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furnished for him; while Queen Elizabeth bestowed on her old friend Archbishop Parker many similar marks of favour, though her repugnance to the novelty of a married priesthood made her barely courteous to the Archbishop's wife. Archbishop Grindal soon fell into disfavour, and was never honoured by a visit from the Queen ; but on Archbishop Whitgift's succeeding, she resumed her visits to Lambeth, and indeed extended them occasionally over a period of two or three days at a time. In 1694 Mary, the wife of William III., once held a long conference here with Archbishop Tillotson on grave matters of State.
One interview, though not with royalty, the memorial of which has been preserved in the name, which one walk in the garden long retained, of Clarendon's walk,'has become of historic note. The future Chancellor, then Edward Hyde, bent on making one great effort to check the onward course of Archbishop Laud, by which, as he foresaw, the Primate would make shipwreck of himself and perhaps of the Church, and finding him one morning walking alone in the garden, used every argument he could command to dissuade him from a course with which, as he assured the Primate, the people were universally discontented, and (which troubled him most) that every one spoke extreme ill of his Grace as the cause of all that was amiss.' But it was in vain ; Archbishop Laud, in the depth of his convictions and his tenacity of purpose, based on a natural sternness and severity of disposition, showed that he was resolved to do all that he thought right, and if needs be to suffer all; and to this he adhered to the bitter end.,
Nor must the presence of royalty in far other guise at the gateway of Lambeth Palace be passed over without notice. Here, on the night of December 9th, 1688, did Mary of Modena, the beautiful and noble but unfortunate spouse of James II., appear disguised as an Italian washerwoman, carrying under her arm, wrapped up to resemble a bundle of linen, her babe of six months old, the Prince of Wales, the future • Pretender. As she was flying from Whitehall for the coast, on the eve of the King's own flight, she had on that night of terrific wind and rain crossed the swollen and troubled waters of the Thames, from the Horseferry to Lambeth Stairs, in a small ferry-boat, as, says her chronicler (who was also her companion on the occasion),
with only one frail plank between her and eternity.' She expected to find a coach to convey her to Gravesend, but no coach was ready, and she had to nestle with her child under the friendly shelter of the angle between Morton's Gateway and the Church Tower, until the coach was prepared and brought round
from the neighbouring hostelry of the Swan' (the archway of which still stands), and she was at length, and not without great risk, able to escape.
Our present gracious Queen has also been a visitor at Lambeth to Archbishops Howley, Sumner, and Longley, and the Prince of Wales to the present Primate. Thus has Lambeth seen not only England's Edwards and Henrys, but also Queens Mary I., Elizabeth, Mary II., Anne, and Victoria, as her guests; Anne Boleyn as a prisoner, and Mary of Modena as a fugitive.
From this digression, we return once more to the Chapel ; for herein lies the crowning interest of this venerable pile. Who can stand here, in what has perhaps the appearance of little more than a household sanctuary, without feeling that the ground he treads is holy ground, not merely in its dedication to holy uses, but in its memories of the past history of England's Church?
For some seven centuries it has been a national shrine Here, under varying phases of religious opinion, under varying circumstances of sunshine and of storm, have knelt in prayer those who had risen to the highest offices in Church and State. Here have prayed, and from hence have gone forth, a Chicheley, a Morton, a Warham, a Parker, a Bancroft, a Tillotson, a Tenison, not to name many more. Here, too, have been felt the throbbings of a nation's pulse, when, in those momentous crises of England's history, the Reformation, the Rebellion, and the Revolution alike, from thence have gone forth to suffer-a Cranmer to the stake, a Laud to the block, a Sancroft into peaceful retirement, rather than sacrifice or prove false to what they believed to be God's truth.
Rich, too, is Lambeth Chapel in its memories of more peaceful events, in its records of consecrations solemnized within its walls.
In early days consecrations were held chiefly at Canterbury; some at Westminster, some at St. Paul's, apparently as it suited the convenience of the Primate or of the Court. All the Archbishops, from Alphege, in 984, to Thomas-à-Becket, 1162, were consecrated in Canterbury Cathedral, excepting Eadsige (A.D. 1035) at St. Martin's, Canterbury, and Stigand (1043) at Westminster. Becket's successor, Richard, through the unnatural antagonism of his Royal namesake to the wishes of his father, was consecrated abroad, at Anagni; while Stephen Langton at Viterbo, Boniface at Lyons, and John Peckham at Rome, were consecrated in each case by the then Pope, significantly of the rivalry between the Papacy and the English Crown. Baldwin, however, to whom the design of the Lambeth
residence was due, had been himself consecrated in the adjoining Parish Church ; and no other Archbishop received consecration at Lambeth until John Morton, just 300 years after, when appointed to the See of Ely, 1480 (and translated to Canterbury in 1486). But from the days of Warham (1502), consecrations became very frequent; and, indeed, from his successor Cranmer's time till far into that of Sumner, Lambeth Chapel was the normal place for consecrations. On the Restoration, however, in consequence of the number to be consecrated to the vacant Sees, six at one time and seven at another, Archbishop Juxon availed himself of the greater spaciousness of Henry VII.'s Chapel. With a few other isolated exceptions, all the Bishops of the southern province were consecrated in Lambeth Chapel.* Altogether between the times of Archbishops Warham and Sumner it has been the scene of nearly 500 consecrations.
Of late years—indeed ever since the memorable St. Bartholomew's Day, 1842, when, as the first fruits of the appeal of the preceding year on behalf of Colonial Bishoprics, five bishops were sent forth, and on many later occasions, when, from the number to be consecrated, more accommodation was demanded, and greater publicity deemed desirable-Westminster Abbey, St. Paul's, Canterbury, and Lambeth Parish Church, have been resorted to, reviving in the last case the ancient usage to meet the requirements of modern growth. Lambeth Chapel has thus fallen into disuse.
Yet let us dwell lovingly on the lingering memories of that sanctuary, which may still be regarded as the original centre of Anglican Church life. From hence issued the living energy of its Episcopacy; from hence radiated its light of Apostolic truth and order, now reflected back in revivifying life and light. At this moment what is passing there ? Lambeth Chapel beholds a goodly array, not only of the Bishops of our own land, but of those who have been sent forth into all quarters of the globe to build up daughter Churches in the remotest regions of the earth. They are assembled within those walls so fraught with the memories of their Mother-Church's history, at the invitation and under the Presidency of one who, though a heavy cloud of domestic sorrow rest upon him, will worthily sustain the honour of his high office, of which he has always discharged the duties with a kindliness, wisdom, and moderation that entitle him to the lasting gratitude of the English Church.
* The last occasion on which it was so used was as recently as 1870, when Dr. Parry was consecrated by Archbishop Tait as Suffragan of Dover.
ART. Art. V.–1. Lettres de la Marquise du Deffand à Horace Walpole. Auxquelles sont jointes des Lettres de Madame du Deffand à Voltaire, etc. Nouvelle édition, augmentée des Ertraits des Lettres d'Horace Walpole, etc., et précédée d'une Notice sur Madame du Deffand. Par M. Thiers. Deux
volumes. Paris, 1864. 2. Correspondance complète de la Marquise du Deffand, avec ses
Amis, etc., classée dans l'Ordre chronologique et précédée d'une Histoire de sa Vie, etc. etc. Par M. de Lescure. Deux volumes.
Paris, 1865. 3. Correspondance complète de Mme. du Deffand avec la Duchesse de Choiseul, l'Abbé Barthélemy et M. Craufurt. Publiée avec une Introduction par M. le Marquis de Sainte-Aulaire. Troisième édition, revue et considérablement augmentée.
Trois volumes. Paris, 1877. W E recently named Saint-Simon as a striking instance of a
celebrity of whom little was popularly known in this country beyond the name, Madame du Deffand is another and still more striking instance. The reading public of England know next to nothing of her besides her connection and correspondence with Horace Walpole, forming a mere (if important) episode in the concluding years of her life. Yet that life is mixed up and associated with one of the most brilliant periods of the social and literary history of France. Born,' says M. de Lescure, in the reign (en plein règne) of Louis XIV., and, by virtue of a privilege of longevity, which she shares with Voltaire and the Marshal de Richelieu, dying under Louis XVI. at the moment when the curtain is beginning to rise on the scene of the Revolution, Madame du Deffand is--along with Voltaire for ideas, with Richelieu for manners—one of the most complete representatives of the eighteenth century, one of the most perfect moral and literary types, one of the most indispensable and agreeable witnesses to be heard.'
She lived on terms of intimacy with the most remarkable men and women of her time; and M. Thiers calls especial attention to the fact, that in her salon the men of rank were first brought in contact with the men of letters and lived with them on a perfect footing of equality. What distinguished the suppers of Madame du Deffand from the dinners of Madame Geoffrin, was the high rank of the majority of the guests. The "grands seigneurs philosophes” came to her to learn to depreciate the titles, the degrees, the prejudices-in a word, the classes, on which their existence depended. In the houses of Madame Geoffrin, of Baron d'Holbach, of Helvetius, the philo
sophers sophers were at home ; at Madame du Deffand's they found themselves in the presence of those whose minds they led astray whilst preparing their ruin. Add, that all foreigners of distinction eagerly sought admission to her circle, and we see at once why it is still traditionally regarded as the most brilliant that ever existed in Paris : which is tantamount to saying, in any European capital.
Her correspondence is proportionally rich in famous names : famous in courts, camps, academies, and drawing-rooms,-in or for art, science, philosophy, history, wit, beauty, accomplishment, and gallantry. And those were days when people thought it right to maintain such reputation as they might possess for talent or ability by their letters ; indeed, to make their letters a help or stepping-stone to celebrity. We have been made only too familiar with the tricks by which Pope first contrived to bring his before the world; and Horace Walpole's most cherished hopes of immortality were obviously built upon the studiously polished and carefully copied epistolary compositions, the manuscripts (mostly autograph) of which may be seen as he left them at Strawberry Hill. His French contemporaries, with independent and recognized claims to distinction, were equally anxious to shine in this incidental and professedly unconscious way. D'Alembert took as much pains with his letters to Madame du Deffand as with his articles for the · Encyclopédie;' and Voltaire lavishes on her sheet after sheet of wit, thought, fine observation, and profanity, worthy of • Zadig' or Candide.'
Bearing in mind probably the Horatian maxim, difficile est proprie communia dicere, hardly one of her friends, learned or illustrious, condescends to common things or the common mode of expression : coûte que coûte, they must shine; and we are constantly reminded, by the eternal struggle after point, that they are denizens of a country where fame has been won by an epigram or placed on a firm footing by a bon mot. This adds materially to the piquancy of the collection, and to its value as an illustration of nationality, Madame de Genlis, who has left a vivid sketch of Madame du Deffand's salon, was struck by the light glancing tone of the conversation, and the rare introduction of grave topics: clearly not for lack of knowledge or ability. I remember,' writes Lord Bath (Pulteney),
that one day the conversation fell upon our history of England. How confused and surprised at the same time was I to see that the persons composing the company knew all that history better than we knew it ourselves.'
A similar reflection on the want of grasp or depth will occur to the reader of the correspondence: who will look in vain for any glimpses of the historical future, any attempt to read the
Deffanes on her worth probably hardly mon tey muse after Pan won his