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Art Intelligence.

A MONUMENTAL obelisk has been erected at It is said that a government appropriation of Krieblowitz, in Austria, to the memory of eighty thousand francs is to be made for an Blucher; it is composed of massive blocks of equestrian statue of Napoleon I., which will figgranite, quarried in the neighborhood. It con ure in the Crystal Palace of the Champs d'Elystains the ashes of the marshal, and is orna ees, in imitation of Victoria's statue at the mented with a half-length medallion portrait of Crystal Palace of Hyde Park. The Minister of him. The oldest soldiers of the Blucher hus- the Interior has already sent out a circular to sar regiment are to have the honor of guarding the Departments, sounding the note of preparathe remains of the veteran warrior.

tion for the World's Fair in 1855. Mr. Healy, the artist, after spending a few In 1850, says the Randolph Whig, John H. weeks in this city, left for Europe recently with Fairbanks, Esq., of this county, took out a patthe view of remaining there some years, and ent for an invention calculated to enable any prosecuting his profession, in which he has al man who can move his hands rapidly in a verready won for himself the highest reputation. tical direction to report a speaker in full, with M. Friederich, a sculptor of Strasburgh, has

ease and certainty. It is operated by keys,

which, by their movement connected with stenoresolved-so say the French papers—to erect a statue of red mountain stone in honor of St. graphic type, imprint a new alphabet of short

hand characters upon the paper. The alphabet Bernard de Menton, founder of the well-known

contains only five elementary characters, and hospital on the pass which bears his name. It is to stand near the hospital, and will be the by combinations of these, all the other letters, most eleva ted monument in Europe.

together with numerous word-signs, are made.

The fingers and thumb of one hand are suffiThe death of the celebrated landscape paint-cient to operate five keys, which constitute the er, Callamme, is announced from Geneva. | alphabet, and to make innumerable changes Though he had been ill for a long period, he upon the same, so that one hand can write one did not permit the disease from which he suf row of signs upon the paper, while another set fered entirely to suspend the efforts of his pen- of five keys under the other hand can, at the cil. He was one of the most admirable land same time, be made to write another one. It scape pain ters of the age; his “Forest in a is a curious and ingenious contrivance, and it is Storm," and his “Ruins of Pæstum," are ac certain that it will write very rapidly in the knowledged by all who have seen them to be hands of one who knows the alphabet perfectly consummate master-pieces of art. Callamme and can operate the keys with facility. Messrs. was born in Neufchatel, but early took up his Fairbanks & How have now in process of conresidence in Geneva, where he founded a school struction an improvement upon this invention, of painting.

calculated to write out a speech in Roman charThe city of Bremen is about to send a block

acters, instead of short-hand. For sketch-reof marble for the Washington Monument. It porting this would be admirable, as the “copy' • will bear the inscription, “ To Washington, the

would be more complete and easier for the comgreat, the good, the last, from friendly Bre- positor. men."

Mr. H. K. Browne, of Brooklyn, has executed, The first painter of France at the present day The statue is ten and a half feet high, The

in bronze, a colossal figure of De Witt Clinton. is Conture. He has just finished a great picture ordered by Cavaignac when at the head of the

costume is that of a gentleman fifty years ago. Republic. Its subject is Enlistment for the

Over the left shoulder is thrown a cloak. This Defense of France.

It contains some eighty is held by the arm below, from which it depends figures, and is described as full of life, power,

in graceful folds. The right shoulder and arm

are thus left free, as if for action or gesture. energy, and beauty of drawing, so far as much to excel all recent productions of French art.

The ample robe, while it leaves a sufficiency of Nothing can be conceived more replete with en

the person visible, supplies or conceals the meathusiasm than its groups rushing to the altar of gerness of our modern garb. Without departthe country, its women consecrating their chil

ure from the truth, it gives to the figure a clasdren to the fatherland, and its men and youths sic air--not inferior in grace and dignity to the approaching in sober earnestness to offer their

Roman toga. The attitude is easy and dignilives for their native France.

fied. The likeness is approved by persons who

well knew the original. The pedestal, which is The eminent Parisian artist Decamps, though about as high as the statue itself, is also of not yet sixty, has abandoned his profession, in bronze. Its cornices are adorned with vines order not to injure his fame by producing infe- and oak leaves. The two principal sides are rior works as he advances in life. The sketches, covered with bass-reliefs. The cost is estimated cartoons, pictures, and other objects in his stu at about $20,000. dio, brought about $20,000 at auction; the sale

Clark Mills has purchased a site for an Amercccupied three days.

ican School of Design and Art, at the junction A portrait of the Emperor Napoleon III., in im of the Anacesta and Potomac rivers. There he perial costume, has recently been executed by intends to mold and cast his equestrian statue M. David ; the sceptre, instead of bearing an of Washington; also, a group of statuary, repeagle as heretofore, has & statue of Charle- resenting two American Indians hunting the magne.

buffalo.

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Scientific Items.

Cocoons.

The California Academy of Natural Sciences crape upon his telescope, when a learned calrecently held their second meeting. A consti culator of Middlebourg, M. Bomme, reassured tution was adopted and committees appointed the astronomical world of the continued existo draft by-laws, an address setting forth the tence of the venerable and magnificent comet. objects of the society, and an addendum giving Disquieted, as all other astronomers wore, by directions for preparations of specimens to be the non-arrival of the comet at the expected donated to the institution. This society is time, M. Bomme, aided by the preparatory engaged in spreading to the world a knowledge labors of Mr. Hind, has revised all the calculaof the natural history and resources in Cali- tions, and estimated all the actions of all the fornia. The field of the State is new, almost planets upon the comet for three hundred years untrodden by the naturalist. The society will of revolution. The result of this patient labor act as a center, around which the facts of great gives the arrival of the comet in August, 1858, interest to the scientific world will gather. with an uncertainty of two years, more or less ; It has long been known to physiologists that

so that, from 1856 to 1860 we may expect the certain coloring matters, if administered to

great comet which was the cause of the abdicaanimals along with their food, possessed the

tion of the Emperor Charles V. in 1556." property of entering into the system and tinging A discovery has been made by Mr. Ira Hill, the bones. In this way the bones of swine of Lawrenceburg, Pa., which, to persons having have been tinged purple by madder, and in the care of steam-engines, may be valuable, by stances are on record of other animals being which the deposition of lime upon steam boilers similarly affected. No attempt, however, was

may be obviated. Two or three shovels of sawmade to turn this beautiful discovery to ac

dust are thrown into the boiler; after which count until lately, when M. Roulin, of France, process he states he never had any difficulty speculated on what might have been the con from lime, although using water strongly imsequences of administering colored articles of pregnated with it. He has always found the food to silkworms just before spinning their inside of his boilers as smooth as if just oiled.

His first experiments were conducted Whether the lime attaches itself to the floating with indigo, which he mixed in certain pro- particles of saw-dust, instead of the boiler, or portions with the mulberry leaves serving the

whether the tannic acid in the oak saw-dust forms worms for food. The result of this treatment a salt with the lime which will not attach itself was successful-he obtained blue cocoons. to iron, remains to be explained. The saw-dust Prosecuting still further his experiments, he

was placed in the boiler for the purpose of sought a red coloring matter capable of being stopping a leak. The experiment is cheap and eaten by the silkworms without injury resulting easily tried. He had some difficulty to find such a coloring The Fitchburg Reveille states that Mr. Cyrus matter at first, but eventually alighted on the Baldwin, of Manchester, N. H., the inventor of Bignonia chica. Small portions of this plant the bag-loom now used in the Stark Mill Manuhaving been added to the mulberry leaves, the factory, has invented two looms of wonderful. silkworms consumed the mixture, and produced construction, which get greater speed with less red-colored silk. In this manner the experi- | power. They have entirely a new shuttle momenter, who is still prosecuting his researches, tion, so that the shuttle can be stopped without hopes to obtain silk as secreted by the worm of stopping the loom. They do away with the many other colors.

use of cams, levers, treadles, pickers, and race. The Northern Bee, a German paper published rods, thereby saving seventy-five per cent. of

What is not less in Prussia, states that a Mr. Nobel, of Russia, oil used about the looms. exhihited an improvement on Ericsson's ma

important, they can be used for weaving all chine, which was kept in motion for some time

kinds of fancy goods, with from one to twenty to the great satisfaction of all the spectators,

harnesses. among whom was the Grand Duke Constantine. Judge Burnet, the first president of the AstroThe improvement consists in putting the nomical Society of Cincinnati, and an active cylinders inside of each other, whereas Ericsson member after he was eighty years of age, is puts the supply cylinders on top of the working dead. He was also president of several other cylinders.

literary and other institutions, and on the M. Rabinet, an eminent French astronomer,

nomination of General Lafayette, he was elected and member of the Academy of Sciences, in an

a member of the French Academy of Sciences, article recently published, has given some in

a very rare compliment. In 1847 he published teresting details respecting the comet which is

an octavo volume, of historical interest, called expected to make its appearance about the year

“Notes on the Early Settlement of the North1856:4" This comet is one of the grandest of

western Territory," containing a vast amount which historians make mention. Its period

of information on the rise and progress of the of revolution is about three hundred years. It

State of Ohio. was seen in the years 104, 392, 683, 975, 1264,

Two lines of submarine telegraph between and the last time in 1556. Astronomers agreed France and Algeria are under consideration. in predicting its return in 1848, but it failed to A diamond of beautiful form and the first appear. Already the observatories begin to be water, accompanied by a fine sapphire, has been alarmed for the fate of their beautiful wander- found in Australia, and brought to England by ing star.

Sir John Herschel himself had put a Sir Thomas Mitchell.

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history bears on its pages as those the origin of our own free institutions, of martyrs of liberty, there is not one mark his name as almost our own. The which justly challenges greater regard American people have not honored his from Americans than that of John memory as he deserved. Our youth are Hampden. The purity of his life, the not made as familiar as they ought to be integrity of his motives, the solidity of with his name and history. His memory his character, the devotedness of his zeal, is not embalmed, as justice requires, along commend him as a model republican patri- with that of our own Washington. ot, while the interest he felt in the Amer The great development of the spirit of ican colonies, and the intimate connection liberty among the people of England dur

Vol. III, No. 2.-H

ing the reign of Elizabeth is not properly was a bill prepared, or an inquiry begun, to be credited to any intention of hers; upon any subject, however remotely afbut was rather the incidental result of her fecting any of the three great matters at efforts to aggrandize her kingdom by the issue-privilege, religion, or the supplies cultivation of science and literature, the --but he was thought fit to be associated extension of manufactures and commerce, with St. John, Selden, Coke, and Pym, and the general diffusion of intelligence on the committee." and enterprise. Under such a regimen, Charles I., on his accession to the aided by a free Bible, the spirit of liberty throne, undertook to govern according to could not but grow. And when James the absolutist principles of his father. I. came to the throne, and disgusted and having tried two Parliaments without alarmed the people by the arrogance of being able to persuade them to grant him his claims to be an absolute sovereign, it the large supplies his extravagance rewas impossible but that the spirit of quired, he undertook to raise money by resistance should soon show itself, as the device of a forced loan, by which what could not brook and would never wealthy subjects were required to lend the bear a despot. In his first Parliament he king for his necessities sum equal to undertook to displace Sir Francis Goodwin, what would have been his tax if the bill the member who was duly elected for had been passed by Parliament, and those Buckinghamshire; but the House of Com- who refused were imprisoned by order of mons resisted the interference with their the king. So, then, an attack both upon privileges, and, after a severe struggle, the property of the people and upon perestablished forever their right of judging sonal liberty required to be firmly resisted of the returns of their members. His at the threshold, and Hampden was one second Parliament was dissolved for its of the first and boldest in refusing submisunanimous vote against the power of the sion to the unjust demand, for which he sufking to impose taxes by his own authority. fered an imprisonment that not only estabHis third Parliament was dissolved for lished him inflexibly in his own purposes, claiming the right of free discussion of but brought him conspicuously before the public affairs as the ancient and undoubt- public as a man not to be subdued by arbitraed birthright and inheritance” of the peo- ry power. In the next Parliament, 1628, he ple of England; and sundry of its prominent assisted in preparing and passing the great members, Coke, Phillips, Selden, Pym, “ Petition of Right,” by which the fundaand others, were imprisoned. In this mental principles of English liberty were Parliament John Hampden made his en- re-enacted ; and then retired to his estates trance upon the theater of public life, and to devote his time to the study of the though only twenty-seven years old, was principles of government, the history of admitted at once to the councils of the civil wars, and the military art. His reveteran parliamentary leaders who con- ligious principles, which were those of ducted the great contest for liberty. the Independents, in opposition both to

John Hampden was the head and rep- Presbyterianism and Prelacy, led him also resentative of an old and wealthy family, to the maintenance of the rights of conand at four years of age inherited large science, in opposition to all forms of eclanded estates in Buckinghamshire and clesiastical authority. the adjacent counties. He was born For eleven years Charles now ruled in 1594, entered Magdalen College at without a Parliament, supporting his govOxford in 1609, was admitted a student ernment by illegal exactions, by the shameof the Inner Temple in 1613, married in less sale of offices and privileges, both 1619, and at once retired from a life of civil and ecclesiastical, and by fines and gayety in London to the quiet pursuits of confiscations obtained through subservi. an educated country gentleman, occupied ent courts and the decrees of the despotic at once with the care of his estates, the Star Chamber, enforced by imprisonments, pursuits of literature, and the enjoyment loss of ears, and other cruelties. He even of domestic and social life. Elected to issued a proclamation making it criminal Parliament in 1621, he soon proved him in the people to speak any more of Parself a man of the highest order of wisdom, liaments. In 1634 he revived the demand integrity, and independence. Lord Nu- of ship-money, by which, under the pretext gent says, in his memoir, that "scarcely of chastising pirates, the towns and coun

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ties were required to furnish the king with Scotch; but he soon found they were such and such ships, or, in default thereof, more anxious to recover and secure their to pay a certain sum of money, to be as own liberties than to help the king crush sessed and collected by the king's officers. those of Scotland; and when they refused Here Hampden resolved to make a stand. to grant any supplies until their grievThe sum demanded of him was thirty-one ances were redressed, he dissolved them shillings and sixpence-a matter of no in three weeks, and before they had passed amount to him on the score of interest; a single bill. As Bolingbroke says, “The but the very smallness of the sum served cup was now full, and this last drop made to show that his opposition was directed the waters of bitterness overflow.” Such solely against the principle of the exaction. a manifest purpose on the part of the king As Burke said in regard to the resistance convinced the leaders of the people that of the colonies to the three-penny tax they had nothing left for their liberties upon tea, “the payment of half twenty but to fight for them. And it is highly shillings, on the principle it was demanded, probable that, as in the years which prewould have made Hampden a slave.” His ceded our own independence, the more open refusal to pay the tax brought out far-seeing clearly foresaw the necessity the whole power of the king to crush him. which was to arise of overthrowing the The question was carried up to a hearing monarchy itself as the only means of breakbefore the twelve judges of England. The ing down the infatuation which guided it. whole kingdom looked on in breathless The “Short Parliament" in April, 1640, anxiety, while Hampden stood up with left the king so embarrassed that he could modest firmness, before a packed court, not get through the year without finding the representative in his own person of a his wheels blocked, so that in November nation's liberties. Lord Clarendon, a sup- he was driven to summon his last—the porter of the king, testifies of Hampden famous “ Long Parliament”—and run the that, in this momentous contest, “he risk of whatever they might decide in regrew the argument of all tongues, every gard to the great questions of public libman inquiring who and what he was that erty that were in issue. Of this, as of the durst, at his own charge, support the lib- preceding Parliament, Hampden was a erty and property of the kingdom, and leading member. Lord Clarendon calls rescue his country, as he thought, from him “ the pilot that must steer the vessel being made a prey to the court;" and he through the tempest and rocks which adds that “his carriage throughout this threatened it." agitation was with that rare temper and He was the head of the committee to modesty that they who watched him nar- | impeach Strafford. He pressed through rowly to find some advantage against his the bill requiring triennial Parliaments. person, to make him less resolute in his He labored to procure the exclusion of the course, were compelled to give him a just bishops from the House of Lords; and testimony."

failing in that, resolved to abolish episcoThe king, in his eagerness to carry out pacy altogether as an institution hostile to his own ideas of prerogative, undertook to liberty. His name was seen much less change the religion of Scotland from than his influence was felt, for he was not Presbyterian to Episcopalian; but the a forward or frequent speaker in debate. Scotch people would not hold their con- Lord Nugent, in his “Memorial of Hampsciences under the control of human au- den,” says :thority, and they broke out in open rebellion. And when he marched an English until near the close of a debate; and then,

“His practice was usually to reserve himself army to bring them under subjection, having watched its progress, to endeavor to he found among the officers and men moderate the redundancies of his friends, to such a dislike to the service that he weaken the impression produced by his op

ponents, to confirm the timid, and to reconcile was forced to compromise the matter the reluctant. And this he did, according to by the Berwick Agreement in 1639, al- the testimony of his opponents themselves, with though, with characteristic perfidy, he a modesty, gentleness, and apparent diffidence disowned his own compact as soon as he in his own judgment, which generally brought

them round to his conclusions." had returned to London. Necessity then drove him to call a Parliament in hopes This is not the place to review the of inflaming national animosity against the progress of the controversy during the

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