페이지 이미지

Sound affects particles of dust in a sun- A gentleman named Finch, in Pittsburgh, has beam ; cobwebs and water in musical glasses ; discovered, it is alleged, a mode of puddling iron, it shakes small pieces of paper off a string in by which the common gray Alleghany iron is concord. Deaf persons may converse through made equal to the best Juniata. The strength deal rods held between the teeth, or held to of the iron when pulled in the direction of its their throat or breast.

length, is sixty thousand nine hundred pounds The odorous matter of flowers is inflamma- per square inch ; and Mr. Finch is confident he ble, and arises from an essential oil. When

can make an advance on this of four thousand growing in the dark their odor is diminished, pounds to the square inch. but restored in the light; and it is strongest

Curiosities of the Locomotive. Our first-class in sunny climates. The fraxinella takes fire in

narrow-gauge engines weigh, empty, forty-four hot evenings, by bringing a candle near its thousand pounds, and are worth sixteen cents root.

per pound. They will consume one cord of A monument to Copernicus has been erected wood and one thousand two hundred gallons of at Thorn, in Prussia, his native place. It bears water per hour, and will generate two hundred the inscription drawn up by Baron Humboldt, and seventy-five thousand cubic feet of steam “Nicolaus Copernicus, Torunensis, terræ motor, per hour, of a pressure equal to that of atmossolis cælique stator," on one side, and on the phere. Their heating surface is of the extent other, “Natus anno 1473, obiit anno 1543." of the bottom of a boiler thirty-four feet in di. A Bavarian naturalist, Dr. Autenrieth, travel

ameter. The strain upon the iron of the shell ing in New Grenada, has, it is said, while er

or boiler, to burst it open lengthwise of the cavating in the neighborhood of Panama, disin- boiler, is from six thousand five hundred to

eleven thousand five hundred pounds per square terred a terra cotta vase containing three hundred and sixty-four Roman Coins in bronze. inch, under ordinary pressures. There is also They belong to the third and fourth centuries,

an additional strain of about four thousand and bear the effigies of the Emperors Maximian, pounds per square inch exerted lengthwise of Diocletian, and Constantine the First.

the boiler to pull it apart crosswise. The whole

pressures exerted against all the internal surThe contents of the Egyptian Galleries of the faces of the boiler amount to twenty millions Louvre at Paris have been re-arranged, and a of pounds, or ten thousand tons! The usual portion of the discoveries made by M. Mariette, distance traveled by the locomotive being in in the Temple at Memphis, has been added to motion but about one-eighth of the time, is them. The principal additions consist of aequal to once around the globe every year. number of statuettes of the time of the fourth and fifth dynasties; a statue of Apis, a sphinx,

Colonel J. F. Gaines mentions the discovery and three lions, a bass-relief bearing the name

of an iron mountain in Scott County, Ark. He of King Menkehor, and a number of inscriptions. sent several specimens of the different minerals A monument to Justus Lipsius, the great and iron.

from that section of the country, lead, silver, scholar and critic of Brabant, has been erected at Overyssche, near Brussels, his native place.

A Mr. Whitworth has invented a very modestIt consists of his bust placed on a pedestal, with looking little apparatus which can determine a Latin inscription.

easily the one-millionth of an inch. The use An effort is being made to erect a monument

of such an instrument is chiefly for copying or on Plymouth Rock, in honor of the landing of regulating the standards of weights and measthe Pilgrims. The residents of Plymouth have

ures, and in the construction of delicate philosubscribed $6,000.

sophical instruments. One of the largest and finest collections of Large lumps of sulphur are found in various engraved English portraits that has been made parts of Iceland. They seem to be the result since the great days of Walpole and Sykes, was

of the heat that steams up through the ground, recently sold at auction in London. The high- as the sulphur collects upon everything. Hotest price given for any one print was $132—for springs are numerous in this country, and jets "Oliver Cromwell, standing in armor between

of steam rush out of the mountains with a loud two pillars."

and terrible roaring. The Corriere Mercantile of Genoa, quotes a An iron tubular bridge is being prepared at letter of the 15th, mentioning the discovery at London, intended to be thrown across the Nile Pompeii of three human skeletons, evidently at Bentra. The trains will pass along the top belonging to one family, together with that of of the tube. A foot-path will be made on each a dog. The postures in which they were found side of the rails. The bridge will be twenty lead to the presumption that they were engaged feet above the ordinary level of the water, and in flight at the time of the eruption, but were the center portion of it is constructed to swing overtaken by the lava, the dog refusing to leave on a pivot, so that the boat traffic may be sehis master. They had bags of gold and silver cured during the rising of the Nile. coin with them; one of the skeletons, still dis

The Paris correspondent of the Commercial playing rings and ornaments, was that of a

Advertiser states that the vapor of chloroform, young girl, probably the daughter of the

as a motive power, is to be applied upon an imfugitives.

mense scale.

A company has been formed, the Mr. Hays, a painter in India, is preparing a money is subscribed, and the invention of M. series of fifty pictures, or scenes, representing du Trembly is bought. Twenty-four vessels are the entire story of Uncle Tom,” from the first to be constructed, to sail between Hayre and to the last chapter.

New-York, and several other ports.

[merged small][merged small][merged small][graphic][merged small][merged small]

HINA has always been an object of the revolution at present progressing, and

[ocr errors]

It has hitherto been to us an almost un gaze of the whole earth, is but little underknown region. Like a magnificent volume, stood. Americans regard it with solicicovered on the outside with richest gilding tude and hope as an effort of the people, and pictures, and promising to unfold many the national party, to uproot a dynasty rare and excellent things, we have a few which assumed the throne by something times glanced at its contents, but only akin to the right of conquest; and Chrisglanced before it has been suddenly and tians everywhere are wondering what, if ruthlessly closed, the pages we would successful, will be its effect upon the fain examine being too “ celestial” to be interests of the kingdom of Christ. scanned by “barbarians." True, we have National pride and a love of the marvelous a tolerably correct idea of its geographical have so distorted the writings of native outlines and limits, and have dim fancies historians as to make them totally unabout its stupendous wall, its porcelain reliable. They date the beginning of their pagodas, its earthenware towns, and other empire before the world was founded ; remarkable edifices; but of the aspect of the their early sovereigns are all spoken of country, or the manners of the inhabitants, as giants, taller than the loftiest pagodas, -how it was first settled, how many are its and as possessed of miraculous powers, races, or what have been its dynasties, and gifted with a longevity compared with our information is most limited. Even / which the life of Methuselah was but a

Vol. III, No. 6.-LL


It is doubtless one of the oldest | which thirty-five emperors reigned. The empires in the world. According to the fourth dynasty lasted but forty-three years, native historians, the first mortal emperor terminating 203 B. C. During this brief was Fohi, who is called “the son of Heav- period four emperors were on the throne, en;" but the empire really began with and it was one of the most remarkYu-ta the Great. Fohi may have been able periods of Chinese history. One of Noah, a very natural supposition certainly, these emperors, Chi-hoang-ti, was a man in view of the well-attested fact that of unusual talent and energy. He reduced China was settled by one of the first the petty kings who had hitherto rebelled migratory tribes, formed by the dispersion against the imperial power to a tributary of Babel, that passed beyond the deserts condition, and thus secured internal peace. of Central Asia. Having taken possession He also abolished their kingdoms, and gave of Shen-si, which borders on Tartary, in the stead of these honors to his relatives they there laid the foundations of the present the privilege of wearing yellow, the imperial empire. From the reign of Fohi and his color. He next turned his arms against immediate descendants to the present time the Tartars—a portion of the warlike tribe we usually count twenty-two dynasties, called the Huns—who, according to the a brief account of which we here com- custom of the savage hordes of the North, pile from various sources.

to which they belonged, made frequent The first dynasty is called Kia, and incursions into China for hunting and commenced, about 2207 B. C., with the plunder. reign of Yu-ta. It continued four hun To keep off these invaders, the emdred and forty-one years, under seventeen peror resolved to build, along the northemperors, the last of which, Kia, detested ern frontier, a wall of immense height and by his subjects, was driven from his throne thickness. To complete this mighty work and died in ignominious exile. The second every third laboring man in the realm was dynasty began with Ching-tang, a modest detailed, and with most servile toil and prince, shrinking from the government, but scanty supplies was compelled to labor. called to it by the voice of his country. This work, after the lapse of two thousand He continued to hold the scepter only at the years, still stands, one of the wonders of urgent and oft-repeated solicitation of his the world. It extended one thousand five ministers.

hundred miles from the sea to the remote This dynasty was continued for up- province of Shen-si, running over mounward of six hundred years by thirty em- tains and across valleys, and spanning the perors, and was terminated by the folly rivers by arches. It was broad enough and vices of the last one. The third for six horsemen to travel abreast, and of dynasty was called Tcheou, and continued such height as to defy all attempts to scale some eight hundred and sixty years, during it. The exterior was of solid masonry,

[graphic][merged small]

which was filled in with dirt, and it was the Arabs subsequently did linen for both. fortified by strong towers about three hun The Chinese ink is in cakes, known comdred feet apart, which were constantly monly in this country as India ink, and garrisoned. It was certainly a most stu- is applied with camel's hair pencils inpendous work, and merits well its title- stead of pens. The Great Wall of China.

The dynasty of Han was on the throne Chi-hoang-ti, or, as the word signifies, of China when the Lord of Life and Glory the first emperor, not satisfied with so appeared among men, and when the Budlasting a monument to his fame, was dhist religion, of which the Grand Lama ambitious to be considered the founder of is the pope, and the leading doctrine the the empire. To secure this renown, he transmigration of souls, was introduced into endeavored to wipe out every vestige of that country. The last fifty years of their former history. He ordered that all books reign is celebrated for the “revolt of the and writings of every description should yellow caps," or the “war of the three kingbe burned; and so rigidly was this edict doms," as it is sometimes called. The enforced, that some literary men were empire was at this time ruled over by three put to death for attempting to secrete princes of the line, but was involved in valuable records. Several copies of the constant commotions, of which we know works of Confucius, and those of some little, as Chinese romance and tragedy other eminent writers, were nevertheless have swallowed up its history so compreserved, having been hid under the floors pletely that we cannot distinguish fiction and behind the walls of different dwellings. from truth. Chi-hoang-ti appointed his eldest son to This period of troubles is known as the succeed him; but, he being absent at the Heou-han, or sixth dynasty, although in time of the emperor's death, a younger son reality not to be distinguished from that seized the empire, and caused his brother of Han. During these dynasties an atto be strangled. This usurper soon be- 1 tempt was made to secure, by intermarcame unpopular by his neglect and volup- riage, &c., the friendship of the Tartars, tuousness, an insurrection broke out, headed who, notwithstanding the Great Wall, conby Lien-pang, a freebooter, which, after tinued their predatory excursions. But many scenes of violence and bloodshed, these alliances, as will be seen, only ended in the death of the usurper, and prepared the way for future troubles. In Lien-pang ascended the throne under the the year 261 A. D. a descendant of Chititle Kao-Tsou.

hoang-ti appeared, laid claim to the scepter, Thus began the famous dynasty of established his authority, restored good Han, which derived its name from the order, and thus began the dynasty of Tsin. native district of its first sovereign. Many of the late difficulties having arisen Most of the emperors of this dynasty from the intrigues of women and eunuchs, were munificent patrons of learning, and, he was ungallant enough to pass a celestial during their reign, paper, ink, and hair-edict that “women should not reign, or pencils for writing, were invented. The take any part in public matters." Egyptians had for a long period made Up to the period of which we now speak, paper of papyrus, an article which had the capital of the Chinese empire was at been used also at Rome; and it is not Hang-chow-fou, a large and wealthy city known whether the idea was derived thence, not far from Nankin, containing an imor was, in reality, a Chinese invention. mense population, chiefly engaged in the The Chinese paper, at all events, was made manufacture of silk and cotton. Like all of bamboo, a gigantic species of reed or Chinese cities it covered an immense ares cane which reaches the height of ordinary as the houses were but one story high, trees, and which is used for almost every and surrounded by gardens. The imperial conceivable purpose.

The bamboo is palace, of which we present a cut at the pounded in mortars, mixed with silk and head of our article, was in the midst of other materials, and, being made into a thin extensive grounds, adorned with oriental paste, it is spread out on a flat surface and splendor, and surrounded by several mag. dried into what we call paper. The Tar- nificent temples. The first monarch of tars borrowed this art from the Chinese, this new dynasty removed the seat of substituting cotton, which was more abun- government to Kai-fong-fou, another large dant in their country, for the bamboo, as city in the province of Honan, one of the

[graphic][merged small]

most beautiful regions in China. This edifice, excepting that one-half of the continued to be the royal residence until immense tower in the background is the time of the fifth monarch of this dy- omitted, but exactly corresponds to the nasty, called Ouenti, who built a still more half exhibited. magnificent palace at Nankin, and there But the splendor of his palace contrasted established his court. Our cut of this sadly with the emperor's disquiet. A new building presents us with a full view of the invasion of the Tartars had spread terror

« 이전계속 »