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and from their enterprise and love of change, be induced to forget their duty to their own government, and its obligations to foreign powers; but it is the fixed determination of the Executive faithfully to discharge, so far as its power extends, all the obligations of the government, and more especially that which requires that we shall abstain, under every temptation, from intermeddling with the domestic disputes of other nations.
“ You are, therefore, earnestly enjoined, should the contest begin, to be attentive to all movements of a hostile character which may be contemplated or attempted within your district, and to prosecute, without discrimination, all violations of those laws of the United States, which have been enacted for the purpose of preserving peace, and of fulfilling the obligations of treaties with foreign powers. "I am, sir, your obedient servant,
Notwithstanding the efforts of the government of the United States, to prevent her citizens from taking part in the contest between Mexico and Texas, many joined the standard of the latter, and furnished supplies of arms and ammunition. In addition to this, a portion of the United States troops, under General Gaines, advanced into the territory of Texas as far as Nacogdoches, which gave great offence to the other contending power. The President of the United States had stationed these troops upon the frontier, deeming it proper, while observing a strict neutrality himself, to require both the contending parties to respect his neutrality; and to prevent the employment of the Indians in the contest, which might cause incursions into the territories of the United States. The following extract from a letter of General Gaines, presents the reasons which, in his opinion, justified his advance into the Texan territory :
• The 33d article of the treaty with Mexico requires both the contracting parties to prevent by force, all hostilities and incur
TROOPS UNDER GENERAL GAINES.
sions on the part of the Indian nations living within their respective boundaries, so that the United States of America will not suffer Indians to attack the citizens of the Mexican States,' &c.
“ The provisions of this article, I am particularly instructed to cause to be enforced; and I have, pursuant to instructions, taken measures to make known to the various Indian tribes inhabiting that portion of the United States bordering upon the Mexican territory, on the waters of the Red and Arkansas rivers, the determination of the government to prevent any hostile incursions into Texas, and have directed that the chiefs be called upon to incul. cate upon their people the necessity of carefully abstaining from any viclation of the above-mentioned engagements.
“I have learned, from several of our citizens entitled to credit, that one Manuel Flores, a Mexican Spaniard, but for several years past a citizen of Spanish Town in this state, near the Sabine Ridge, has been lately commissioned by persons professing to act by the authority of the Mexican government, for the purpose of enticing the Indians in the western prairies on our side of the boundary line to join them in the war of extermination now waging in Texas; and that with this view, the agent, Manuel Flores, accompanied by a stranger, has lately passed up the valley of the Red river, and has already produced considerable excitement among the Caddo Indians. And I have very recently learned, from several intelligent persons in Texas, and others who have lately been there, that many of our Indians have gone over to the Texas side of the line.
“ These facts and circumstances present to me this most important question, whether I am to sit still and suffer these movements to be so far matured as to place the white settlements on both sides of the line wholly within the power of the savages, or whether I ought not instantly to prepare the means for protecting the frontier settlements; and if necessary, compelling the Indians to return to their own homes and hunting-grounds?
which Baldwin refusing to submit to, attempted to escape, and was pursued by a party of soldiers who attended the court. In the race Baldwin fell, receiving an injury in one of his legs; was captured, carried back into the presence of the alcalde, placed in the stocks, and afterwards imprisoned.
In February 1832, the schooner Topaz, of Bangor, Maine, was employed by the Mexican government to carry troops from Matamoros to Galveston Bay. The master and mate were murdered by the soldiers on the passage, the crew imprisoned, and the vessel seized and converted to the Mexican service.
On the 21st of June, 1832, the American schooner Brazoria was seized in the port of Brazoria, by John Austin, the Mexican military commandant in that quarter, and employed to make an attack upon Anahuac, then in possession of insurgents. During the attack she was injured so as to be made unseaworthy, and was abandoned as a total loss, for which the underwriters hảve received no compensation.
In the summer of 1832, the steamboat Hidalgo, and schooner Consolation, belonging to Aaron Leggett, of New York, were forcibly taken possession of by Mexican officers at Tobasco, and used by them. The brig John, belonging to Leggett, was also detained, and money was extorted from him. The consequences resulting from these acts are represented to have been ruinous to the sufferer, and the Mexican government was clearly bound by the treaty to indemnify him for them.
In March 1834, Captain McCeige, of the schooner Industry, of Mobile, was imprisoned at Tobasco, and an exorbitant fine demanded of him without cause. The payment of the fine being made, the only condition upon which he could be allowed to depart, he abandoned his vessel and her cargo to the authorities, who afterwards sold them.
In the summer of 1834, the brig Paragon, of New York, was causelessly fired into on her way to Vera Cruz, by the Mexican
INSULTS TO THE AMERICAN FLAG.
public-armed schooner Tampico. In answer to an official representation on the subject by Mr. Butler, that government promised that the affair should be inquired into; but the promise was not fulfilled.
In the beginning of May 1835, the answer of officers supposed to belong to the custom-house, who boarded the brig Ophir, of New York, on her arrival at Campeachy, to an inquiry of the captain as to which of the ship's papers it would be necessary to present at the custom-house, was accidentally, or intentionally, misrepresented. In consequence of this, notwithstanding all the papers were shown to the boarding officers, the invoices only being exhibited at the custom-house, the vessel was seized and condemned.
In May 1835, also, the schooner Martha, from New Orleans, was seized at Galveston Bay, by the Mexican armed schooner Montezuma, for an alleged non-compliance with some of the formalities of their revenue laws. Four of the passengers of the Martha were put in irons, under the hatches of the Montezuma, and otherwise treated with great barbarity, merely for an imputed intention to use their firearms against a guard that had been placed on board the Martha.
In November 1835, the schooner Hannah and Elizabeth, of New Orleans, was stranded in attempting to enter Matagorda Bay. While in this condition, she was fired into by the Mexican armed schooner Bravo, boarded by twenty armed soldiers, under the command of two officers, who forcibly took the master, crew, and passengers from the wreck, pillaged them of most of their clothes, and chained them in the hold of the Bravo until their arrival at Matamoros, where they were continued in confinement; but through the urgent representations of our consul there, all but the captain were eventually released, who was kept a long time in confinement.
On the 17th of February, 1836, William Hallett and Zalmon
Hull, citizens of the United States, were arrested in the streets of Matamoros by a party of armed soldiers, who struck Hull in the face with a sword, and forcibly took both to the principal barrack in that city, where they were confined upon suspicion of being about to proceed to Texas. Shortly afterwards, sentinels were placed at the doors of the consul's residence, under false pretences, and all communication with the house prohibited. Armed soldiers broke open his gate during his absence, forcibly took a mare and two mules belonging to him, entered his house with drawn swords, and searched every room in it, for the avowed object of finding the consul.
In February 1836, an attempt was made at the city of Mexico to take from Mr. W. A. Slocum, protected by a courier's passport from the United States Department of State, public despatches of the United States government, addressed to Mr. Butler. The attempt failed, but Mr. Slocum was fined and detained, for carrying official letters on his person, authenticated by the endorsement of the American Department of State, and directed to the Chargé d'Affaires of the United States in Mexico.
In March 1836, the schooner Eclipse was detained at Tobasco, and her master and crew maltreated by the authorities.
In April 1836, the brig Jane, schooner Compeer, and other merchant vessels of the United States, were forcibly detained at Matamoros.
The same year, the military commandant of Tampico made the embargo a pretext for interrupting or obstructing the correspondence between the commander of the United States revenue cutter Jefferson and our consul there. When the Jefferson anchored off the port of Tampico, direct from Pensacola, being sent out by order of Commodore Dallas-Lieutenant Osborn and his boats' crew upon going on shore were seized and imprisoned, and the vessel prohibited from entering the river. A demand for satisfaction was made by the American Consul, but was indig