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counted for was generally attributed to the long supposed to have been preserved by exercise of supernatural power. To ob- Charlemagne. Opposite to this are two tain this it was supposed that persons rolls of the Hebrew Scriptures, and close “ sold themselves to Satan;" and accord-by are other manuscripts of inestimable ingly, when the people found that books, value. One of these is the Alexandrian having the appearance of being written, manuscript, or “ Codex Alexandrinus," were produced with far greater rapidity consisting of four folio volumes, and writthan human hands could copy them, they ten in Uncial, or capital letters. It conascribed such results to “the black art,” tains the whole of the Greek Scriptures, and originated the story-reprinted again of which it is the most ancient copy exand again, to a very recent period of “the tant. Another attracts the eye by its proDevil and Dr. Faustus.” The astonishing ëminent beauty and richness. Its “illuin this instance, as well as in many others, minations," as they are called, are exquiswas, however, entirely due to the diligent itely drawn, and the coloring is exceedthought and practical skill which still so ingly vivid. It is a splendid manuscript frequently amaze and delight us.

of Valerius Maximus. Passing onward from the first products Two objects, not far apart, appear in of the printing press, the visitor enters a decided and striking contrast. One is the magnificent room three hundred feet long, bull of Pope Innocent III., before whose forty-one feet in width, increasing in the legate King John knelt, as he placed the middle to nearly sixty feet, and thirty feet crown in his hands, surrendering England in height, entirely filled with the “ Royal and Ireland “ to God, St. Peter, St. Paul, Library," collected during a long course of and the Pontiff, and his successors," while years by King George III., and presented by this very document the pope receives by his son and successor to the nation. the kingdom in fee from the abject and

We know not where in this country wretched sovereign, and confirms the act such another sight can be enjoyed. No by his golden seal. The other is the fewer than eighty thousand volumes are Great Charter, which Langton, Fitz Walter, thus presented to the eye, while it is grati- and other illustrious men extorted from fying to know that they are all easily ac John at Runnymede—the basis of the noble cessible to our literary men and women, edifice of England's liberty, and the germ who may render them subservient to their of all subsequent improvements in its state. personal and public objects, Some of the Well may the eyes of its sons and daughearliest printed classical and mathematical ters dwell upon it with unutterable feelings. works may here be noticed, in glass cases, As Sir James Mackintosh says :with others in the languages of Continen

“To all mankind it set the first example of a tal Europe.

great people for centuries, in blending their tuAnd now a different class of objects will multuary democracy and haughty nobility with ask for attention-a very valuable collec

a fluctuating and vaguely-limited monarchy, so tion of autographs; a series of letters terials the only form of free government which

as at length to form from these discordant mawritten by the sovereigns of Britain, from experience had shown to be reconcilable with the days of William the Conqueror; the widely-extended dominions. However any fugreat seals of our country, from the time ture age or unborn nation may admire the feliof Edward I. to that of Queen Anne; a

city of the expedient which converted the power

of taxation into the shield of liberty, by which letter of Oliver Cromwell; others of for- discretionary and secret imprisonment were ren. eign potentates, the most distinguished dered impracticable, and portions of the people statesmen and philosophers of England, were trained to exercise a larger share of judiand of the great leaders of the Reforma

cial power than was ever allotted to them in

any other civilized state, in such a manner as tion. Thus we may examine the very to secure instead of endangering public tranhands they wrote, and the statements they quillity-whoever exults at the spectacle of enactually made.

lightened and independent assemblies, who, unIn the middle of the room there is an

der the eye of a well-informed nation, discuss

and determine the laws and policy likely to other case, filled with eastern manuscripts, make communities great and happy—whoever showing the variety of the materials used is capable of comprehending all the effects of in writing them, as the leaves of the tali- such institutions, with all their possible inpot-tree, wood, ivory, silver, and gold. provements, upon the mind and genius of a pea

plemis sacredly bound to speak with reverential Against the wall stands an upright case, gratitude of the authors of the Great Charter. containing a Latin manuscript of the Bible, To have produced it, to have preserved it, to

have matured it, constitute the immortal claim raising and producing infinite actions and opinof England on the esteem of mankind."

ions in succeeding ages; so that if the inven

tion of a ship was thought so noble and so wonPassing onward, the library is entered derful, which transports riches and merchandise which was bequeathed by Sir Joseph from place to place, and consociates the most Banks; it consists of sixteen thousand distant regions in participation of their fruits

and commodities, how much more are letters to volumes. The books succeed which were

be magnified, which, as ships passing through included in the British Museum when it the vast seas of time, connect the remotest ages was first founded, or have been added of wits and inventions in mutual traffic and since, by gift, purchase, or copyright. It correspondence!” is one of the privileges of the Institution to demand a copy of every book published

(For the National Magazine.) at Stationers' Hall—a royal grant which

NIGHT-SCENES. makes an addition yearly of about twenty thousand volumes. To it are bequeathed,

TWILIGHT. from time to time, large and valuable col- The holiest hour of earth, methinks, is thine, lections of books ; of this there is an in- O twilight, meekly fair! Welcome to all stance in a handsome room, which opens

When, soft and sweet, thy vestal light divine

Over life's toil-worn travelers doth fall. out of the hall on the right-hand side, and Then the world pauses from its busy cares; which, though seventy-three feet long by Then play-tired children say their evening thirty-three feet wide, is occupied by prayers; those which form the bequest of the Right

Then the low cradle-hymn the mother weaves;

The bird folds up its wing, the flower its Hon. Thomas Grenville, whose notes ap

leaves. pended to many of the books are demon- | Yea! hallow'd of all hours since the time strations of his great and varied intelli- God's presence blest it in the cedar shade,

When the leaves thrillid with joy, though gence, while their possession by the nation is no less so of his most praiseworthy gen- Shrank from his voice, and fled the Guest divine !

man, afraid, erosity. According to a recent estimate, That peerless paradise is lost, but still, the total aggregate in the British Museum 0, Father! let this hour be free from touch of

ill. is more than four hundred and sixty thousand volumes.

THE MOON. Had we space, we might particularize In her serene and solemn loveliness many more of the literary gems which are She looketh down, and meets a human gaze; now presented to the popular gaze; but

Her fair familiar face, through the thin haze we can only just glance at the volumes of dewy night, revealeth not the less

Her pure and perfect beauty : fairy moon, which exhibit the successive stages of the Thy pearly finger silvereth the paper Book of Common Prayer; at those in Whereon I write-small need of lamp, or ta which we may trace the entire history of per,

In this starr'd midnight's haunted hour of noon. the English Bible, from the edition of Tyn

And 0, the heaven-touch'd radiance of thy dale to the authorized version of James I.; brow at the varied productions of Caxton, En- Is like a dream of poetry, enchanting gland's first printer; as well as those of

All the dark depths of my lone heart, beating Wynkin de Worde, and others of his suc. With one bright vision of the past that now

Shines seraph-like, all sanctified and saintedcessors; at the singularly interesting prod- But for that spiritual presence, 0 how oft my ucts of the foreign press, often presenting heart had fainted ! to view the earliest of them all. And now

THE STAR. we must pause, however reluctant to do

There is a star-eve's fairest and her first 80; only remarking that those who are

That in unalter'd beauty ever shineth : able should look on these literary gems at What visions of the heart its light once nursed ! once; and that those who are not can only Ah ! hope's fair hand no more her rose-wreath judge from so brief a paper of the aggre


Beneath thy silvery rass, 0, peerless star, gate they enrich, as they might from a few

The beautiful floats dimly and afar. ears of a large field ready for the harvest. The fair ideal wrought of the poet's dreaming Lord Bacon says :

Hath left me with an ever-pining heart:

No more my fancy, with bright visions teeming, “ The images of men's wits remain unmaimed Brings to these idle lines the inspired art. in books forever, exempt from the injuries of O, angel of my youth! return once more, time, because capable of perpetual renovation. And 'neath this star, which is to me a shrine, Neither can they properly be called images, be- The enchanted lamp of poesie restore, cause they cast forth seeds in the minds of men, And fill my lone heart with its light divine.

It glads Acadia's misty coasts,

Jamaica's glowing isle,
And bides where, gay with early flowers,

Green Texan prairies smile.
It lives by clear Itasca's lake,

Missouri's turbid stream, Where cedars rise on wild Ozark,

And Kanzas' waters gleam: It tracks the loud swift Oregon,

Through sunset valleys rollid,
And soars where Californian brooks

Wash down their sands of gold.
It sounds in Borneo's camphor groves,

On seas of fierce Malay,
In fields that curb old Ganges' flood,

And towers of proud Bombay:
It wakes up Aden's flashing eyes,

Dusk brows, and swarthy limbs; The dark Liberian soothes her child

With English cradle-hymns. Tasmania's maids are wooed and won

In gentle Saxon speech;
Australian boys read Crusoe's life

By Sidney's shelter'd beach:
It dwells where Afric's southmost capes

Meet oceans broad and blue,
And Nieuveld's rugged mountains gird

The wide and waste Karroo.
It kindles realms so far apart

That, while its praise you sing,
These may be clad with Autumn's fruits,

And those with flowers of Spring :
It quickens lands whose meteor lights

Flame in an Arctic sky,
And lands for which the Southern Cross

Hangs its orb'd fires on high.
It goes with all that prophets told,

And righteous kings desired ;
With all that great apostles taught,

And glorious Greeks admired;
With SHAKSPEARE's deep and wondrous verse,

And Milton's loftier mind;
With ALFRED's laws, and Newton's lore,

To cheer and bless mankind.
Mark, as it spreads, how deserts bloom,

And error flees away,
As vanishes the mist of night

Before the star of day :
But, grand as are the victories

Whose monuments we see,
These are but as the dawn which speaks

Of noontide yet to be.
Take heed, then, heirs of Saxon fame,

Take, heed, nor once disgrace,
With deadly pen, or spoiling sword,

Our noble tongue and race:
Go forth prepared, in every clime,

To love and help each other,
And judge that they, who counsel strife,

Would bid you smite-a brother..
Go forth, and jointly speed the time,

By good men pray'd for long,
When Christian States, grown just and wise,

Will scorn revenge and wrong;
When Earth's oppress'd and savage tribes

Shall cease to pine or roam,
All taught to prize these English words,


Yon delicate cloud of faintest violet,

Floating in peerless beauty 'long the sky,
Heeds not the eternal stars around it set,

But silent as a dream goes gliding by. O, wand'ring cloud ! fair child of dream and

vision! Radiant illusion! shining vapor! thou Art like our ideal pictures of Elysium Too bright and brief-as from thy beauteous

brow The changeful glories pass! as thou to heaven, Was hope, the angel, to my future given. Her wing is folded now; not long she wore

The dew of morning on her pearly plume, Cloud-like she pass'd away-0, never more Will hope return to gild life's grief and


Whence is the tone of mastery that thrilleth

Through all the changes of thy voice, O wind ? Thy mournful voice, whose mystic music filleth With solemn thoughts the changes of the

mind. Between thee and the human heart there seem

eth To dwell a strange ideal sympathy; Oft-time, 0 wanderer, my fancy dreameth

That what the soul is to humanity,

Thou to the mighty universe may'st be! And when, as now, at midnight's hour I hear

Thy fitful voice, it seemeth to whisper me That human life with all its hope and fear,

Its joy and grief, night wind! is most like thee, Both things of wonder wrapt in mystery !

E. J. Eames.

(For the National Magazine. ) THE TRIUMPHS. OF OUR LANGUAGE. Now gather all our Saxon bards;

Let harps and hearts be strung,
To celebrate the triumphs

Of our own good Saxon tongue;
For, stronger far than hosts that march

With battle-flags unfurl'd,
It goes with FREEDOM, THOUGHT, and Truth,

To rouse and rule the world.
Stout Albion learns its household lays

On every surf worn shore,
And Scotland hears it echoing far,

As Orkney's breakers roar;
From Jura's crags and Mona's hills

It floats on every gale,
And warms with eloquence and song

The homes of Innisfail.
On many a wide and swarming deck

It scales the rough wave's crest,
Seeking its peerless heritage,

The fresh and fruitful West:
It climbs New-England's forest steeps,

As victor mounts a throne;
Niagara knows and greets the voice

Still mightier than his own.
It spreads where Winter piles deep snows

On bleak Canadian plains,
And where, on Essequ 's banks,

Eternal summer reigns :
VOL. III, No. 1.-E

not to

(For the National Magazine.)

that all parties have their due. And for RELATIONS OF NEW-YORK TO THE this service the people of New-York are

entitled to a good living out of the proCOUNTRY.

ductive labor of the rest of the country, UCH

tions between New-York and the grudge them this their just due. rest of the country, and a volume would The people of the metropolis are not not exhaust the subject. We shall only only the agents of the country; they are suggest a few thoughts, to set our coun also mostly of the country themselves. try readers to thinking of some of the rea There are so many causes at work in a sons why they should feel a personal con city to shorten life, to hinder marriage, cern in the welfare of New York. and to lessen its productiveness, that

New-York is the commercial metropo- cities are never able to keep their numlis of the nation. There is no arrogance ber good without the constant introor exclusiveness in saying so. The duction of new citizens from the counimmense preponderance of the foreign try. A city which enjoys such a protrade of New-York, of our banking and digious growth as has marked New-York commercial capital, of the public revenue for the last hundred years is still more collected here, of the number and extent essentially made up from the population of commercial transactions, and the lines of the country. It is surprising to doof contact with other places, in our own tice how very large a proportion of our country and all over the world, must set men of business are from the country. tle the question. The progress of events And in visiting any part of the country, for seventy-five years shows that it is be- one is surprised to find how many famicoming more and more a metropolis, or lies there are who have relations in New“ middle city” of the country ; because, York. Indeed, you can hardly find a spite of all efforts to the contrary by neighborhood anywhere which has not one other places, and all the blunders and or more representatives in this metropomistakes of New-York, it is a fact that the lis. We are your kindred, therefore, as great business relations of the country do well as your agents. You have sent us .constantly more and more concentrate here, nominally, perhaps, to seek our forihere. It is better for all parties to admit tunes, to get our living, or because we the truth, so far as it is undeniable; be were uneasy or not wanted at home; but cause we shall then better appreciate the in reality to do the business by which your relations, and obligations, and liabilities life at home is rendered more happy and which grow out of this one cardinal fact. your labor more remunerative.

New-York, then, is not an independent not forget the relations that subsist beexistence, growing out of itself and exist- tween us, and the ties which bind our ining for itself. It is a part, a working terest and welfare to each other. member of that huge existence called the It is greatly for the advantage of the nation, out of which it obtains its growth, country to have a commercial metropolis. and for whieh it exists as a living member The trade of the country is vastly more exof a living body, a serviceable and valued tended and enriching for it. Were there to instrument of the complex existence to be no center of trade for the country, each which it belongs. As a commercial me of our great commercial towns would be the tropolis, it is the counting-room, the ship- center of its circle of trade and influence ; ping-wharf, the storage-depot of the nation. but they could never accumulate sufficient The business which is done here is the capital and commercial strength to remove business of the nation, not of New-York. the country from its position of a mere Nothing grows in New-York. Produc-dependency of some great commercial tion is done elsewhere, and its fruits come center in the Old World; and thus the here to be exchanged—the products of nations which controlled the large transone section for those of another-of for actions of trade could realize the princieign lands for those of our own country. pal effects of commerce in the production Our merchants, bankers, shipmasters, of wealth. But now, we find that by havcarters, sailors, are but the employees of ing in New-York a place of business of the country, to do this work of ex our own, having the capital, the intelli.change, and keep the accounts, and see gence, the energy, the credit, the unity,

Let us

which enable New-York to take a stand as the representative metropolis of the alongside of the greatest commercial centers country at large. The disasters of former of the Old World, we find that there is a days are a warning on this point. prodigious increase of wealth spreading It is easy to see now where the money all over the country. The power of comes from that goes to build up Newproductive industry, intelligently laid York and support all its expenses, good out to accumulate wealth, has never and bad. Our friends in the country, when been measured or calculated. And when they read about our magnificent edifices, this is all kept in the hands of the peo- water-works, steamers, and packet-ships, ple, and made to enjoy in addition the our private extravagance and public waste, full benefits of commerce with all parts of may well ask the question,“ Who pays ?" the earth, and that commerce carried on Clearly the money does not grow in our by its own agents in its own metropolis, little court-yards, and is not dug or smelted the increasing growth of the wealth of out of our paved streets. All that is exthis nation is mainly accounted for. pended or wasted in support of a commerWith all the magnificence and extrava- cial metropolis is to be set down as a part gance of New-York, and the thousands of of the cost of doing the business of the splendid fortunes that have been accumu- country. Every expenditure that is on lated here in the last fifteen years, the the whole unnecessary is a needless decombined wealth of the city is but the duction from the profits of trade, or the toll of the grist compared with that which exchange of products, which ought to be has spread all over the country in the spread over the country to enrich the prosame period.

ducers faster than is now done. Just so There are several laws of life and of far as you can economize here, without trade which may be safely relied on as any loss of talent, and energy, and fidelity a guarantee that the metropolis shall not in the aggregate of those who manage the absorb much more than its proper share business, just so much you lessen the cost of the profits of commerce. The number of commerce and increase the wealth of of equalizing agencies that operate can the country. hardly be reckoned. The road to the We hope our country readers will take city is an open one, and anybody may a clear idea of these relations, so that they come who wishes, to try his hand in some may always remember who pays the exof our employments, and clutch his share penses and makes up the losses of Newof the profits which New-York secures York. And then they must consider that out of the common stock of trade of the the metropolis draws from the country also whole country The inducements to a its principles as well as its people and its city life are so numerous and so attractive, products. The men you send here to do especially to the young and enterprising, your business come here just what you that there is no fear but that enough will made them in the country. Bringing men

As many as can make a living together in masses does not make them through a series of years are sure to wicked. Good principles are just as socome. Indeed, large numbers every year / cial as bad ones, and are as likely to be return to the country disappointed at finde strengthened by combination. Our city ing the competition and struggle of life can show as great specimens of purity and harder here than there. The ups and integrity as of corruption and rascality, downs of trade make life more characters as much intensified in virtue as citing ; but they also make success far others are in vice, and just about as good less certain, and failures far more numer a proportion as the country; for they were ous and more disastrous than in the coun formed in the country. Consequently, the try. There are innumerable causes which better-educated and the better-principled carry capital accumulated in the city to men you send here, the more discreetly the country for investment. So entirely and uprightly will your business be done, dependent is the city upon the country, including all the local arrangements which that you may as well try to keep the wa are necessary to keep the city in a conditer in your hydrant at a higher level than tion to transact the trade of the land. the nearest lock in your aqueduct, as to Remember this, men of the country: you think of holding the wealth of New-York make New-York; you should make it above the proper level which belongs to it better than it is.



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