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ral Post-office, and Newgate prison, and who was then at the head of the convent, a little beyond the north-east corner of had not courage enough to risk his life for Smithfield, lies Charter House Square. the sake of his opinions, and a short conIron gates shut it from the outer world ; finement in the Tower was an argument comparative quiet reigns within; but its sufficiently powerful to induce him to history and aspect deserve our attention. subscribe to the king's supremacy. But
In 1348-9 a dreadful plague raged in Henry, either fearing that the prior's conLondon, and the usual places of burial version would not prove genuine, or irriwere speedily filled. To provide for the tated at the pains required to effect it, emergency, a piece of ground, called “No soon after condemned him, with two other Man's-Land," and some thirteen acres ad- Carthusian priors, to suffer death ; and on joining, were purchased by the Bishop of the 4th of May, 1535, he was hanged, London and Sir Walter de Manny; and drawn, and quartered, at Tyburn ; and, as here more than fifty thousand victims of an example to others, a part of his manthe pestilence were interred. About gled body was set up over the gate of the twenty years afterward, Sir Walter, in Charter House itself. The monastery connection with others, founded on this was shortly after dissolved, its revenues, spot a convent of Carthusian monks, of course, seized by the king, and the so called because the order originated at premises þecame private property. Chartreuse, in Dauphiny, France. From During the succeeding seventy-five this title the name “ Charter House” is years the building passed into many difderived. It was the third Carthusian ferent hands. Nothing of interest, howmonastery instituted in England; and as ever, is recorded of it, except that Queen it was customary to name such establish- Elizabeth visited it on one or more occaments after some event in the life of the sions, and that the Duke of Norfolk, who Virgin Mary, this was called “ The House purchased it, in 1565, for £2,500, made of the Salutation of the Mother of God, extensive alterations, and adorned it at without the Bars of West Smithfield, near great expense, with the design, as some London."
supposed, of making it a suitable residence When the monasteries of England were for the unfortunate Mary, Queen of Scots,
to whose hand he was accused of aspiring. eons, thirty-six quails, forty-eight ducklings, Mary never resided there; but her son,
ten turbots, twenty-four lobsters, three barrels James I., occupied it as his first lodging with a great inany things more that are to be
of pickled oysters, sixteen gammons of bacon, in London. In 1611 it was sold for named before one comes to a great continent of £13,000 to Thomas Sutton, Esq., one of pastry, and a sea of wine." the richest merchants of that day, who Such vas the consumption of funeralestablished the present institution, for baked meats, when beneath the chapel of which he obtained a charter from James I. the Charter House the remains of its In the same year the benevolent founder founder were laid to rest. died, and we are told that “high festival A noble monument to the memory was held over his body."
of Thomas Sutton is this same Charter “ Before the funeral procession started from House. If we except Guy's Hospital, the house, there was taken by the assembled founded at a later period, it is truly, as has mourners a slight refreshment, in the form of been said by Stowe, “the greatest gift a hogshead of claret, sixteen gallons of Canary in England, either in Protestant or Catholic wine, twelve gallons of white wine, ten gallons times, ever bestowed by any individual." of Rhenish, six gallons of hippocras, six barrels of beer, with a little diet-bread and a few Its object is two-fold—a free education for wafers. After the funeral the mourners dined the young, and shelter and support for the at Stationers' Hall, where they ate forty stone aged. Eighty venerable men, generally of beef, forty-eight capons, thirty-two geese, those who have known better days, deforty-eight roasted chickens, thirty-two neats' tongues, twenty-four marrow-bones, and a lamb; cayed members of the liberal professions, forty-eight turkey poults, seventy-two field pigo merchants, and tradesmen, were here to
be fed and lodged.
Each was to have “ Plenty here has chose her seat, the exclusive use of a neat room, and
Here all things needful and convenient meet ;
Every week are hither sent proper attendance; and a yearly allow
Inhabitants o' the wat’ry element." ance of £14 for clothing. An Act of Parliament passed in the third year of The poet must have loved fish. Again Charles I. requires " That all the mem- he says :bers of the hospital shall be provided in a
“ Fourscore patriarchs here very ample manner with all things.” About
Wander many a year, fifty years after, a rhymster tells us—
Until they move into the promised nd."
The patriarchs or their successors wan candles a year—which will yield him about der here yet; plenty retains her seat still, an inch a nightma twelve ounce loaf and but does not reign with anything like two ounces of butter will be left at his universal sway; how frequent and copious door every morning, and this is to be his is the supply of the “inhabitants of the provision for the day, dinner excepted. wat'ry element” we have no means of At three o'clock there will be dinner in knowing, but from what we can learn, the the hall, where, if he be punctual, he may aforesaid patriarchs find the wilderness in eat as much as he can of good meat and which they wander not over stocked with pie, and drink a pint of table beer; but if manna, and no doubt often long to “go he is a minute too late he must fast till over and see the good land that lieth morning. beyond Jordan.” To be plain, the en If he stays away from chapel on a weekdowment has in many respects been day he is fined three-pence; on Christmas shamefully perverted. The master was to or any other high festival, one shilling. be "a learned, discreet, and meek man, No matter if he be so deaf that all is dumb unmarried, and aged, when appointed, show to him, he must be in his place. A above forty years. He should neither nurse attends to him and seven others, have nor accept of any place of prefer- eight hours a day. At night he is alone; ment or benefit, either in church or com- and if he becomes suddenly ill, he must monwealth, whereby he might be drawn get up, light a candle, and place it in his from his residence, care, and charge of window; if the watchman see it at his next the hospital; and if he do, in such case hourly round, he will be attended to; if he shall leave that place, or be displaced if not, he may get well or die alone. No he refuse to leave it." His salary was sister or daughter can spend the night fixed at £50. Now the present incumbent at his bedside. If he dies he is buried in may very likely be learned and discreet, the Charter House Cemetery, but no headperhaps as meek as Moses, an inveterate stone is permitted; and after a few weeks bachelor, and full twoscore years of age the mound over the grave is leveled, and when elected ; but what about other" pre- the last trace of him removed. ferments, or benefits,” &c.? Well, it must The result of all this is, that the class be admitted he has a few. He is arch- for whom the foundation was originally deacon of London, canon residentiary of intended — the sensitive and educated St. Paul's, rector of St. Giles, Cripplegate, -cannot be comfortable there. It is but chaplain to the Bishop of London, almoner little, if any, better than an ordinary poorof St. Paul's; but all these places yield house. The time has been, however, when him only two or three thousand pounds among its inmates were some who loved per annum! Now his post at the Charter scientific pursuits, for it is recorded that House is worth but eight hundred more, Stephen Gray, a pensioner of the Charter with partial board, and a residence, not at House, with the aid of a very poor apall Pharisaic in its character, for it is very paratus, discovered in 1732 the conducting humble externally, but has within some power of non-electric bodies. thirty or more rooms, quite luxuriously But the school is the principal object of furnished. Poor man! No wonder that interest. Here were educated Addison when a few years ago it was necessary to and Steele, those polished essayists, Blacktake the kitchen garden as an addition to stone, the profound legal commentator, the cemetery of the poor brethren, he and Isaac Barrow and John Wesley, needed twenty-five pounds a year to con eminent ministers of the gospel. O that sole him for the turnips and cabbages he some prophetic genius, some youthful would lose.
Boswell, had but given us the history of But how fares it with the poor brother! the school-boy days of these and other The institution was founded for him, and eminent men! In how many cases would his condition must surely be improved. we find that the “boy was father to the Let us see.
When he comes he is shown man," and in how many others would there his room, not very large, and containing a be a most remarkable contrast between deal table and chair, bed and bedding, John or George at school, and John or nothing more. There are no sheets; he George fairly launched into the busy must furnish them himself. He is told he world. Addison, we are told, escaped will have thirteen pounds of common from school to avoid punishment-feeding
on berries and sleeping in a hollow tree, classics and other branches of a liberal edutill his retreat was discovered. Dr. John-cation. They must be between the ages of son tells us, that he was once ringleader ten and fifteen, and can continue at the school in a barring out. Isaac Barrow gave only eight years. Twenty-nine “ exhibilittle promise of success as a scholar. tions,” or what might be termed "scholarHe enjoyed especially such sports as ships,” each worth forty pounds a year, are brought on fighting among the boys—was provided at the universities of Oxford and negligent enough of his clothes and still Cambridge. To these, worthy pupils are more of his books. John Wesley, though entitled; or, if their parents or guardians a favorite with the head master Dr. Walker, prefer it, an apprentice fee of the same had some reason to complain of the usage amount is granted them. The only recent he received. Discipline was relaxed at instance of preference for the latter mode that time, and the older boys were ac was that of Mr. Henry Siddons, who was customed to eat up the animal food provided apprenticed to his uncle, the celebrated for the younger. He was, therefore, on tragedian, J. P. Kemble, “ to learn the short commons—a small dayly portion of histrionic art and mystery.” Nine ecbread being often his only solid food. clesiastical preferments are also in the His father, however, had strictly enjoined patronage of the institution, to be conferred him to run around the Charter House gar- on those educated therein. den, (probably larger then than it is now,) The exterior of the Charter House, three times every morning, a command with the green which serves as a playwhich he faithfully obeyed. By this ground, are represented at the head of our means, his biographer tells us, his health article. A view of the apartments for the was improved and his constitution estab- scholars is here given. These consist of lished ; and so it may have been, though a handsome room and a large dining-hall. we are at a loss to conceive how vigorous Here many a future statesman, warrior, exercise can be of much benefit, if the and bishop, has been compelled to boil the appetite created by it be not satisfied. kettle, toast the bread, and perform other He seems, however, to have loved the menial offices, for the ease and pleasure place of his early studies, and was in the of an upper boy. Over these are two large habit of paying it an annual visit.
airy sleeping rooms, where each lad has a In this school forty-four boys are gratui- separate bed, and at the end of this dortously fed, clothed, and instructed in the mitory are rooms for the assistants and
monitors. These last look out on executed in figures of gold on a black terrace, at the southern extremity of ground. The space between the pedestals which a large door opens on a flight of contains Mr. Sutton's arms and initials on four or five steps, leading into a small a gold ground. The center panel is of vestibule, on the right of which is the gold, with an oval containing the arms of library, containing a valuable collection of James I. Mr. Sutton's arms are also to works, in part the gift of Daniel Wray, be seen in painted glass, in the windows Esq., deputy teller of the exchequer, once at the upper end of the room. a pupil in the school.
This apartment is interesting on account Adjoining the library is the old court of its magnificence ; still more so as having room, the decorations of which are of the been frequented by almost every illustrious reign of Elizabeth, and though much character in England, from the time of mutilated are still magnificent. The Henry VIII. until the restoration. At ceiling, which is flat, was once enblazoned present it is only used at the anniversary with the armorial bearings of the Duke dinner in honor of Mr. Sutton, held on the of Norfolk, painted and gilded under his 12th of December. This is a red-letter own direction, while he owned the prem- day with all Carthusians. A sermon is ises. But the hand of modern improve- preached in the chapel in the morning, and ment has been at work, and-horribile an oration in Latin delivered in the great dictu-covered it with a coat of white- hall by the senior boy. After presenting wash! The walls are hung with tapestry, | a purse to the orator, to enable him to but the colors are almost obliterated. purchase books for future use, the members The chimney-piece is richly adorned. and visitors repair to the dining-hall. Four Tuscan pillars form the basement; Here, when the cloth is removed, the in the intercolumniations are gilded shields, ancient walls resound with the chorus of containing paintings of Mars and Minerva. the old Carthusian songFaith, Hope, and Charity are on panels of “ Then blessed be the memory gold over the fire-place. The next divi
Of good old Thomas Sutton, sion has four Ionic pillars, between which
Who gave us lodging-learning, are arched panels, with fanciful gilded
And he gave us beef and mutton." ornaments. On the pedestals are paintings The festivity is then chastened by a of the Annunciation and Last Supper, well silent libation “to the memory of those