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it often happens that these shrinkage- Petrifactions, somewhat resembling marks cross the footprints in different loaves of bread, it is said are preserved in directions; and where this is the case, some of the churches of Germany and the indications usually are that the foot- Hungary, the story being that some rich print was made before the shrinkage person in ancient times having refused a occurred.
loaf to a poor person, it was immediately We find, therefore, on investigation, converted into stone. that the characteristics of these supposed The following story of the origin of footprints, in every particular, are precisely St. Patrick's loaves, found in Ireland, is as we should expect them to be in real from Richardson, (Geology, p. 44.) It tracks. And it is to be noticed that this was related by a genuine son of Erin :is not affirmed of a large majority of the impressions found, while it is admitted to the road, and 't was very tired he was, poor
“St. Pathrick was walking one day along be otherwise in a few cases; but it is man! when he meets a stranger bringing a affirmed of every one of the thousands of sack of loaves from the baker's. 'Good mornspecimens that have ever been found. ing to yourself,' says St. Pathrick, speaking We must, therefore, believe them really wid all my heart and soul.”
'em civil. Same to you, sir,' was the reply,
•May be ye to be what we call them, the footprints of would n't be giving me one of them loaves animals.
carrin,' says the Saint, 'for it's meself that's In Yorkshire, England, a petrified shell just dying wid hunger. May be I would,' called the Ammonite is found in consider- says t'other, “but it's not loaves they are,' says
he; “it's stones they are entirely! Well then,' able abundance, and especially near the says St. Pathrick, 'if they be stones,' says he, abode of St. Hilda, a female devotee of i'd wish they'd be turned to loaves,' says he. singular piety of the middle ages. They and if they be loaves,' says he, I'd wish occur only in the fossil state, and in the they'd be turned to stones ? And with that
the sack fell down in the road, enough to break form of a coil, and in former times were
the man's back, for it was loaves they were believed by the simple peasants to be and not stones, but by the power of St. Pathrick snakes converted into stone at the earnest they were changed into stones; and they 're supplication of that pious lady. Thus
called St. Pathrick's loaves all over Ireland to
this day!” Scott writes :“ And how the nuns of Whitby told,
But the times of such superstition are How, of countless snakes, each one past. And yet, such an hypothesis in Was changed into a coil of stone,
regard to the origin of these strange When holy Hilda prayed ;
phenomena is scarcely less absurd than Themselves within their sacred bound
any other which refuses to attribute their Their stony folds had often found."
production to the operations of natural This theory of the origin of these fossils causes, such as we constantly see at work probably satisfied these untutored peasants, around us. but there was one thing wanting ; every But have the tracks of birds or other snake was without a head! This lack came animals been preserved in this manner in at length to be so much felt, that a dealer our own day? They have been ; and in these relics was accustomed to supply a descriptions of them have been given us head made of plaster of Paris ! We are by Sir Charles Lyell, who collected specitold they are occasionally seen in Whitby at mens in the Bay of Fundy in 1842. The the present day, with a head filed in the tracks were made by a small bird called stone. We present our readers with one the sand-piper, (tringa minuta,) and in of these fossils thus improved by art. every respect they resemble the tracks
found in the sandstone, except that they are smaller.
In Lyell's Travels in North America, plate vii, figure 1, we find these tracks and castings represented. In figure 2 of the same plate, a slab is cut from the Portland quarries, showing the tracks of two animals passing in different directions, and belonging to the same species above described.
Of these footprints, several thousand
walking, placed the hind foot exactly upon the track just made by the fore foot. And it is certainly possible, that if only a single footprint of the kind had been found, we might admit this explanation as possible ; but that very many, in fact all that are found, should exactly resemble each other, if made in this way, is absolutely incredible. It is believed, therefore, to have been made by a two-footed animal, though no one is now
known having a foot such have been observed in the sandstone of the as this track indicates.
Certain speConnecticut Valley, at some twenty differ- cies of the frog in the embryo state, it ent localities; and it is believed by Presi- is said, have a foot somewhat like it ; dent Hitchcock, of Amherst, that they and from this circumstance it has been were made by as many as fifty different suggested that the animal may have been species of animals, some of which were a gigantic two-legged toad, or frog! If birds,some quadrupeds, and others mol- the reader feels a disposition to smile, it lusks. By far the greater number that will be no more than others have felt on have been found belonged to birds, and witnessing developments less strange than thus it has happened that the whole are this; and if his irrepressible smile of infrequently spoken of as bird tracks. credulity should hereafter give place to
The immense size of these tracks is one of admiration at the almost prophetic perhaps their most striking character. revelations of the man of science, it will The largest bird-track found, that of the be no more than has often happened in Brontozoum Gigantium, indicates a bird times past. of a similar kind as the ostrich, but several Dr. Hitchcock calls the animal the times larger.
Otozoum Moodii. A very remarkable footprint is often found in these quarries, and elsewhere in the Connecticut Valley, which has puzzled men of science not a little. Our cut is made from a single track on a slab, now to be seen at the office of the Middlesex Company. The slab contains but a single track; but on the stratum from which it was obtained some five or six in succession were seen by the workmen, at the regular distance of about six feet; and what is scarcely less wonderful, it occurs some seventy or eighty feet below the original surface of the rock.
The works and ways of God are wonIt is very generally conceded, that no derful in that which may seem to us of animal exists at the present day capable least importance, as well as in that which of making this footprint; but such is the is greatest ; and it becomes us, his deperfection of the science of comparative pendent creatures, meekly to investigate anatomy, that we may speculate with his word and his works, to learn what he great plausibility as to its nature.
in his wisdom has seen fit to do, rather It seems very well determined, that the than decide, as some have done, ex caanimal was a biped, and not a quadruped. thedra, what was becoming the Infinite This the track indicates; though it has Spirit. been suggested that it may have been Said a distinguished theologian, some made by a four-footed animal, which, in years since :
“And then to think of two hundred thousand |
[For the National Magazine.] years for snails, and muscles, and lizards, and crocodiles, and alligators, and the like! Thou- THE CONVALESCENT. sands of ages, then, the world was without a lord or a head. The image of God, whom he She sits again in the old dear seat, constituted his vicegerent here below, for By the shaded lattice low; myriads of ages not created ! His dominion put There's light, there's joy in her cottage off for thousands of centuries before it began
home, to exist! And who, all this time, were the
For the summer's gentle glow actual lords of the creation ? Lizards and alli- Hath touch'd again with its crimson bloom gators of more than Typhæan dimensions !
The maiden's cheek of snow. “When I think of such a picture, I feel constrained to turn away with unspeakable
The quiv'ring aspen rustles soft
Beside the fountain bright, loathing.
But all the willow's tassel'd plumes “ All this wisdom did; but for what purpose?
Hang motionless to-night; To create a residence during countless ages
The very breezes seem to be for snails, and lizards, and iguanodons! Had
All speechless with delight. Eternal Wisdom then joy in any of these? No! Solomon never once dreamed of its being so ; 'Tis not another's measured strain for he declares, that wisdom rejoiced in the That to her lips is given; habitable parts of the earth, and her delights Her own sweet words of praise swell out were with the sons OF MEN!'"
Upon the air of even : We add one further item in this imper
It is no earth-born melody
She sings to-night of heaven. fect picture of the past, which, however, aids in giving a degree of naturalness to How softly comes the twilight dim
Across the sunset sky ! the scene, though greatly unlike the pres
How silently the night dews bathe ent. The cut is made to represent a The slumbering roses nigh!
How gently doth the hour's repose
Upon the mountains lie!
But yet along its glades
Far in its dim arcades
And dream among its shades.
As in her earlier days,-
To her unstudied lays ?
In those full notes of praise ?
No! no! forgotten are the hours specimen of sandstone in the cabinet of Of languor and of pain ; the Wesleyan University, the surface
The countless blessings God hath given
Are all that now remain; being covered with wave-marks, and the
And hope, and joy, and gratitude, whole pitted with rain-drops.
We say it
Inspire that evening strain. gives a degree of naturalness to the scene;
H. C. GARDNER. for we find all the essential circumstances the same then as now—the land and wa
MORALITY AND Religion.—Of all the dister, the ocean-shore, and birds and quad-positions and habits which lead to political rupeds, though of enormous size, wander- prosperity, religion and murality are indising about
, we may suppose, in search of pensable supports. In vain would that their food ; the sunshine, cloud, and storm,
man claim the tribute of patriotism who all indicating the same general course of would labor to subvert these great pillars events as we now witness; and all leading of human happiness—these firmest props unerringly to the inference, that the works of the destinies of men and citizens. A of nature, however great their variety, volume could not trace all their connection have, from the beginning, been under the with private and public felicity. And let supervision of the same Infinite and Eter
us with caution indulge the supposition nal Spirit, whose kingdom is an everlast- that morality can be maintained without ing kingdom, and whose dominion extend
religion; reason and experience both foreth throughout all generations.
bid us to expect that national morality can • Biblical Repository, vol. vii, p. 100.
prevail in exclusion of religious principle.
THE EMPEROR MONK.
and, taking shipping, he had landed, as we
have seen, at Laredo, being thus far on N the 28th of September, in the year his way to his abode at the Convent of
1556, the old Spanish seaport of La- | Yuste. redo was a scene of unexpected excite As the old monarch, after leaving Lament, as a fleet of fifty-six sail of vessels redo, journeyed along, attended by a little cast anchor in its roadstead. If we enter staff of friends and a train of domestics, the Espirito Sancto--a ship of five hun- the neighboring towns turned out to do dred and sixty tons—which forms one of homage to him whose name was indelibly the squadron, we shall see an old respect associated with the most eventful passages able-looking Spanish gentleman making in Spanish history. There was not very preparations to leave his cabin, which had much, however, that was dignified in his been fitted up with a degree of comfort mode of traveling. At one part of his unusual in those days; for it is curtained road five alguazils or constables, with their with green hangings, and has a swing-bed, staves, formed his attendants, making the while the light is admitted through no less little party, as Charles's chamberlain comthan eight glass windows. Care and trav- plained, look very much like a troop of ail have left their marks upon the old rogues marching to prison. Charles, howman's face, but intelligence gleams from ever, would have no display. He seemed his eye, and decision is stamped upon his to hug with complacency the idea that he features. When he lands at Laredo, great was now a private gentleman, who had respect is evidently paid to him ; a train cast the cares of kingcraft over his shoulof some hundred and fifty domestics wait der. At one part of the road he was hosupon him and the Spanish Bishop of Sala- pitably entertained by a rich money-broker, manca does, with all deference, the honors who, among other luxuries, provided for of the place. Not to keep the reader in the emperor's use a chafing-dish of gold suspense, we may mention, without fur-filled with the finest cinnamon of Ceylonther introduction, that this old man is a piece of wealthy ostentation which disCharles V., the Napoleon Bonaparte of pleased Charles so much, that he insisted his day, who, after troubling Europe with upon paying for his entertainment as if he his ambition, and clutching some half-dozen had been lodging at a common inn, and scepters within his greedy grasp, is now refused at parting to allow the mortified aweary of the world, and on his way to capitalist the honor of kissing his hand. spend the evening of his life in a monas A journey slowly prosecuted brought tery, having resigned his throne to his the party to Xarandilla, an exquisitely
beautiful spot, from whose lofty eminence Charles, it appears, had long cherished the eye ranged over all that was most the design of retiring from public life, in lovely in Spanish scenery. Here the emorder to prepare, as he conceived of it, in peror took up his abode for a while, until a befitting manner, for the eternal world. the neighboring monastery of Yuste was In 1542 he confided his design to a court prepared for his reception. A small band ier; but in 1546 the secret had oozed out, of followers, similar in some respects to and was whispered among the loungers in the little company which lingered round his palace. Although the morning of Napoleon at St. Helena, attended Charles. Charles's career as an emperor had been prominent among these were Quixada, his' gilded with success, yet clouds attended chamberlain, a nobleman of high family, its afternoon. His health became broken, passionately attached to his royal master, and the hand which had wielded the lance with William de la Male, a sort of poor and curbed the charger was so enfeebled scholar, who acted as the emperor's litwith gout that it was unable at times to erary companion. Borja, the celebrated break the seal of a letter. His later Jesuit, accompanied Charles as his conschemes of conquest, too, had ended in fessor. He had pretended, on receiving nothing but disappointment; so that, with the appointment, to have some qualms Solomon of old, he was ready to say, “ All about the responsibility of the office; but is vanity and vexation of spirit.” Calling, was assured by Charles that he might accordingly, his court together at Brussels, make himself easy on that point, as, before he publicly resigned his empire to his son he left Flanders, five doctors of divinity Philip—the husband of our bloody Mary- | had been engaged for a whole year in
Vol. III, No. 3.-V
cleansing his conscience. The last of the that when, in one of his campaigns, a ex-monarch's attendants whom we shall | swallow had built a nest for her young on name was Dr. Matheoso, the emperor's the top of his tent, he ordered the latter, physician. He seems to have lived in a
on the encampment being broken up, to continual state of warfare with Charles's be left undisturbed. Music, too, formed love of cookery-being sadly perplexed, his favorite pastime; and so correct was too, at times, by the interloping of a quack the old emperor's ear, that if a monk in doctor in the neighborhood, who ingra- the choir sung out of tune, he was pretty tiated himself with his majesty by allowing sure to get some sharp rebuke from bis him for his diet to eat and drink pretty majesty. On the whole, however, Charles much what he pleased.
lived on excellent terms with the monks, A few months having rolled away, and being condescending and affable in his the monastery being ready for his recep- manners, and dismissing almost entirely tion, Charles passed over to it from Xaran- the pomp that usually surrounds crowned dilla, and calling for the book of the heads; still, it must be acknowledged, he registry, duly signed his name as a brother displayed, for a friar, a most unmortified of the order of the monks of St. Jerome-appetite for good eating. Rich dishes and an autograph which was carefully pre- iced beer he would have, whether the docserved until destroyed by the French sol- tor protested against them or not. The diers during the Peninsular war. A grand weekly courier was ordered to change his service attended the enrolment of the new route that he might bring eels and fine fish; friar. All the monks kissed his majesty's partridges were ordered from a choice hands; the altar was brilliantly lighted neighborhood ; while sausages of a parup with tapers, and Charles at last found ticular order were specially provided. himself in a spot where he might indulge The daily routine of the king's life was his superstitious tastes to the very utmost. somewhat as follows :—The workshop of A chamber had been constructed for him, Torriano was often the resource of the out of which he could look into the chapel emperor's spare time. He was very fond as he lay in bed, and see high mass per- of clocks and watches, and curious in formed, while out of doors everything had reckoning to a fraction the hour of his been done to make the retirement agree- retired leisure. The Lombard had long able. A fountain cooled the air; orange- been at work upon an elaborate astronomtrees diffused their fragrance, and the eye ical time-piece, which was to perform not wandered over a district of surpassing only the ordinary duties of a clock, but to loveliness. Nor were the luxuries of life tell the days of the month and year, and forgotten. Charles, who was fond of to denote the movements of the planets. paintings, had brought some of Titian's Twenty years had elapsed since he had masterpieces with him, as well as a toler- first conceived the idea, and the actual able supply of books, and a decent comple- construction cost him three years and a ment of rich plate and jewels. Altogether half. Indeed, the work had not received his majesty had a very comfortable resi- the last touches at the time of the emdence of it; and had there only been less peror's death. Of wheels alone it consuperstition in his form of piety, the spec- tained eighteen hundred. Torriano also contacle would not have been unpleasing, of structed a self-acting mill, which, though an old man retiring from the storms of the small enough to be hidden in a friar's world to a peaceful haven where he might sleeve, could grind two pecks of corn in tranquilly spend his time in preparation a day; and the figure of a lady, who for the great change which awaited him. danced on a table to the sound of her own But superstition-foul, deadening super-tambourine. stition—tainted, as we shall find by and by, Sometimes the emperor fed his pet the whole atmosphere.
birds, of the sylvan sort, which appear to One of Charles's most pleasing occupa- have succeeded, in his affection, the stately tions was the feeding of his dumb favor wolf-hounds that followed at his heel in ites. Of these he had several, including the days when he sat to Titian ; or he an old cat, and a parrot endowed with won- sauntered among his bees and flowers, derful power of speech; some birds also down to the little summer-house looking were his favorite companions.
out upon the Vera ; or sometimes, but ind is told of him in his early youth, more rarely, he strolled into the forest