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ASSESSMENT ON THE MEXICAN STATES.

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put to death, if taken in arms against the same belligerents before being duly exchanged; and add the solemn admonition of the church against the violation of their paroles, I will, immediately, under that holy sanction, cause the said prisoners to be released. on parole, so that they may return to their respective families, friends, and peaceful occupations. I have the honour, &c.,

WINFIELD SCOTT. To the most illustrious ARCHBISHOP OF Mexico."

By a second letter, dated the 16th of December, the Mexican Archbishop professed himself willing to accept and fulfil all the conditions stipulated by General Scott, and also volunteered personally to administer the oath to the prisoners. This he satisfactorily performed on the 22d of the same month, and followed it by a brief but dignified address, in which he pointed out the heinousness of the crime of perjury, and the consequences, both eternal and temporal, which were likely to ensue. Each man then received a paper attesting the fact of his release on parole, and his obligation not to take up arms against the United States unless exchanged in the manner customary in such cases. The policy of this act on the part of General Scott cannot be doubted; and the prompt manner in which he responded to the appeal of the Archbishop doubled the obligation, while it exhibited a grateful contrast to the evasive duplicity of the Mexican government in similar circumstances.

The American army was now in a condition to assume the offensive. The columns of Major-General Butler and LieutenantColonel Johnston reached the city of Mexico about the 17th of December. As soon as the General-in-chief was aware of their proximity, he caused a general order to be published, in which it was stated that the army was about to recommence active operations against the enemy, and that immediately on the occupation of the principal point or points in any state, the payment of all

taxes and dues usually collected by the Mexican government would be absolutely prohibited. These revenues were henceforth to be demanded of the proper civil authorities for the support of the army of the United States. The states already occupied by American troops were held as immediately liable, and the amount assessed to the several states of the Mexican republic, as respectively brought under the control of the forces of the United States, was distinctly defined in a supplemental order bearing date the 31st of December.

The first movement towards the collection of dues beyond the limits of the city of Mexico, was made by despatching Colonel Withers, with a detachment of the 9th infantry, to Pachuca, for the purpose of preventing the Mexican officers from seizing the assay duties constantly accruing at that place, from its being in the vicinity of the silver mines of Real del Monte.

Another detachment, under the command of Brigadier-General Cadwalader, was subsequently sent to Toluca, the capital of the state of Mexico, while Colonel Clarke, with a small brigade, was ordered to occupy Cuernavaca. All these officers were directed to treat the Mexican authorities with courtesy, and to await a reasonable time for the payment of the amount assessed, and if gentle means failed, they were then to resort to forced levies. The same instructions were forwarded to the military commanders of Puebla, Perote, Jalapa, Vera Cruz, and Tampico.

Other and more extensive operations were contemplated in the direction of Zacatecas and San Luis Potosi; but, owing to vexatious delays and disappointments, these movements were obliged to be postponed. In the mean time, however, these active preparations were producing a corresponding effect upon the enemy. The result of the elections was decidedly favourable to peace. General Santa Anna, deprived of his command, and but too severely visited with the scorn and contumely of those by whom he was previously idolized, was now a wanderer, anxiously desiring

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the passport that should guaranty him safe-conduct until beyond the limits of the republic. The adherents of that party, so long clamorous for a continuance of the war, dropped off, one by one ; while those who, from fear of the consequences, had heretofore remained silent, were now emboldened to deprecate any further prosecution of hostilities.

The accession of General Herrera to the Presidential chair, and the negotiations which followed, will be more fully developed hereafter.

The brilliant career of General Scott was now drawing to a close, the war was virtually ended, when he was superseded in command of the army he had so gloriously led, by Major-General Butler. How far party feeling entered into this act of the American government, must be left for posterity to judge; the chronicler of the present day could scarcely be expected to hold an even balance while weighing the dry acts of the politician against the splendid achievements of the soldier. One thing, however, is certain : that both before assuming the command of the army, and afterwards, General Scott laboured under the impression that there did not exist, on the part of the War Department, a feeling of kindness towards him, or even of justice. An investigation of the whole matter would carry us beyond the limits prescribed for our work, if it even came within the legitimate province of the historian rather than the biographer.

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the passport that should guaranty him safe-conduct until beyond the limits of the republic. The adherents of that party, so long clamorous for a continuance of the war, dropped off, one by one ; while those who, from fear of the consequences, had heretofore remained silent, were now emboldened to deprecate any further prosecution of hostilities.

The accession of General Herrera to the Presidential chair, and the negotiations which followed, will be more fully developed hereafter.

The brilliant career of General Scott was now drawing to a close, the war was virtually ended, when he was superseded in command of the army he had so gloriously led, by Major-General Butler. How far party feeling entered into this act of the American government, must be left for posterity to judge; the chronicler of the present day could scarcely be expected to hold an even balance while weighing the dry acts of the politician against the splendid achievements of the soldier. One thing, however, is certain : that both before assuming the command of the army, and afterwards, General Scott laboured under the impression that there did not exist, on the part of the War Department, a feeling of kindness towards him, or even of justice. An investigation of the whole matter would carry us beyond the limits prescribed for our work, if it even came within the legitimate province of the historian rather than the biographer.

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