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up on the edge of the them into advantages. All she had or got, water-cistern. They would ring the she expended on me and mine. She had area-bell from within, expecting me to the most clever, determined way of atrun to the window to see who were their taining her ends. Highly disapproving of visitors.

her master's custom of abstaining from But as all this was doing violence to my luncheon, she would prepare strong soup own nature, I soon tired of it. I next took for him; and even if he were engaged a stingy turn. Concluding that to preside with strangers on business, she would over a household was unmitigated misery, enter the room, and tell him with a most and never blaming my own bad manage- urgent, important air, that there was a ment, I resolved, since all servants were person wanting very particularly to see bad, I would have them at the cheapest him; and when she got him outside of the possible rate. But my very first essay in door, she would lead him with nods and this line worked an effectual cure. Like winks toward the soup, keep watch over most persons who knew little, my cheap him till he swallowed it, and then come cook professed to know everything. It so and recount her exploit to me with an air happened, that the week after she came, a of triumph. very fine stubble goose was sent me from Unfortunately I soon lost the dear old Orkney, and I set about assembling a few woman, who became so infirm as to need of our kith and kin to dinner, the said watching herself, and since then I have goose being to figure as the principal dish. had scarcely any troubles and adventures But imagine my horror! There was the worth recounting. Indeed, my cousin goose, just as it had arrived from Orkney; Joanna and I think there are no such roasted to be sure- --the simpleton had done adventures now-a-days at all; and when that—but she had never plucked it? I we get together, we are always recurring have a confused recollection of a dimness to old stories for amusement. We are coming over my vision, of pointing con- quite willing to be borne along on the vulsively to the dish, and then to the door, stream of progress and improvement, but and of feeling that it had disappeared amid we think people are too much alike now, is suppressed titter from the assembled and that the individual would seem ja some guests.

danger of being lost in the general. But The doings of my cheap housemaid were then we are old crones, and think ourselves quite to match ; but she was remark- privileged to croak. Even our servants able for the ludicrous fertility of her are now insufferably learned, and know all

She had been desired one night about foreign countries and everything else ; to put out the gas in the drawing-room, and my cousin Joanna and I sigh for the instead of which I found it blazing in the good old times, when the ignorance and morning, while she protested it was no simplicity of the many gave a zest to the neglect of hers. I asked her how it learning and cultivation of the few. We could be lighted if she had extinguished it ? cling with fond memory to the time when With scarcely a moment's hesitation, she many simple excellent beings thought there replied she supposed the sun had done it. was only one foreign country, and that I asked her if the sun had turned the America ; and my cousin still tells with screws? I had evidently come to the end great glee, that on her return from a first of her philosophy ; and here ended also visit to the fine old city of Antwerp, her my foolish attempt at lowering the prices faithful old nurse said to her : “ And, Miss current of good labor.

Joanna, when you was at America, did you I next hired a perfect jewel of a woman, see Bonaparte ?" who had no other fault than that she was Alas! we are never asked such questions rather old. Her chief duty, however, now; scarcely even do we hear a misapwas to consist in a sort of general superin- plication of words. I do know one primitendence of the household. She was a tive serving-woman, a true old family. perfect Caleb Balderstone. She would piece, who speaks of having an “impreshave worked herself to death, and gone sion on her breast," and "a flirting at her into any kind of innocent prevarication, heart;" but the race is all but extinct; for the honor of the house. She had a and when I next take up my pen, it must sublime transcendental manner of glossing be to write of less quaint and pleasant over deficiencies and defects, and turning troubles and adventures.

excuses.

LIEBIG-RITTER-HUMBOLDT.

We have been surprised at the small size of the lecture-rooms in several of the

European Universities which we have PROFESSOR LIEBIG.

visited, and at the small number of pupils UR principal object in Geissen, how- who generally frequent them. In HeidelU ever, was to pay our respects to Liebig, berg, example, Professor Leonhard its celebrated professor of chemistry. We threw open, for our inspection, the doors had sent in our cards, and while we were of his lecture-room, which was in his house, waiting for the arrival of the hour which and contiguous to his geological collection. he had named for an interview, we drove The apartment had a rough appearance, about the town, and obtained access to the and the benches did not imply more than library of the University, which contains thirty pupils. two hundred thousand volumes. It is ar- Professor Liebig's manner of lecturing ranged in a large and handsome building, is calm and quiet ; his voice is musical, and we were attended by a very intelli- and his fine, dark, deep-set eye sparkles gent librarian, who spoke English fluently. with a depth of intellectual expression and He made our brief visit interesting by fire indicative of high genius. He has leading us through the different depart- nothing of the action and vehemence of ments of this large collection. The books some of the Parisian professors, and, with are divided by subjects: theology, physics, a manner perfectly natural, he appeared to mathematics, &c., being placed in sepa- command entirely the attention of his aurate departments, which is obviously the dience. His subject was morphine, and most useful and convenient arrangement. other alkaloids of opium. When his lec

We were amused for a moment hy see- ture was finished he came immediately to ing, near the library building, a peculiar us, gave us a very warm reception, and kind of convex mirror. It was nothing showed us about his working laboratory, more than a huge bottle of green glass, | There are four rooms, in two of which the apparently a carboy, such as sulphuric acid working students are employed in their is commonly put up in. It was secured, analytical labors. The tables exhibited with its mouth down, on the top of a post, every appearance of actual labor. They and from its sides the landscapes and were full of chemical vessels and reagents, houses were reflected in elegant reduced and, of course, in the disorder which necpictures, changing with every change of essarily attends on the numerous operations position of the observer. These we ob- in which many persons are engaged. The served to be very common in Geissen. At number of working pupils in this departthe door of Professor Liebig's lecture- ment of the laboratory was from twenty to room we were detained a little by the re- thirty. It being the hour of dinner, (at luctance of the janitor, under orders not one o'clock, as in New-England,) there to admit any one after the lecture had be- were only a few young men present, and gun; but our German attendant, whom we they appeared to be employed as private had engaged at the inn, overcame his ob- pupils ; but Professor Liebig told us that jections, and we were admitted. Profes- there were forty young men at work in sor Leibig, who was sitting and lecturing another department, under an assistant in his chair, perceiving our entrance, gave teacher. us a pleasant smile of recognition and Professor Liebig is a very pleasing man. welcome, and the young men courteously In his person he is tall and genteel, and gave us seats. He spoke about fifteen apparently about forty, or not much beyond minutes after we entered. His pupils that age. He is very affable and courteous; were very attentive, and most of them and as he speaks the English language were engaged in taking notes. Their ap- perfectly, with only a slight German acpearance was very much like that of a cent, our interview was particularly insimilar collection of American students. teresting and agreeable. He showed us The room was crowded, and, from its di- some new chemical products, among which mensions, it could not have contained over was cordein, which, in prosecution of his one hundred students. The table was full researches on the flesh-fluids, has been exof the usual accompaniments of a chemical tracted from the heart of the ox. Cordein lecture. Everything was plain and busi-crystallizes, and appears to be similar to ness-like.

sugar, having a sweet taste. Nitrogen Vol. III, No. 6.-00

does not enter into its composition, which called upon to elucidate particular topics. is the more remarkable, especially for a Their course is not only to illustrate topogprinciple extracted from muscle. Profes- raphy but all allied themes, including the sor Liebig also called our attention to the different branches of natural history and result of a process for obtaining barberine of meteorology that are connected with the from the bark or alburnum of the barberry; country under consideration. In this manit is a yellow crystalized substance. ner the discussions become fruitful of

The expression in the published print of instruction and entertainment, and the inProfessor Liebig is very different from terest is greatly enhanced. that of his speaking face. The print is A supper followed, in the great room of true to the form of features, but it does the society, in which a large chandelier, not give the impression of suavity and lighted by gas, made noonday of night. mildness which he wears in conversation. Among the eminent men present, whose It is, however, a common misfortune to fame was known to us at home, were Promen whose minds have been much exer- fessor Ehrenberg, the philosopher of the cised with thought, that the artists often microscopic world; the two brothers Rose; catch the settled fixed expression, in which | Gustave, of mineralogy, and Heinrich, of intensity is easily mistaken for severity. analytical chemistry; Professor Dove, the

Professor Liebig expressed much regret, meteorologist and physicist ; Professor which we of course felt still more, that Poggendorf, the editor of the well-known our interview must be so brief ; but he journal which bears his name; Professor was going to London, and we exchanged Magnus, of electro-magnetism ; Professor addresses, hoping to meet again in that city. Mitscherlich, of general and applied chem

To our earnest invitation that he would istry ; besides many others almost equally visit the United States and lecture in our distinguished. institutions, he gave no encouragement, We received a warm welcome to Berlin, expressing great reluctance to speak in a and throughout the interview of the evenforeign language ; and when we named ing the most kind and cordial treatment. Professor Agassiz as an example of great We were highly gratified by the interview success in the United States, he added that and were again at home in our hotel be he had a peculiar facility in acquiring a fore eleven o'clock. Professor Ritter spoke foreign language.

in very warm terms of approbation of the

researches made in the East by our counPROFESSOR RITTER.

tryman, Professor Robinson, and by the Among our introductions was one from Rev. Eli Smith, now of Beyroot. Professor Guyot, late of Neufchatel, but now a citizen of our country, to the cele

BARON VON HUMBOLDT. brated Professor Carl Ritter, the well- In fulfillment of an appointment, we known physical geographer.

went at one, and were admitted by his He is a tall, handsome man, of most no- faithful servant, the companion of many ble person and mien, and prepossessing an arduous journey. His mansion is a address. His dignified presence is tem- plain edifice, situated in a retired part of pered by a mild and winning manner, and the city; and he would not have been now by his musical, although powerful voice; at home, had not the king gone to Konigsand we listened with pleasure to his very berg; for his residence is generally with good English, uttered with dignified de- the king, at Potsdam, who keeps him near liberation. His healthful and bright ap- his person, as his father did before him, pearance by no means indicates his age, not only for his society and conversation, as he is still in the full energy of physical but, no doubt, also as a counselor, wise and mental power.

from his many years, and his large expeProfessor Ritter gave us an invitation rience in the world. We passed through to attend in the evening the meeting of his library, which fills, on all sides, a room the Geographical Society, of which he is of considerable size ; and he issued from a President; and he treated us while there door on the remote side of the apartment, with the utmost kindness and considera- opening apparently from his private room. tion.

He met us with great kindness and perfect Several papers were read on geographi- frankness, and with a pleasant rebuke for cal subjects, and different gentlemen were my having hesitated to call on him, (I had

written a note, asking permission to call,) delphia. He told us that he passed three implying that he was not ignorant of my weeks at Monticello with the late Mr. Jefposition and efforts at home. I then intro- ferson, who entertained him with an extraduced my son and Mr. Brush, and we were ordinary project of his inventive but often at once placed perfectly at our ease. His visionary mind, regarding the ultimate bright countenance expresses great benev-division of the American continent into olence; and from the fountain of his im- three great Republics, involving the conmense stores of knowledge, a stream, quest of Mexico and of the South Ameralmost constant, flowed for nearly an hour. ican States. He discussed many topics reHe was not engrossing, but yielded to our garding the United States. The discovery promptings whenever we suggested an of gold in California furnished him an abuninquiry, or alluded to any particular topic; dant theme-our topography, climates, profor we did not wish to occupy the time ductions, institutions, and even political with our own remarks any further than to controversies, were all familiar to him. draw him out. He has a perfect command Baron Humboldt, although associated inof the best English, and speaks the lan- timately with kings, is evidently a friend guage quite agreeably. There is no state- to human liberty, and rejoices in the pros. liness or reserve about him, and he is as perity of our country. He made some affable as if he had no claims to superiority. very interesting remarks on the present His voice is exceedingly musical, and he state of Europe, and on the impossibility is so animated and amiable that you feel of keeping down moral power by physical at once as if he were an old friend. His force. In his library hung an excellent person is not much above the middle size; likeness of the king, and another of his he is not unlike in form to the late Colonel own brother, the late W. Humboldt, the emiTrumbull. He stoops a little, but less nent philologist and ethnological antiquary. than most men at the age of eighty-two. We retired greatly gratified, and the He has no appearance of decrepitude; his more so, as a man in his eighty-third year eyes are brilliant, his complexion light; might soon pass away. his features and person are round, although When we were about leaving Berlin ] not fat; his hair thin and white ; his mind addressed a note to the Baron, expressing very active, and his language brilliant, and our great satisfaction at the interview, sparkling with bright thoughts. He al bidding him farewell, and asking for his luded in a flattering manner to our progress autograph. He readily replied; but instead in knowledge in the United States, and to of his signature merely, he sent an inthe effect which The American Journal of teresting original letter, written on the Science and Arts had produced in pro- occasion, from which, I trust, it is not immoting it. He showed himself perfectly proper to make an extract of sentiments acquainted with the progress of physical relating to the American continents. science and general improvement in our After some very kind expressions of country, and particularly commended the personal regard, he alludes to his usual labors of Colonel Fremont in the Far West, residence at Potsdam, where are both the of Professor Baché in the Coast Survey, rural palace of the king, and the tombs of and of Lieutenant Maury in navigation. some preceding monarchs : Compelled Bringing out his maps, and tracing his to return in the morning to the country, lines without glasses, he pointed out a where are the tombs which I shall soon channel of communication across the Isth- occupy, I have reserved to myself the mus of Darien, which he had observed and perusal of"-certain scientific American described more than forty years ago, and papers which had been presented to him. to which his attention had been recalled | He then adds: “I have moral reasons to by a paper of Captain Fitzroy's in The fear the immeasurable aggrandizement of Journal of The Royal Geographical So- your confederacy—the temptations to the ciety. He showed us that there are no abuse of power, dangerous to the Unionmountains in the course he indicated, which and have occasion also to fear the disis more southern than any of the existing tinct individual character of the other routes, and that it possessed several im- populations (descriptions of population) portant advantages. I alluded to his brief of America. I am not less impressed by visit in the United States in 1804, when the great advantages which the physical he traveled no further north than Phila- | knowledge of the world, and positive sci.

ence and intelligence, ought to derive from animals, and plants, under every phase and this very aggrandizement-from that intel- aspect. His published works are a library. ligence which, by peaceable conquests, fa- | His faculties combine the enthusiasm of cilitates the movement of knowledge, and poetry with the severity of science; and superimposes, not without violence, new from the culminating point of fourscore classes of population upon the indigenous years and four, he surveys all his vast races which are in a course of rapid ex- labors, and the wide panorama of universal tinction. However imposing this spectacle science, which, as probably his last labor. may be, which is being realized under our he is now presenting to his fellow-men eyes, and is preparing another still more by the reflection of that splendid intellecremarkable for the history of the intellec- tual mirror, his Kosmos—the comprehentual development of our races, I already sive Hellenism, which expressed both the descry the distinct epoch, when a high de- universal and the beautiful. gree of civilization, and institutions free, Such is the philosopher who, of all livfirm, and peaceful, (three elements which ing men, belongs not so much to his counare not easily associated,) shall penetrate try as to mankind, and who, when he into the tropical regions where the high departs, will leave no one who can fill his table-lands of Mexico, Bogota, Quito, and place. Potosi, shall come to resemble (in their We dismiss him, with the hope that he institutions) New-York, Boston, and Phila- may inherit blessings beyond the grave, delphia."

and find, in a higher state of being, that The letter concludes with warm personal his large measure of human knowledge is good-wishes, and a kind message to Pro- infinitely surpassed by the spiritual illnfessor Agassiz, “ equally distinguished by mination and revelations of that glorious his vast and solid acquisitions in science world. and the great amenity of his character." The signature is without a title: "Alex

LION CATCHING IN SOUTH AFRICA. ANDRE HUMBOLDT, à Berlin, 5 Juillet, (it should have been Août,) 1851."

R. It is proper to add, that at the time of Motito, and is familiar with the Kal our visit Baron Von Humboldt was en- libari country, assured me that the re gaged in the preparation of a new produc- markable accounts sometimes circulated tion on the Outline Form of Mountain as to the people of that part of Africa Peaks, in which he was working up original catching lions by the tail, and of which, I observations and drawings made during confess, I was very incredulous, were the course of his various wanderings. He perfectly true. Lions would sometimes assured us that the greater part of his become extremely dangerous to the inhabliterary labor was of necessity performed itants. Having become accustomed to when others slept, as the hours of usual human flesh, they would not willingly eat labor were with him consumed by the de- anything else. When a neighborhood mands of the king. He added, that he became infested, the men would determine early made the discovery that he could get on the measures to be adopted to rid themon very well with four hours of sleep. selves of the nuisance; then, forming This, as has been often remarked, ac- themselves into a band, they would procounts for his prodigious performances in ceed in search of their royal foe, and literary labor.

beard the lion in his lair. Standing close Such are the modest and unassuming by one another, the lion would make his language and appearance of one who has, spring on some one of the party—every in person, explored a larger portion of our man, of course, hoping he might escape globe than any other living traveler ; of a the attack—when instantly others would philosopher who has illustrated and en- dash forward and seize his tail, lifting it larged almost every department of human up close to the body with all their might: knowledge : general physics and chemis- thus not only astonishing the animal, and try, geology, natural history, philology, absolutely taking him off his guard, but civil antiquities, and ethnography, have all rendering his efforts powerless for the been illustrated by him.

moment; while others closed in with their He has endured the extreme vicissitudes spears, and at once stabbed the monster of opposite climates, and seen men, and through and through. Rer. J. Freeman.

M

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