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with his gun, and shot a few of the woodpigeons which peopled the great chestnuttrees. His out-door exercise was always taken on foot, or, if the gout forbade him, in his chair or litter. Next came vespers; and after vespers supper, a meal very much like the dinner, consisting frequently of pickled salmon and other wholesome dishes, which made Quixada's loyal heart quake within him.

death. The only consolation which the poor bigoted old man had was, that he had resolutely declined hearing any of the heretic preachers argue against the true Catholic Church, or in favor of the reformed faith!

It may be well imagined how strictly Charles, entertaining such views as these, performed the monastic duties at the convent. The friars were quite edified by the zeal of their royal brother of the cowl.

Some eighteen months rolled on in this manner, when Charles began to find serious indications of illness approaching. Anticipating the possibility of his end drawing near, he asked his confessor the extraordinary question, whether it would not be good for the health of his soul that he should perform his own funeral, and received a reply in the affirmative. His funeral was performed accordingly. Here, however, we must follow Mr. Stirling's narrative, correcting, as it does, some of the mistakes into which other historians have fallen on the subject:

It was probably the fact of the artist Torriano residing with Charles, that gave rise to the saying, that the ex-emperor, on seeing how his numerous clocks and watches would not keep time together, wondered at his own folly in having endeavored, by persecution, to make his subjects think alike on religious questions. Mr. Stirling has well shown that there is no authority for Charles having uttered such a saying, and that it is contradicted by all that he did while at the Convent of Yuste. He was, in fact, a most bigoted Roman Catholic: clear as his intellect was on every other question, superstition was the enchanted ground on which, when he entered, his understanding and ability seemed to desert him. The Reformation in Spain had just broken out, and it is melancholy to perceive how Charles, at a time when he had retired, as he thought, to devote himself to the service of his Creator, persecuted unto death those who were evidently the true children of God. He wrote letters to his son Philip, urgently requesting him to use every means to extirpate heresy. Too well were these orders obeyed. The fires of the Inquisition blazed throughout Spain, and autos-da-fé rejoiced the hearts of the orthodox. "What have I done to be treated thus?" cried a nobleman, as he walked to the stake, looking up, as he said so, to Philip, who sat in a gallery feasting his eyes with the spectacle. "Were you my own son," replied the pitiless monarch, "I would myself carry a fagot to rid the earth of a heretic like you." Charles himself was constantly watching this spread of heresy, as he termed the Reformation. The only thing which could ever induce him to leave his pleasant retreat, he asserted, would be the hope of putting down such a monstrous evil; and bitterly did he grieve that, when some years before he had had Luther in his power at the Diet of Worms, he had not, in spite of his promise of a safe conduct, broken his word and put him to

"The high altar, the catafalque, and the whole church, shone with a blaze of wax-lights; the friars were all in their places, at the altars and in the choir, and the household of the emhimself was there, attired in sable weeds, and peror attended in deep mourning. The monarch bearing a taper to see himself interred, and to celebrate his own obsequies. While the solemn mass for the dead was sung, he came forward and gave his taper into the hands of the officiating priest, in token of his desire to yield his soul into the hands of his Maker. High above, over the kneeling throng and the gorgeous vestments, the flowers, the curling incense, and the glittering altar, the same idea shone forth in that splendid canvas, whereon Titian had pictured Charles kneeling on the threshold of the heavenly mansions prepared for the blessed."

Charles had too truly guessed the character of the symptoms of his disease. From the day of the above ceremony he grew gradually weaker and weaker, until at last the grand climax arrived. It is thus affectingly described :

"Toward eight o'cloc in the evening, Charles asked if the consecrated tapers were ready; and he was evidently sinking rapidly. The physicians acknowledged that the case was past their skill, and that all hope was over. Charles lay in a stupor, seemingly unconscious, but now and then mumbling a prayer. After some addresses by the attending ecclesiastic had been made, the emperor interposed, saying, 'The time is come; bring me the candle and the crucifix.' These were cherished relics, which he had long kept in reserve for this su

preme hour.

lady's shrine at Montserrat; the other a cruThe one was a taper from our cifix of beautiful workmanship, which had been

taken from the dead hand of his wife at Toledo.
He received them eagerly from the archbishop,
and, taking one in each hand, for some mo-
ments he silently contemplated the figure of the
Saviour, and then clasped it to his bosom. Those
who stood nearest to the bed now heard him
say quickly, as if replying to a call, 'Ya, voy,
Senor!'-Now, Lord, I go. As his strength
failed, his fingers relaxed their hold of the cru-
cifix, which the primate, therefore, held up be-
fore his eyes.
A few moments of death-wrestle
between soul and body followed; after which,
with his eyes fixed on the cross, and with a
voice loud enough to be heard outside the room,
he cried, Ay, Jesus,' and expired."

ness. His garden below, with its tank and broken fountain, was overgrown with tangled thickets of fig, mulberry, and almond, with a few patches of pot-herbs, and here and there an orange-tree or a cypress, to mark where once the terrace smiled with its blooming parterres. Without the gate, the great walnut-tree-sole relic of the past with which time had not dealt rudely-spread forth its broad and vigorous boughs to shroud and dignify the desolation. Yet, in the lovely face of nature, changeless in its summer charms, in the hill, and forest, and wide Vera, in the generous soil and genial sky, there was enough to show how well the imperial eagle had chosen the nest wherein to fold his wearied wings."

It is melancholy to see a powerful mind thus leaning upon the broken reeds of crucifixes and relics when entering eternity. These are a poor substitute for true peace.

About a hundred years after his death, the remains of Charles were conveyed to the vaults of the Escurial, and deposited with great honors in that splendid mausô- | leum. In 1780 they were disturbed, under extraordinary circumstances, by Mr. Beckford, of Fonthill, that pampered child of fortune, who begged as a favor that he might be allowed to look on the remains of the great emperor. His request was complied with. The coffin was opened, and the light gleamed once more on the face of the mighty dead. The features bore a great resemblance to the emperor's portrait.

THE DUEL BETWEEN Moore and Jeffrey.

The monastery of Yuste was long celebrated in consequence of its having had the honor of receiving Charles into its retreat. It is now, however, a desolate ruin. Mr. Stirling paid a visit to it, and we cannot, perhaps, give our readers a better specimen of the great literary merits

This ludicrous narrative is graphically described by Moore in the following passage :-"We of course had bowed to each other on meeting; but the first words I recollect to have passed between us was Jeffrey's saying, on our being left togethof this work than by transcribing the pas-Yes,' I answered with a slight smile, ‘a er, 'What a beautiful morning it is!' sage, in which, with touching pathos, the author records his impressions of the

scene:

morning made for better purposes;' to which his only response was a sort of assenting sigh. As our assistants were not, any more than ourselves, very expert at warlike matters, they were rather slow in their proceedings; and as Jeffrey and I walked up and down together, we came once more in sight of their operations: upon which I related to him, rather apropos to the purpose, what Billy Egan, the Irish barrister, once said, when, as he was sauntering about in like manner, while the pistols were loading, his antagonist, a fiery little fellow, called out to him angrily to keep his ground. 'Don't make yourself unaisy, my dear fellow,' said Egan; 'sure, is n't it bad enough to take the dose, without being by at the mixing up.""

66

When I visited it in 1849, it was inhabited

only by the peasant-bailiff of the lay proprietor, who eked out his wages by showing the historical site to the passing stranger. The strong granite-built church, proof against the fire of the Gaul and the wintry storms of the sierra, was a hollow shell-the classical decorations of

the altar, and quaint wood-work of the choir, having been partly used for fuel, partly carried off to the parish church of Quacos. In a vault beneath, approached by a door of which the key could not be found, I was told that the coffin, of massive chestnut planks, in which the emperor's body had lain for sixteen years, was still kept as a relic. In his palace, the lower chambers were used as a magazine for fuel;

and in the rooms above, where he lived and died, maize and olives were gathered, and the silkworm wound its cocoon in dust and dark

Thus ends this singular episode of history. We cannot but feel interested in it. It has its clear and its dark side. The latter is the degraded bigotry in which the mind of this remarkable man was enslaved; the other is the powerful lesson which the facts supply of the hollowness of the world. Charles V. confessed this when he resigned a mighty empire. May we, too, make the discovery ere it be too late, and take refuge for consolation, not in a vain monastic superstition, but in a true surrender of the soul to Him, who has invited all the weary and heavy laden of the children of men to come unto him and find rest.

The National Magazine.

SEPTEMBER, 1853.

THE WORLD'S FAIR.

to have at least one-third its capacity. Externally, it is said to be far better proportioned and more pleasing to the eye. In the interior it will compare favorably, although not adorned with stately elms or a glass fountain. It contains some fourteen hundred square feet on the floor, and when completed and well-arranged will hold twenty-five thousand persons without inconvenience or pressure. Its frame-work is entirely of iron, which, being filled in with glass, except the roofs and part of the dome, gives it a light, beautiful, and airy appearance. The main building is in the form of a cross; but the exterior angles made by the cross are so filled up that on the ground it is nearly octagonal in form, if we may except the addition not yet completed, which makes another transept on the side nearest the Reservoir. It is approached on Sixth Avenue, Fortieth and Forty-Second-streets by flights of steps which conduct you to entrances each twenty-seven feet wide. These entrances open into the principal naves and aisles of the building. The intersection of the naves at the centre leaves an open space one hundred feet in diameter, whence rises the dome, beneath which stands a colossal figure of Washington. One hundred and ninety cast-iron columns on the ground sustain girders for the gallery floor, whence one hundred and forty-eight other columns rise to support the roof.

HE great Exhibition of the Industry of all THE Nations was opened to the public, according to announcement, on the 15th of July. The splendid pageant-the presence of the President of the United States, a part of his cabinet, and many other distinguished personages, together with guests from England, France, Scotland, Austria, Prussia, Sweden, Norway, Italy, Tuscany, and many parts of North and South America has already been chronicled in the dayly prints. There were music and speeches, but we cannot detail them; it is with the exhibition itself that we have to do. The Association for the Exhibition of the Industry of all Nations had its conception in the triumphant success of the London exhibition in 1851. The United States was not the least on that occasion; yet three thousand miles of ocean had prohibited the mass of her citizens from beholding that accumulation of the works of beauty and utility, and hence the desire to bring the exhibition to the people who could not go to it. It was not expected that the New-York Exhibition could rival its great prototype. This would have been impossible, for that must remain for ages without a parallel. It was seen, however, that great and important advantages must result from a similar exhibition at New-York. The skill of foreign manufacturers, placed before the eyes of our people, would fill the busy American mind with suggestions the fruit of which should be gathered after many days; and what was to be not less highly prized, a taste for the fine arts would be diffused among the masses of a people, far too seldom permitted to witness the most meritorious works of beauty and skill. At the moment we write, it is not safe to pronounce on the character of the exhibition; but we may presume that, in statuary and painting, the exhibition of 1853 will even surpass that of 1851.

In looking, however, at these works of art, we may caution some at least of our readers against a judgment based merely upon their size. Some of the most perfect and beautiful specimens of sculpture are those of small dimensions. We were specially struck with the appearance of the "Industrious Girl," whom we almost felt disposed to help thread her needle; also with a head, over which is thrown a thin veil so beautifully cut in the marble that a friend at our side took it for muslin itself. Christ and his Apostles show to poor advantage in so narrow a space. To view them in anything like a favorable light, they must not be approached too nearly. They will appear finely in the place for which they are designed. The paintings are not yet suspended; but the same truth will hold good in reference to them. It will be well to remember the old proverb, "The finest goods are often in the smallest parcels"-" often," remember, but not always. The Crystal Palace at New-York is smaller than the one at London, covering only one-fifth of the space; but so economically arranged as

That which most attracts attention is the dome. Its diameter is one hundred feet, and its height to the crown of the arch one hundred and twenty-three feet, and is the largest ever erected in the United States. It is supported by twenty-four columns, which rise beyond the second story to a height of sixty-two feet above the principal floor. The painting of the interior of the dome is splendid beyond description. The rays from a golden sun at the centre descend between the latticed ribs; and arabesques of white and blue, relieved by silver stars, surround the openings. The building presents to the eye on entering it a most beautiful aspect, and when well-filled with articles for exhibition, as it will be before the issue of this number, the visitor may expect that even a general glance will repay him for a visit. Days and weeks might be spent with profit in minutely examining the multiplied objects of interest that will present themselves. We may expect a splendid collection of minerals, and not less so of the raw material of every kind produced in such variety through our extensive country

also, numerous contrivances of Yankee ingenuity for producing from the raw material every manner of fabric-the useful and the ornamental. Such is the great exhibition as we have seen it to-day.

Not the least interesting feature of the occasion is that it is "of all nations." What a beautiful manifestation of the principles of peace! What a glorious rivalry is this! What heroes! The laurel, at least for a while, is to rest upon the brow of the artisan, and the strife is to be for the mastery in all that will promote the happiness and elevate the character of man. It is as if the world had already begun to "beat its swords into plowshares and its spears into pruning-hooks." Glorious are the triumphs of peace!

Enibersiig of the tg of New York.

EDUCATION.

HE season for collegiate and academical

ject of Education may therefore well occupy a page of our editorial. It will be conceded that no nation may safely neglect its schools and academies; but in a republic, where every man exerts his measure of influence in all questions of public moment, it is of the first consequence that the people be enlightened. Our statesmen have been alive to this great national interest. A most liberal policy has therefore been adopted in regard to our common schools, and our academies have received a measure of attention from the State, and something has been done from the public treasury to establish and sustain institutions of the highest grade. We will venture to affirm, however, that the government has failed, in this last respect, to do what the necessity of the case requires. Before we shall have reached the goal, two objects, it would seem to us, must be accomplished: first, these institutions must be elevated, until they occupy their proper position as seminaries of the highest grade; and, secondly, the tuition must be made as it is in our common schools-gratuitous.

With regard to the first of these, it will be apparent that few of our colleges or universities really deserve the name. The university differs from the college but in the extent of its course of study: the first embracing everything in the wide range of science, the other properly restricted to those studies which develop the intellect without reference to any particular profession or pursuit in life, a liberal knowledge of which entitles the student to the Baccalaureate degree. But in either case, there should be the most extensive opportunities furnished for the attainment of knowledge in the studies pursued. The professorships should be filled with men devoted to a single science. They should not be required to teach a multitude of branches, of most of which their knowledge, to say the least, cannot be superior. A professor of intellectual and moral philosophy may teach international law, but he cannot be expected to excel in that study; it is not his chosen branch. A professor of chemistry may teach ancient history, but every observing student will feel there is a deficiency. The only remedy for such evils is to enlarge the faculties of our colleges. Every student should feel that he is reciting to a master in his profession. He would thus be taught not only by books, but by an example

ever before him, of the loftiest attainments in every given science. But the faculty does not alone constitute the true idea of a college. There must be libraries, cabinets, laboratories, apparatus, so ample and complete that any branch professed to be taught might be pursued to its utmost limit. Such opportunities should be afforded for investigation, that resident graduates, now hardly known in our institutions, would be multiplied forty-fold-tarrying within the academic walls to perfect themselves in branches necessarily somewhat slightly treated in a regular course. This would produce scholars who might be deemed as having arrived at the full stature of men of science. What multitudes now flourish as Bachelors of Arts, whose right to the title you would question, did you not read it on a parchment nearly as unintelligible to them, perhaps, as if written

as chinese

[graphic]

We would, in the next place, have collegiate education free. In this way only can the sons of the poor obtain it. An instance here and there occurs of some dauntless spirit overriding all difficulties, and seizing his parchment in triumph; but most of such cases terminate in broken spirits and ruined health. Indeed, there is an untold history connected with most that graduate. The best students are from the middling classes of society. The divans of luxury are ill adapted to the toils of a student. The money expended in obtaining a collegiate education comes generally from the workshop or the farm. It is the hard earnings, the savings of a family ambitious to gratify the longings of one of their number for a liberal education. None but themselves know the toils, the sacrifices, the schemes, and the tears which were the price at which these dollars were saved. Why should it be so? Let the doors of our colleges be thrown wide open to the poor. Let the very best facilities for an education be put within the reach of the humblest of our citizens. To such a noble position the public eye has not yet been fully directed; but the heart of a philanthropist here and there, among the rich, beats high with hope.

We cannot but rejoice in the munificent gifts of private purses to so desirable an object. It is well that the friends of sound education have seized this moment so auspicious-when gold is plenty-to lay up some of it in an endowment for the cause of education.

The Western College Society, we perceive, has raised in the East for the past nine years an average of $24,035 37 per year, and a still larger amount was raised at the West, all of which has been appropriated to aid eleven different institutions. A benevolent merchant of Providence, R. I., has recently offered to be one of twenty individuals to give the society $1,000 during the current year, or one of the same number to give $1,000 annually for five years. Most enviable will be the privilege of the twenty who may have the pecuniary ability and the heart to perform so noble a service to the cause of Christian learning at the West!

The institution, a cut of which heads our article, was first opened for instruction in 1832. It was brought into existence under a broad and generous policy which inspired the highest

hopes for its prosperity and usefulness. Strange and unexpected misfortunes befell it, and it was left in a most languishing and pitiable condition. The labors of its late honored chancellor were successful in removing a portion of the debt, amounting, we hear, to $100,000. A public meeting was called, in February last, to consider the affairs of the University, at which they received a new impulse. The council who had abandoned the government of the institution resumed their authority. The Rev. Dr. Ferris, for sixteen years a pastor in the city, and honorably known in educational matters, was elected chancellor. Vigorous efforts were made to save the institution from impending ruin. To the joy of its friends, the remaining $10,000 of debt has been subscribed, and the institution now bids fair to rise to its promised importance. We bid its friends God speed !

President Frelinghuysen, of ger's College, has also been in this city, seeking to extend the facilities already afforded by that venerable institution for thorough education, and we trust

has not found his calls in vain.

Genesee College, at Lima, is, we trust, laying broad and deep plans for future usefulness.

The Wesleyan University, at Middletown, Conn., although bereft of its eloquent president, Dr. Olin, some two years since, seems not to have faltered in its onward career. Five noble spirits in the city of Boston have offered to give $4,000 each to endow a professorship, on the sole condition that New-York shall do likewise. It cannot be that the merchant princes of our metropolis will not take up this gauntlet! The labors of Dr. Olin realized to this institution, as the treasurer's books show, about the sum of $45,000. If Dr. Smith, his successor, can but secure $40,000 more, the affairs of the institution are beyond embarrassment.

tions are confined to the rich, and that every attempt to draft upon the public treasury for their endowment or support, is a wrong committed upon the tax-payer, often comparatively poor, to provide a luxury for the rich. If this were so, it is time that the appropriations to colleges were liberal as to make them Ccessible to the poorest. But it is not so. Read the annals of lofty genius and scholarship in our land, and indeed in other lands, and it will be found that poverty is well represented. We have said the luxuries and ease purchased by wealth are poorly adapted to the toils of the student. But, on the other hand, the struggles of the poor-the necessary energy expended in meeting the pressing wants of nature-the continual tax upon the mind, levied by their outward circumstances, all fit them for the labors of the scholar. Their very poverty becomes a schoolmaster to bring them to fame and usefulness. We plead, then, for the poor when we plead for our universities. We advocate a great leveling system, not by dragging the wealthy down to a level with the poor, but by elevating the poor, as far as may be, to the privileges enjoyed by wealth. All cannot be professional men, but a much greater number may be liberally educated than at present. We see no reason why the farmer or mechanic should not have the greatest privileges in this respect. If the advantages of a superior education were more general, our State Legislatures would not exhibit so many instances of a narrow, ignoble policy. Our circles of prayer, and our meetings for exhortation, would present us with more elevated exercises; and men would be everywhere found for the religious and political exigences that are ever recurring. All the world would be better. Then let the sun of science shine for all!

We have heard it suggested in certain quarters that Columbia College, of this city, is so circumstanced that she may, ere long, throw open her doors for a free collegiate course. Already her endowment is ample, but the grounds so long occupied by that institution have become immensely valuable. A site more agreeable might be obtained for an almost nominal sum, and the present location, if put into market, would yield an additional endowment so ample that she could well afford to throw open her doors, and require no test but merit to obtain her honors. We can hardly predict what might be the result of such a movement on the interests of education in general, but we firmly believe it would prove the morning-star of a brighter day; and the denomination of Christians most interested in the institution itself would be amply compensated by additions, without parallel, to the number of its men of science and its ministry.

Professor Faraday, the great electrician, has seemingly solved the mystery of" table turning," not, however, as we imagine, of " table lifting." Many heretofore wonderful phenomena are explained by the learned professor's experiments, even to the satisfaction of the operators themselves; but many more remain unexplained. His patient and philosophical investigations have done much, if they but encourage the study of these mysteries. Hitherto all has been assumption-some claiming these manifestations to be spiritual, others electrical, and still others a wicked deception. We rejoice that a man of science has devoted to this subject his time and attention, until a portion, at least, of the mystery is satisfactorily unraveled. The time, we trust, is not far distant when the whole matter will forever be put at rest.

Union College, at Schenectady, has been rapidly increasing the facilities for an education within its walls, and others must do likewise or suffer the consequences. But the friends of education may rejoice in the prospect that the State will soon see its true interest, in putting the means of thorough education within the reach of all who may wish to secure it.

"Assuming that the tables were moved by a quasi involuntary muscular action of the operator, the professor's first point was to prevent the mind having any undue influence over the effects produced in relation to the nature of the substances employed. A bundle of plates, consisting of sandpaper, millboard, glue, glass, plastic clay, tinfoil, cardboard, gutta percha, vulcanized India rubber, wood, and resinous cement, was therefore made up and tied together, and being placed on a table under the hand of a turner, did not prevent the transmission of the power-the table turned as before. Hence no objection could be taken to the use of these substances in the construction of pub-place and source of motion; that is to say, whether apparatus. The next point was to determine the

An impression has been made upon the lic mind that the advantages of these institu- the table moved the hand or the hand the table.

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