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FRONTISPIECE-Portrait of Major-General Zachary Taylor.

Portrait of General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna · · · · · · · Page 29

Portrait of Commodore David Conner ........ 55

Portrait of Brigadier-General W. J. Worth .. . ..... ... 79

Portrait of Captain Samuel H. Walker . . ...

Topography of Fort Brown and Matamoros ...

113

Plan of the Battle of Palo Alto ... ·· · · ·

·· 126

Battle of Palo Alto and Death of Major Ringgold ... ...... 131

Portrait of Major Ringgold · · · · · · · · · ·

Plan of the Battle of Resaca de la Palma ...

139

Battle of Resaca de la Palma .......

. 141

Portrait of Lieutenant-Colonel May ...

. 143

Portrait of Major-General Robert Patterson · · ·.......

• 162

Portrait of Major-General William O. Butler ...

. 165

Plan of the City of Monterey and its Defences · .....

. 174

Portrait of Lieutenant-Colonel Wm. H. Watson .....

. 178

General Ampudia signing the Capitulation of Monterey

Portrait of Brigadier-General John E. Wool ....

199

Plan of the Battle of Buena Vista · · · · · · · · ·

208

Battle of Buena Vista . . .

.

214

Portrait of Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Clay, Jr. .......... 221

Plan of the Battle of San Pasqual .. . .

253

Plan of the Battle of Los Angelos · · ........ 258

Plan of the Battle of Sacramento

276

Portrait of Major-General Winfield Scott ....

291

Portrait of Commodore M. C. Perry · · ·

302

Surrender of the City of Vera Cruz • ...

310

Plan of the Defences of Cerro Gordo . . .

322

Portrait of Brigadier-General Twiggs · ..

327

Storming of Cerro Gordo .......

330

Portrait of Brigadier-General Shields ............. 332

Portrait of Brigadier-General Pillow . ..

337

View of the City of Jalapa .. . . . . . .

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Portrait of Brigadier-General Pierce ··········· Page 352 Map of the Valley of Mexico · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 357 Storming of Contreras · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 369 Portrait of Brigadier General Smith ....

374 Storming of Churubusco ·· · . . .. ... . 383 Plan of the Battles around the City of Mexico ... ... .. .. 403 Storming of Molino del Rey · · · · ·..

. 407 Plan of Chapultepec . . . .. . . ..

416 Storming of Chapultepec .'...

. 420 View of the City of Mexico · · · · ·

424 Portrait of General Quitman · · · · ·........... Portrait of Brigadier-General Cadwalader ..

. 448 Portrait of Brigadier-General Childs ....

. 494 Map of Upper and Lower California . . . . . . .

. 523

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HISTORY OF THE MEXICAN WAR.

CHAPTER I.

CAUSES OF THE MEXICAN WAR-Revolution of the Hispano-American Provinces

-Consequent irregularities–Neutrality of the United States, Violations of it by Mexico-Forbearance of the United States Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation-Revolt of Texas-Neutrality of the United States-Troops under General Gaines-Conduct of M. Gorostiza, the Mexican Minister.

WHILE in every war the civil authority of the country in which it is carried on, will be, to some extent, subordinate to the military power, it is an aggravation of the unnatural character of a civil war, that the disregard of law is general, and that the rights of persons and property, being without any adequate security, are liable to continual molestation. The overthrow of the existing government of a country, or resistance to its authority, with the excitement and confusion incident to the struggles of antagonistic factions for ascendancy, all tend directly to produce a lawless and aggressive spirit, which is hostile to personal liberty, while the wasting of the public resources of the country by the double exactions of intestine war, give rise to those pressing necessities which are often supplied by the forcible impressment and appropriation of private property.

This was exemplied in the struggles of the different Hispano- . American countries for independence. The people were continually subjected to seizure of their property either by the republicans or monarchists, just as one party or the other happened to prevail, and was in want of necessary funds.

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HISTORY OF THE MEXICAN WAR.

HISTORY OF THE MEXICAN WAR. Nor in their efforts to raise means to support the contest in which they were engaged, did they evince much more respect for the law of nations than they did for the laws of their own country; the property belonging to citizens of a neutral power, was appropriated to their own use, without scruple or reserve, whenever it was necessary to their purpose. Although, during the protracted struggle between Spain and her revolted colonies, the most perfact neutrality was observed by the government of the United States, this impartial course did not shield her from the depreda

tions of both the belligerents. An extract from the first annual i message of President Monroe, in 1817, will exhibit the aggressive conduct of the contending parties, and the just and liberal policy of the United States towards both.

" It was anticipated, at an early stage, that the contest between Spain and the colonies would become highly interesting to the United States. It was natural that our citizens should sympathize in events which affected their neighbours. It seemed probable, also, that the prosecution of the conflict, along our coasts and in contiguous countries, would occasionally interrupt our commerce, and otherwise affect the persons and property of our citizens. These anticipations have been realized. Such injuries have been received from persons acting under the authority of both the parties; and, for which, redress has in most instances been withheld. Through every stage of the conflict, the United States have maintained an impartial neutrality, giving aid to neither of the parties in men, money, ships, or munitions of war. They have regarded the contest not in the light of an ordinary insurrection or rebellion, but as a civil war between parties nearly equal, having, as to neutral powers, equal rights. Our ports have been open to both, and every article, the fruit of our soil or of the industry of our citizens, which either was permitted to take, has been equally free to the other. Should the colonies establish their independence, it is proper now to state, that this government neither seeks nor would accept from them any advantage in commerce or otherwise,

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