been as varied as his theological opinions, for he is said to have changed his religion four times in twenty years.

To Hubert Fitzwalter, too, Lambeth offered special attractions; it was close to Westminster and the Court, and on that ground very desirable for the residence of a Primate high in favour with his' king, already Chief Justiciary for England, and expectant Chancellor. Moreover, the neighbourhood was not without its social advantages; it could boast of a royal and a ducal residence, besides others of a lower degree. Kennington (Kings-town) was a royal demesne. Here had been the scene of Hardicanute's sudden

* The generally accepted derivation of this name is from lam,' or 'lom,' Saxon for mud, and hithe,' or 'bythe,' harbour, or bank, and has the high sanction of Camden; but no less weighty an authority than Dr. Ducarel, on the ground that the letter b is found in the earliest Saxon Chronicles, suggests that the first syllable must be the Saxon word. lamb' (to which Lysons says the greatest objection is that it has no meaning '), and canting heraldry has assigned a lamb for the arms of the parish. It was once suggested to the writer that the name was only a corruption of the Celtic word llan, a saint, and “bedr,' Peter, on the supposition of its having been once connected with the neighbouring Abbey of St. Peter, Westminster; a derivation in which Ethnology and History alike are set at defiance: for, however common and natural llanbedr may be in the land of the Celt, it were strangely out of place in a district essentially Saxon; a derivation, indeed, almost as incongruous as one humorously suggested in the * Saturday Review,' that 'lama, being Thibetan for a chief priest, and “beth,' Hebrew for a house, the two combined to give the name of Lambeth' to the residence of the English Primate as meaning the house of the chief priest ; a wondrous blending of Turanian and Semitic into Aryan.

death; death; here too, according to · Lambarde' (p. 189), on the authority of William of Malmesbury, the wise and good but illstarred Harold had placed the crown on his own head on the death of Edward.* *Hard by, also, stood the family seat of the house of Norfolk, the site of which is still known, being occupied by a large distillery, though not a trace remains of the ducal dwelling, save that the name still attaches to a small alley and a dirty lane ; while the adjacent · Paradise Street' somewhat inappropriately marks the site of what formerly composed the Norfolk House garden. The Howard family appear, too, to have had other mansions at Lambeth ; and, according to Miss Strickland (in her Life of Katharine Howard), even so late as the reign of Henry VIII. Lambeth was very much the resort of the nobles of Henry's Court, and was considered as a very pleasant retreat, with its beautiful orchards and gardens sloping down to the banks of the Thames.'

Thus had political and ecclesiastical reasons combined, not without social inducements, to bring the Archbishops of Canterbury to Lambeth, The crown had passed from Saxon to Norman brows; the Court had moved from Winchester to Westminster; so it seemed necessary that the Primacy, which had come to be at once the stay and the check of Crown and Court, should pass from the retired banks of the rippling Stour to the more busy shores of old Father Thames. Such was the origin of Lambeth


To return to the subject of the exchange between these two Kentish Sees of Canterbury and Rochester. It may seem strange that so small a county as Kent should boast of two Sees; but, as in Saxon times it was divided into two kingdoms, one king residing at Canterbury, the other at Rochester, so Augustine, having persuaded Ethelred to found a See at the former city, persuaded his lesser neighbour at Rochester, on his conversion, to follow the superior king's example, himself nominating the first bishop; and this right was claimed by his successors at Canterbury for many years. Thus from the earliest times there existed a close connection between the two sees; the Bishop of Rochester holding a suffragan or vicarial relation to the Archbishop of Canterbury; a relation which only ceased a few years ago, on the enlargement of the former diocese. Indeed, the Bishop of Rochester is still ex officio Provincial Chaplain of Canterbury.f

Some * Much doubt would seem to be entertained as to the truth of this act-an act so utterly foreign to Harold's generally-received character and conduct. · Freeman does not mention it. :

+ Of the land now exchanged, a small piece at the north corner was retained by the See of Rochester for a town residence for its Bishops. The house built on

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