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PREFATORY REMARKS.

It is remarkable that, among all the branches of history, religious, political, social, literary, and scientific, which have from time to time obtained such numerous and such able exponents, the history of the Oracles of God has hitherto, in the form at least of a complete and unbroken narrative, remained unwritten. The materials for such a work have, however, been accumulating from century to century; fragmentary portions of this history enter into the composition of many profound and learned treatises, while facts and incidents connected with or illustrative of the subject have been supplied even to profusion by writers of almost every age, creed, and nation. To collect from all sources, ancient and modern, the multitudinous details bearing on that history which above all others involves the temporal and eternal interests of mankind, and thus to produce a clear and condensed account of the means by which the Scriptures were transmitted from generation to generation,—of the circumstances under which they have been translated into the predominant languages of every land,—and of the agencies by which copies of the inspired writings in these divers languages have been multiplied and dispersed among the nations and tribes and kindreds of the earth. is the object of the present work.

The arrangement of the whole work is in strict conformity with the latest discoveries in ethnology; for, although the one grand object of displaying the history of the Scriptures has never been departed from in these pages, the origin and condition of the nations to whom special versions have been vouchsafed, and the distinguishing characteristics of the languages into which have been transferred the words of Him who “ spake as never man spake," have passed under careful review.

The elements of these languages, the stock or stocks from which they sprang, and their affiliation with other languages, have been examined more or less in detail; and the singular precision with which all languages range themselves, according to the order of their mutual affinities, into classes, families, and subdivisions, is exhibited by means of our Tables of Classification, perhaps the first of the kind compiled in our language.

The work has thus in some degree assumed the character of an ethnological manual, and as such it may possibly prove a stepping-stone to those who desire to pass from

the study of two or three isolated languages to the enlarged consideration of language in general, and of the laws upon which all languages are constructed. Such investigations, if laboriously, patiently, and honestly conducted, can lead but to one result, the affinities by which families and even classes of languages are linked together being so close and intimate, that the more deeply they are examined, the more profound becomes the conviction of the truth of the theory respecting the original unity of language.

This volume is illustrated by specimen portions of all the extant and attainable versions of the Scriptures, printed in their own proper characters.

The maps appertaining to the several sections of the work exhibit the geographical location and extent of each language, and likewise show how far the divine light of the Holy Scriptures, in the vernacular languages of the natives, shines over the world.

It has been attempted, also, from the mass of missionary and epistolary evidence existing, to draw conclusions respecting the effects which may have followed the perusal of special versions of the Scriptures. All reasonings on this subject, however, even with the most ample opportunities of forming as far as possible a correct judgment, can at best be but approximations towards the truth. Known only to God is the number of His spiritual worshippers. The Word of God is still quick and powerful, in every tongue and among every nation, and it cannot return unto Him void: therefore let us “in the morning sow our seed, and in the evening withhold not our hand.” The question which shall prosper, this or that, or whether they shall both alike be good, is one of the secret things which belong unto the Lord most High.

The Publishers would fain express their deep obligation, individually, to the numerous friends who have taken part in the preparation of this laborious work, were such an enumeration suitable ; but they cannot refrain from recording the particular value of the aid afforded by the British and Foreign Bible Society, the American Bible Society, the Missionary Societies of this country and of America. They would also render a becoming tribute to the munificence of the Emperor of Austria, who has been pleased to supply, for the due completion of this work, the entire series of Native Alphabets with which it is enriched.

London, 15, Paternoster Row, 1851.

A LIST OF THE LANGUAGES

INTO WHICH THE SCRIPTURES, IN WHOLE OR IN PART, HAVE BEEN

TRANSLATED.

NOTE, THE NAMES OF LANGUAGES IN WHICH VERSIONS OF SCRIPTURE HAVE BEEN CONTEMPLATED OR PROJECTED, BUT NEVER COMPLETED

OR CIRCULATED, ARX PRINTED IN ITALICS.

CLASS 1.

MONO SYLLABIC. Chinese

Peguese, Talain, or Mon Burmese

Karen Arakanese or Rukheng

Munipoora Siamese

Khassee Laos or Law

Tibetan Cambojan

Lepcha. Anamite

CLASS IT.

SHEMITIC.
Hebrew of the Old Test. Carshun
Hebrew of the New Test.

Arabic
Samaritan

Mogrebin or African Chaldee

Arabic Syriac

Ethiopic Syro-Chaldaic

Tigré Modern Syriac

Amharic

CLASS III.

INDO-EUROPEAN.
A. MEDO-PERSIAN Bhojepoora
FAMILY.

Hurriana
Persic

Bundelcundee Pushtoo or Affghan

Bughelcundee Belochee or Bulochee Oojein or Oujjuyunee Ancient Armenian

Harrotee Modern Armenian

Oodeypoora Ararat-Armenian

Marwar Kurdish

Juyapoora Ossitinian.

Shekawutty

Bikaneera B. SANSCRIT FAMILY.

Buttaneer Sanscrit

Bengalee Pali

Magadha Hindustani or Urdu

Tirhitiya or Mithili Hinduwee

Assamese
Bruj or Brij-bhasa

Uriya or Orissa
Canoj or Cangacubja Cutchee
Kousulu or Koshala

Sindhee

CLASS 111.-INDO-EUROPEAN-(CONTINUED).
Moultan, Wuch, or Ooch Swedish
Punjabee or Sikh

Faroese.
Dogura or Jumboo

E. Greco-Latin FAMILY. Cashmerian

Ancient Greek Nepalese or Khaspoora

Modern Greek Palpa

Latin Kumaon

French Gurwhal or Schreenagur

Spanish Gujerattee

Portuguese Mahratta

Italian Kunkuna

Daco-Romana or WalRommany or Gipsy

lachian Tamul or Tamil

Provencal or Romaunt Telinga or Teloogoo

Vaudois Karnata or Canarese

Piedmontese Tulu

Romanese or Upper and Malayalim

Lower Enghadine Cingalese

Catalan Maldivian

Dialect of Toulouse. C. Celtic FAMILY. F. THRACO-ILLYRIAN Welsh

FAMILY. Gaelic

Albanian. Irish

G. SCLAVONIC Family. Manks

Sclavonic Breton or Armorican.

Russ

Lettish or Livonian D. TEUTONIC FAMILY.

Polish Gothic

Lithuanian Ancient Low Saxon

Samogitian Anglo-Saxon

Wendish, Upper English

Wendish, Lower Flemish

Wendish, Hungarian Dutch

Bohemian Alemannic or Old High Carniolan German

Croatian or DalmatianGerman

Servian Norse or Icelandic

Bulgarian Danish

Bosnian.

CLASS IV.
UGRO-TARTARIAN.

A. EUSKARIAN FAMILY.
French Basque
Spanish Basque or

Escuara.

D. MONGOLIAN FAMILY.
Mongolian Proper
Calmuc
Buriat.

E. TURKISH FAMILY.
Turkish
Karass or Turkish Tartar
Orenburgh Tartar
Crimean Tartar
Trans-Caucasian Tartar
Tschuwaschian.

CLASS VI.

AFRICAN. Coptic

Accra Sahidic

Fanté Bashmuric

Ashantee or Odji Berber

Dewalla Ghadamsi

Isubu Mandingo

Fernandian Jalloof

Mpongwe Susoo

Sechuana Bullom

Sisuta Sherbro

Caffre Yarriba or Yoruba

Namacqua Haussa

Galla T'immanee

Kisuaheli Bassa

Kikamba Grebo

Kinika.

B. Finnish FAMILY.
Finnish Proper
Lapponese
Quänian or Norwegian

Laplandish
Hungarian
Karelian
Dorpat Esthonian
Reval Esthonian
Tscheremissian
Mordvinian or Morduin
Zirian or Sirenian
Olonetzian
Wogulian
Ostiacan or Ostjakian
Wotagian or Wotjakian.

F. CAUCASIAN FAMILY. Georgian.

G. SAMOIEDE FAMILY. Samoiede.

H. DIALECTS OF THE Is

LANDS OF EASTERN Asia,
AND OF COREA.
Japanese
Loochooan
Aleutian
Corean.

C. TUNGUSIAN FAMILY.
Mantchou
Tungusian Proper.

CLASS VIT,

AMERICAN Esquimaux

Dacota or Sioux Greenlandish

Iowa Virginian

Pawnee Massachusett Indian Mexican Mohegan

Otomi Delaware

Terasco Cree

Misteco Chippeway or Ojibway Zapoteca Ottawa

Mayan Pottawattomie

Mosquito Micmac

Peruvian or Quichua Abenaqui

Aimara Shawanoe

Guarani Mohawk

Brazilian Seneca

Karif or Carib Cherokee

Arawack. · Chocktaw

CLASS VIII.
MIXED OR PATOIS LANGUAGES.
Maltese

Negro Dialect of Judeo-Spanish

Surinam Jewish-German

Negro Dialect of Judeo-Polish

Curacoa Creolese

Indo-Portuguese.

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ALPHABETICAL

LIST OF TYPOGRAPHICAL SPECIMENS.

PAGE

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216 217

217

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HAKARI plate iv
Harrotee. .
Hawaiian . .
Hebrew . . .
New Test., Green-

field's Version
Society's , .
Hindustani . .
In the Devanigari

character . .
In Roman .
Hinduwee . .
Hungarian . .

Wendish

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PAGE

PAGE ACCRA . . 342 Chippeway. . 371 Fernandian . . 346 Adiyah . . 346 | Chocktaw . , 379 Finnish . . . 264 Affghan. . . 58 Cingalese plate vi 126 Flemish . . 165 Aimara . . 389 Coptic . . . 326 French . . . 214 Albanian . . 239 Cree . . . 369 Le Frevre's Version 216 Alemannic . 171 Creolese . . 402 Olivetan's

216 Amharic . . 48 Curacoa . . 404 Geneva Ancient Greek .

Cutchee or Catchee . 99 De Sacy's
Anglo-Saxon. 153

Ostervald's
Arabic . . 39
Daco-Romana or

Swiss
Arawack : 392

Wallachian plate v1 229 French Basque : 261
Armenian :

Dacota or Sioux . 381
Ancient . . 61 Dajak . . . 308 GAELIC . . . 135
Ararat . . . 61

Danish . . . 180 Galla. . : 355
Modern . . 61 Delaware . . 368 Georgian: plate ix 293
Assamese plate x1 97
Dorpat Esthonian . 272

Civil character . 293
Dualla . . 344

Ecclesiastical , 293
BASHMURIC , 330 Dutch . . . 168 German :
Basque French . 261
ENGLISH:

Luther, Leipsic, 1825 173 „ Spanish 263

Van Ess, Sulbach,
Wiclif, 1380 . 157
Bengalee plate vi 92

1842 . . 173
Tyndale, 1534. 157
Berber . . 331

Gosner, Munich,
Coverdale, 1535 . 157
Bohemian . . 248

1836 . : 174
Matthew, 1537. 157
Breton . . 145

Kistemacker,
Cranmer, 1539 , 158
Bulgarian plate vin 254

Munster, 1848. 174
Taverner, 1549 158
Bullom . . . 337

Ghadamsi . . 333

Geneva, 1557 158 Buriat plate vir 280

Gipsy . . . 112

Bishops', 1568, 158
Burmese plate i 6

Gothic . . . 147
Rheims, 1582

Grebo . . . 341

Douay, 1847 . 159 CAFFRE . . 351

Greek, Ancient:

Authorised, 1611. 159
Calmuc plate VIII 279

Textus Receptus. 189
Blayney, 1769 . 159
Canarese plate vi 120

Griesbach, with va-
Esquimaux . . 359
Carniolan . . 252

rious readings • 194
Carshun . . 44
Esthonian, Dorpat . 272

Septuagint . 197

Reval. 273
Cashmerian plate v 102
Ethiopic . . .

Greek, Modern:

45 Catalan or Catalonian 237

Maximus CalliopoliChaldee .

31

FAROESE . . 188 tan's Version, 1638 201 Chinese . . 1 | Feejeean . . . 323 | Hilarion's „ . 201

ICELANDIC . . 177
Indo-Portuguese 405
Irish:

In Irish character 137

In Roman . 137
Isubu . . . 345
Italian :

Malermi's Version 227
Diodati's , 227
Martini's , 227

JAPANESE plate x 296
Javanese plate XI 307
Jewish-German. 399
Judæo-Persis . . 57
Judeo-Polish : 400
Judeo-Spanish:
Old Testament, with

Hebrew Original 396

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