« 이전계속 »
arduous undertaking; but the honour of translating the first portion of Scripture into the language of this extensive empire was reserved for Dr. Gutzlaff. About the year 1835, three shipwrecked Japanese mariners arrived at Macao on their voyage homewards, and during the few months that they remained in that city, Dr. Gutzlaff availed himself of their aid in translating the Gospel of St. John into their language. This translation was printed at Singapore about the year 1839, but it does not appear that opportunities have as yet been afforded for its circulation.
LOOCHO O AN.
(For a SPECIMEN of this Version, see Plate X.)
THE Loochoo, or Lewchew Islands, are thirty-six in number, and lie about 400 or 500 miles eastward of China, nearly midway between Japan and Formosa. The principal island, called Great Loochoo, from which the entire group derives its name, is fifty miles long, and from twelve to fifteen broad, but most of the other islands are of very inferior dimensions. The inhabitants are of the same race as the Japanese, and speak a dialect of that language. They are now subject to China; their religion is that of Fo or Buddha, and their government is a despotic monarchy.
A mission, called the “Loochoo Naval Mission,” having for its object the conversion of the Loochooans to Christianity, was commenced about the year 1843. Dr. Bettelheim, a medical missionary, was sent, in 1846, by this Society to Loochoo, where he and his family still remain. He has translated portions of the Scriptures into Loochooan; and from the similarity of this dialect to Japanese, it is hoped that his translations may be found useful in Japan itself. In addition to contributions from other sources, a grant of fifty pounds has been voted by the British and Foreign Bible Society towards defraying the expenses of printing Dr. Bettelheim's version of the Gospel of Luke and of the Acts. As the Japanese characters are used in writing Loochooan, and as the casting of type for these characters in England is far more expensive than cutting the blocks in China, it has been resolved to have the work printed at Hong Kong by a converted Japanese, under the immediate superintendence of friends of the Society. On the completion of the edition, it will be forwarded for distribution to the translator at Loochoo.'
ALEUTIAN, OR ALIOUT-LISEYEFF.
THE Aleutian Islands form a long circular chain, above 600 miles in length, traversing the North Pacific from Cape Alaska, in America, to the peninsula of Kamtschatka, in Asia, so as almost to unite the two continents. These islands are extremely numerous, and were partially discovered by Behring in 1741; the largest, which still bears his name, is 104 miles in length, but many of the other islands are mere rocks. They are much frequented by the Russian Fur Company, and are included in the government of Irkutsk. Most of the inhabitants are idolaters, though some of them have been baptized and instructed in the rites of the Greek church. They subsist chiefly on the produce of fishing and the chase; and, to judge from their habits and physical conformation, appear an intermediate race between the Mongolians and the North American Indians. Their language is very similar to that of the Esquimaux, especially of the Namollos, an Esquimaux tribe residing on the shore of the north-eastern promontory of Asia. In point of number, the Aleutians have been variously estimated at from a few hundreds to six thousand.
| Report of the Loochoo Naval Mission for 1849-50. (Palestine Place, Bethnal Green.)
The Gospel of St. Matthew has been translated for the benefit of these islanders by Priest Joan Veniuminoff, otherwise written John Benjaminoff, by whom the language was first reduced to writing. He had resided for fifteen years as missionary among this people: the dialect in which the translation is made is that spoken in the island of Oonalaskka ; but there is no great difference between the idioms of the various islands of this group, any local peculiarity being readily explained by means of marginal notes. The first chapter of Luke, and the first two chapters of the Acts, have been translated by the same Russian priest into the dialect spoken in the island of Atkho. The only Aleutian translation which has hitherto been committed to the press is that of the Gospel of St. Matthew, which was printed at Moscow, in 1840, in parallel columns with the Russian version.
He haginoft; oth of St. Mosix thouse in po
CO R E A N.
COREA is a peninsula of North-East Asia, separated from Mantchou Tartary by a lofty chain of mountains. Its area, inclusive of the islands near its shores, has been estimated at 80,000 square miles: its amount of population is uncertain, but does not probably exceed 2,000,000. The govern. ment is a despotic monarchy, and the country is tributary to China, and perhaps to Japan: the religious systems of Buddha and of Confucius have each their respective adherents.
The language, being destitute of inflections indicative of gender and number, and forming its cases by means of suffixes, is analogous in its main features to the Tartarian class. It is also strikingly similar to Japanese. Many Chinese words enter into its composition, for Corea has received its civilisation and its literature from China, and the Chinese language is sedulously cultivated by all ranks as the principal learned and literary medium, and the only avenue to political distinction. Composite words are of very frequent occurrence in Corean, the first syllable consisting of the native word, and the second of the Chinese synonym pronounced in the Corean manner. This arrangement renders the language extremely verbose, but its sound is by no means disagreeable to the ear of a foreigner, the pronunciation being clear, full, and sonorous. In writing, the Coreans use characters similar in theory to the Japanese syllabic system, but suited to the peculiar articulations of their own language. These characters are placed in vertical columns, as in Chinese and Japanese.
In 1832, the shores of Corea were visited by Dr. Gutzlaff, who distributed portions of the Chinese Scriptures among the inhabitants, and caused a copy of the entire Chinese version to be conveyed to the monarch. A translation of the Gospel of St. Matthew into Corean has been effected by a Baptist missionary, and the Psalms have been translated by Dr. Schmidt; but these translations are still in MS., and their critical merits have not been ascertained. There is at present no possibility of introducing the light of Divine truth into Corea: foreigners are zealously excluded from the country, and Europeans are seldom permitted even to land on its shores.
1832, the shoreacters are placed in system, but suited to in writing, the cable to the
2 Ritter, Erdkunde, vol. iii. p. 580.
1 Prichard's Researches, vol. iv. pp. 460, 462.
3 Chinese Repository, vol. i. p. 277.
MISSIONARY STATIONS IN AUSTRALASIA AND POLYNESIA.
MIDDLE DISTRICT. 62 Auckland
. A. B. D. 63 Hauraki . . .
WESTERN DISTRICT. 69 Wanganui . . 70 Waikanai . . .
B. E. 79 Wellington (Port Nicholson). B. D. 80 Pehiakura 81 Mangungu and Whangaroa. | 82 Waima and Newark . . 83 Wairoa (Kaipara) . 84 Kawhia, and Mokau. &c. . I 85 New Plymouth 86 Waikowati. . . . 87 Ruapuki · · · · 88 Motukaramu . .
B. D. 3 Goulburn 4 Moreton Bay 5 Alexandria 6 Appin . 7 Bungonia . . . 8 Campbelltown . 9 Carcoar . . 10 Castle Hill .
Clarence and 12 Gosford 13 Hexham . 14 Hunter's Hill 15 Maneroo 16 Marsfield 17 Muswell Brook 18 Newtown 19 Penrith .. 20 Queanbeyan 21 West Maitland 22 Yass 23 Paramatta 24 Windsor 25 Bathurst. 26 Wollongong. 27 Hunter's River 28 Port Macquarie . . . ] VICTORIA, OR PORT PHILIP. 29 Melbourne . . . . B. D. 30 Williamstown 31 Gipps' Land . . . . 32 Heidelberg . . 33 Geelong 34 Buntingdale . . .
SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 35 Adelaide.
. B. D. 36 Port Adelaide 37 Gawler . 38 Mount Barker 39 Burra Burra . 40 Willunga 41 McGill 42 Encounter Bay. . .
WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 43 Freemantle 44 Perth (Swan River)'. '.:
SOCIETY ISLANDS. 89 Tahiti 90 Eimeo. 91 Maiaoiti 92 Huaheine
Tahaa. 95 Borabora.
96 Maupiti . . . . COOK'S, OR HERVEY ISLANDS. 97 Rarotonga
Atiu. 100 Mitiaro. 101 Mauti 102 Mangaia
NAVIGATORS' ISLANDS. 103 Savaii 104 Opolu 105 Manono . . . . . 106 Tutuila 107 Manua . . . .
FRIENDLY ISLANDS. 108 Tongataboo. 109 Habai . . . . 110 Vavaoo. 111 Keppel's Island 112 Niua Fo-ou. 113 Wallis's Island
175 174 173 50
FEEJEE ISLANDS. 114 Lakemba . . . 115 Rewa . . . . 116 Viwa and Bau 117 Somosomo . . .
SANDWICH ISLANDS. 118 Hawaii (O'why hee). . 119 Maui .. 120 Molokai 121 Oahu . . . . 122 Kauai
20 21 21
35 12 35 10 35 17
156 156 157 157
A. Church Missionary Society.
KEY TO THE REFERENCE LETTERS.
F. American Board of Missions.
D. Wesleyan Missionary Society
SIERRA LEONE. 6 Freetown . . 7 Kissey 8 Wellington 9 Hastings 10 Waterloo 11 Gloucester 12 Leicester 13 Regent . 14 Bathurst 15 Charlotte 16 Kent 17 Russell 18 York 19 Port Lokkoh 20 York, Plantain's Island
RIVER GAMBIA. 21 St. Mary's Island 22 Barra Point 23 Ngabantang . . 24 Macarthy's Island
LIBERIA. 25 Monrovia 26 Edina . . . . 27 Bexley . 28 Settra Kroo 29 King Will's To 30 Sinou . .
GUINEA. 31. Badagry . . . 32 Abbeokouta. 33 Cape Coast Town, &c. 34 Anamaboe. 35 Domonasi, &c. 36 Accra, &c. . . 37 Ashantee.
Cape Palmas 39 Acropong 40 Gaboon River 41 Fernando Po . 42 Bimbia . . . . 43 Cameroons . . . 44 Old Calabar . . .
CAPE COLONY-continued. 69 Salem and Farmerland. 70 Wynberg . . . 71 Enon . . . . 72 Elim . 73 Hemel-en-Ar 74 Gnadenthal 75 Groenekloof.
Sarepta . . . 78 Worcester.
CAFFBARIA. 86 Keiskamma River 87 Beecham Wood 88 Beka . . . 89 Butterworth , 90 Buntingville . 91 Clarkebury . 92 D'Urban 93 Faku's Mission 94 Gwanga . . 95 Imvani . . 96 Morley . . . 97 Mount Coke. 98 Newton Dale . 99 Pietermauritzberg. 100 Port Natal . 101 Shawbury . 102 Tamakha . . 103 Wesleyville . . 104 Shiloh, 105 Clarkson 106 Robben Island
BECHUANA COUNTRY, &c. 107 Kuruman
Mabotsa . 109 Chonuane 110 Touns. 111 Baharutse 112 Griqua Town 113 Lekatlong 114 Philippolis 115 Thaba-Unchu 116 Plaatberg . 117 Lishuani 118 Imparani, &c. 119 Colesberg 120 Kamastone 121 Baraputsa Cou 122 Motito 123 Friedau. 124 Bethulia 125 Morija 126 Beersheba 127 Bethesda 128 Berea . . 129 Thaba Bossiou 130 Mekuatling
NAMAQUAS AND DAMARAS. 131 Komaggas 132 Khamiesberg 133 Nisbet Bath . . . 134 Concordiaville . 135 Elephant's Fountain 136 Kokfontein and Steinko 137 Ugrabiss . . . 138 Nama Bethania. . 139 Rehoboth 140 New Barmen 141 Walfisch Bay 142 Karee Mountains
ZooLaH COUNTRY. 143 Umlazi. . 144 Umvote 145 Inanda .
KEY TO THE REFERENCE LETTERS. A. Church Missionary Society.
D. Wesleyan Missionary Society. G. Baptist Missionary Society. B. Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. 1EGerman Missionary Society,
H. American Baptist Missionary Society, c. London Missionary Society.
F. American Board of Missions.
I. French Protestant Mission.
J. Jamaica Presbyterian Mieste.