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speed and drove them through the town. He returned to the advance after this engagement, and found that General Taylor had arrived with the First Division.

The column of Major-General Butler having arrived, the First Division was put in motion towards Marin on the 13th, closely followed by the Second Division and that of the volunteers.

This march was excessively fatiguing both to men and horses: the days were intensely hot, and the road both rocky and rugged. But the character of the scenery along the line of route was of a description well calculated to beguile even the wayworn soldier of some portion of his weariness.

In front, and on either hand, magnificent mountains were piled over one another in an ascending series, until the abrupt and fantastic peaks of the highest range stood out clearly defined against the deep blue of the cloudless sky. These mountains, clothed with chaparral and delicate flowering shrubs, presented at every turn of the road an ever-varying aspect, while valleys of extraordinary beauty, broken by bold hills and precipitous chasms, lent a constant charm to scenes which the gallant little army, with its artillery and wagons and mules stretched out for miles among the undulations of the hills, imbued with spirit and with life.

But the pleasant emotions elicited by the loveliness of the country through which the troops were passing soon changed to feelings of a more stirring character, when the enemy's cavalry were seen hovering in the distance, and reports of occasional skirmishes were passed from lip to lip.

Slowly receding, however, as the American troops advanced, tne swarthy lancers of Torrejon seldom suffered either the dragoons or rangers to come within easy fighting distance.

Near the dilapidated village of Marin the First Division encamped on the 16th, until the rear divisions came up. The village was found almost entirely deserted. The cavalry of the

APPROACH TO MONTEREY.

171

enemy, in passing through it, had driven the poorer people into the chaparral, and carried with them the local authorities.

Here General Taylor concluded to remain two days, in order to concentrate his forces. Even this brief halt was of considerable service in resting his men from the fatigues of the march.

From the tower of the cathedral at Marin, the city of Monterey, though still twenty-five miles distant, was distinctly visible. Its picturesque appearance, embosomed among mountains, was the source of many an animated remark between the officers and their subordinates, as they surveyed, apparently so near, the point at which it was now ascertained a garrison of nine thousand men was assembled, protected by fortifications of the most formidable character.

The troops, at length, certainly expected to meet with a stubborn resistance; and this expectation was partially confirmed on the evening of the 17th, by a letter which the General-in-Chief received from the Spanish consul at Monterey, inquiring whether the property of foreigners in that city would be respected. The reply returned by General Taylor was, that if the town should be taken by assault, he could not be responsible for the consequences that might ensue.

On the morning of the 18th, the First Division, followed by the Second and Third, took up its line of march, and reached the town of Francisco.

At Agua Frio, eleven miles from Marin, the army was joined the same evening by a brigade of mounted Texans, under General Henderson. The well earned reputation for daring bravery which this class of soldiers had acquired, made so strong a reinforcement, when within a few hours' march of the city of Monterey, as inspiriting as it was seasonable.

At sunrise the next morning, General Taylor and his staff, accompanied by McCullough's and Gillespie's rangers, pushed

forward to reconnoitre the city, closely supported by Henderson's noble brigade.

The columns of Twiggs, Worth, and Butler, advancing in order of battle, followed. By nine o'clock A. M., the army had reached within three miles of the city, when the report of a cannon suddenly startled the air and echoed from mountain to mountain. This was followed by others in quick succession. It was the challenge of Ampudia. The men no longer felt weary. Inspired with new energies, and filled with the most enthusiastic ardour, they pushed rapidly forward, ready to answer at once, if need be, that daring challenge to battle, the voice of whose thunder was still reverberating among the mountains.

But General Taylor was already aware, that before the commencement of the assault a more extended knowledge of the enemy's strong points would be necessary. He saw at once that the contest, come when it might, would be fierce and sanguinary. The brief reconnoissance he had been enabled to make, showed him strong forts and batteries, surrounding a compactly built city, the thick walls of whose houses might well afford protection to a determined enemy, whose expulsion would require the utmost exercise of coolness and daring.

Quickening their pace, and shouting as they ran, the troops of the First Division soon reached the spot where the General-inChief, surrounded by his staff, was quietly surveying with his glass the defences of the city.

This being done, and reconnoissances ordered to commence at once, the division was countermarched until it reached the beautiful grove called Walnut Springs, where the army was encamped for the night.

These lovely and secluded woods, soon to become famous in history as the favourite camp of General Taylor, consist of a magnificent collection of pecan and live-oak trees, flourishing with the greatest luxuriance, in what must have formerly been the basin

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of a small oblong lake. The grounds, sloping on all sides towards the centre, are naturally beautified by numberless springs, fountains, and cascades.

The grove of San Domingo, or Walnut Springs, the pride and constant resort of the citizens of Monterey, is preserved with the most scrupulous care. It is three miles long, and about threequarters of a mile in width. Within its sylvan recesses many a gay group had listened to the music of guitar and mandolin, and bounded through the intricate mazes of the dance with light hearts and laughing lips. Among its cool shadows, and where the silence was only broken by the lulling sounds of rivulet and waterfall, many a loving couple had given utterance, in the stately music of the Spanish tongue, to the beautiful fancies with which young passionate hearts build up the romance of the unknown future.

The scene was now changed. Guitar and mandolin had given place to the spirit-stirring sounds of trumpet-blast and drum—the neighing of war-steeds, and the clash of arms. Where the light feet of joyous dancers once bounded merrily, the heavy tramp of martial men now fell in measured stroke

upon

the and where delighted lovers once breathed their ardent vows, the watchful sentinel now paced his solitary round. Led by a sturdy grayhaired man, quiet and unostentatious in manner, but bold in resolve, and energetic in action, the hardy warriors of the North had pitched their tents among the cool and grateful shadows of the sequestered grove, and now waited with high hopes and a quicker pulse the fierce events of that morrow which was to bring to many a hero's grave—to all, a soldier's glory.

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CHAPTER XI.

Monterey—Defences of the City—Mexican Forces--Reconnoissances-Worth's

Column of Attack-Occupation of the Pass in the west-Defences in that direction -Operations of the First Division-Colonel Garland's command-Severe fire from the Enemy's Batteries-Fall of Major Barbour and Colonel Watson-Captain Backus—4th Infantry-General Quitman's Attack on Redoubt No. 1Redoubt taken and guns turned on the Enemy-General Butler's commandCavalry repulsed by Bragg's battery-Worth's Operations-Engagement with the Lancers-Storming-party under Captain Smith-7th Infantry under Captain Miles-Reinforcement under General Smith-Attack on Federacion Hill and Fort Soldada-Taken and occupied-Storming-party under Lieutenant ChildsIndependence Hill-Sortie from the Bishop's Palace-Palace taken-Operations under General Taylor-Approach to the Grand Plaza-Capitulation-Terms of the Convention.

MONTEREY, the capital of New Leon, is situated on the northern bank of the Arroyo Topa, in the valley of San Juan. The Sierra Madre girdles, and in some places closely approaches it on three sides, but receding on the North, leaves the whole extent of the valley and its tributaries open in the direction of Marin.

The city is approached in front by the roads from Marin and Guadalupe, and on the West through a stupendous rift of the Sierra Madre, by the road from Saltillo.

Northward from Monterey run the roads to Monclova and Presqueria Grande. While on the South, across the Topa, a road extends in the direction of Guaxuco.

West of the city, the approaches were defended by Fort Independencia, a strong work on the crest of a steep hill, and by the Bishop's Palace, a castellated structure on the slope of the same hill, below. South of these, on the other side of the river, was Federacion Hill and an adjoining height, both of which were fortified by redoubts and batteries. In front, and to the north of the city, was the citadel, also regularly fortified.

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