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II. Supplementary material supplied by witnesses—Continued
Rule, Elton H., president, American Broadcasting Companies,
Inc., letters from Everett H. Erlick, senior vice president,
Inc., to Senator John O. Pastore, August 17, 1970.---
Emergent Telecommunications," The George Washington
Public Television, "Television Coverage of the Connecticut
General Assembly (1969–1973)”---III. Background Research and Studies:
"Accountability for the Legislature: The Impact of Extended
Television Coverage”, by Frank Donovan, legislative cor
respondent, Connecticut Public Television...
provided by the Superintendent, House Press Gallery ----
provided by the Superintendent, Senate Press Gallery -------
in the 91st through the 93d Congresses, Trevia Dean, Con-
from the 91st through the 93d Congresses -----
of Hearings—a report prepared by Paul Dwyer, Congressional
structions of the Joint Committee on Congressional Operations.
Political Studies, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.-
J. Vernon Jensen, in The Parliamentarian (Journal of the
Journal of Broadcasting, fall 1972----
quest of the Joint Committee on Congressional Operations by
Library of Congress.---
I. RESPONSES TO FOLLOWUP QUESTIONS TO WITNESSES SAMPLE LETTER REQUESTING ANSWERS TO ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS
MAY 8, 1974. Mr. FRANK J. JORDAN, NBC News, 4001 Nebraska Avenue, NW., Washington, D.C.
DEAR MR. JORDAN: I am enclosing several additional questions related to your testimony that arose in the course of the joint committee's hearings on Congress and mass communications. It would be most helpful to the joint committee members in considering their recommendations if you would be able to provide the information that is requested.
We would appreciate receiving your answers as soon as is conveniently possible. If you have any questions concerning this request, please call Don Tacheron or John Stewart on 225-8267.
I want to thank you for your very helpful contribution to the joint committee's inquiry.
Very truly yours, Enclosure.
Additional Followup Questions Which Were Mailed to Witnesses
1. What committees and subcommittees of the House and Senate have you requested and been granted permission for broadcast coverage (film, tape, live) of public hearings since January 1971?
2. Are there committees and subcommittees since January 1971 where you have requested permission for such coverage and been denied? If so, please indicate dates and subject matter of the hearings involved and the circumstances of denial (committee vote, chairman's opposition, etc.).
3. Have you ever requested permission to cover (film, tape, live) a conference committee? What was the result of this request?
4. Are there committees and subcommittees to which you do not normally request permission for such broadcast coverage because of your understanding that such coverage is never permitted?
5. Please list the editorials or special programs your network has produced on the importance of Congress as an institution. Have you ever dealt with the difficulties in covering Congress from an institutional perspective?
6. Do you have any suggestions as to steps Congress itself might take to make floor activities more understandable to the average television viewer?
7. The commercial networks have urged that each network also be permitted use of one unilateral camera in addition to the broadcast pool covering the House or Senate floor debates. Do you see the need for an additional unilateral camera available to public broadcasting? If so, why?
8. What specific changes not requiring legislation would you propose in the rules of the House and Senate Radio and Television Correspondents' Galleries in order to facilitate broadcast coverage of Congress?
9. Are there other ways to improve the facilities of the news galleries (omitting proposals contained in your original testimony)?
10. Assuming that the Senate or House would be interested in a limited trial period of broadcast coverage of floor proceedings, with no assurance that access to floor activity would be continued, what would be involved in providing the facilities for such a test run? Please provide general cost figures and specific information on the number of cameras needed, placement of cameras, additional lighting required, space requirements for cameras and supporting equipment.
Replies to Questions Submitted by Committee
American Broadcasting Companies, Inc.
Washington, D.C., June 13, 1974. Hon. LEE METCALF, U.S. Senate, The Capitol, Washington, D.C.
DEAR SENATOR: I want to apologize for the tardiness of my reply to your request for additional information regarding our recent testimony before the Joint Committee On Congressional Operations. It is a busy time in our businessas it is in yours, of course.
I am returning your questionnaire with answers from me and my staff which I am afraid are not going to be very productive for you. We don't keep the kind of records which would provide specific information to most of the questions.
In any event, here it is for whatever use you can make of it.
John LYNCH, Bureau Chief. There are no definitive records kept by ABC in D.C. which could provide accurate information to the questions below. The following represents our best recollections plus information from conversations with Jane Ruyle in the Senate gallery and Mike Michaelson in the House gallery.
(Answer Numbers Correspond With Question Numbers) Answers:
1. Generally, all committees and subcommittees of the Senate are open for broadcast coverage with the exception of the full Judiciary and Finance Committees and recently the Aviation Subcommittee of the Commerce Committee.
Senator Eastland never permits coverage of the full Judiciary Committee, but some subcommittee hearings have been covered by the broadcast media.
The Full Commerce Committee normally does but Senator Cotton recently closed the hearings for the Aviation Subcommittee.
The Appropriations Committee hearings are rarely open because of the small room, but on occasion they have been moved to larger quarters to provide for coverage.
The biggest problem in getting coverage permission is for stake outs in the Capitol due to the cramped space and constant crush of visitors.
In the House all committees generally are open to broadcast coverage except the Ways and Means, House Administration, and Rules Committees which rarely grant permission; and the Armed Services-never.
2. No records are available to back up denials of requests. In the House all requests for coverage of Armed Services and Ways and Means are routinely denied and also many of the Interstate Committee hearings.
Requests are not made of the Senate Committees where it is known that permission will be denied. Rather, for these committees (see question 1) there is coverage when the invitation is offered.
3. House--All have been closed; no film requests. Senate-No requests.
4. House-Armed Services. Senate-Full Judiciary, Appropriations, Finance.
5. (a) Ed Morgan makes frequent commentaries on Congress and its various aspects including proposed reforms. Frank Reynolds and Howard K. Smith also often discuss Congress' effectiveness.
8. Automatic access for cameras to any committee session or hearing which is otherwise "open". Actually, these are rules of the Senate and House, not of the Galleries.
9. I can't pass up this chance to argue for workable space in the Senate gallery.
10. This probably would call for a four-camera unit requiring augmented lighting. It's almost impossible to provide cost figures without a survey, because conditions are always changing on us. I am certain the three commercial networks would be happy to undertake a cost survey if desired.
Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc.
Washington, D.C., June 4, 1974. Hon. LEE METCALF, U.S. Senate, Old Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C.
DEAR SENATOR METCALF: I apologize for the delay in answering your queries of May 8. It is due, in part, to a change of command in this bureau and the subsequent, temporary, confusion such a change engenders. Anyway, here are the answers:
1. We have no records which indicate requests we have made for coverage, or if the requests were granted. What we can furnish you, if it will help, is a list of House and Senate committees and subcommittees which we have covered. Many of these were open to cameras, of course, at the chairman's ruling and not necessarily at our request. Please let me know if you want such a list.
2. Yes, is the answer; and the instances, I am told, are too numerous to list.
6. We do not, and feel uncertain whether it is something we, as news gatherers and distributors, should suggest.
8. Our first suggestion is to open all hearings and floor debate for complete coverage. Also, we would suggest more generous permission and latitude to do interviews and stand-up on camera pieces both inside and outside the Capitol.
9. Space, space, space. More space. Needless to say, we would pay out-ofpocket costs for decorating and other expenses associated with such expansion.
10. We cannot estimate such a project without an extensive survey and we would be reluctant to engage in such a survey until such time as a test, as outlined, was a concrete prospect. Any lag, of course, between survey and actuality tends to outdate the survey data, so a survey held now would be
invalid should such a test be scheduled next year, for instance. I hope I have been of some help, and again, I apologize for the delay. Yours truly,
SANFORD Socolow, Vice President.
RICHARD W. JENCKS, VICE PRESIDENT, CBS BROADCAST EDITORIALS-ACCESS
TO LEGISLATIVE PROCEEDINGS
Washington, D.C., March 18, 1974.
DEAR MR. CLEVELAND: When CBS President Arthur R. Taylor testified before the Joint Committee on Congressional Operations last month, you asked him to furnish information regarding editorials broadcast by CBS calling for the opening of legislative proceedings to broadcast coverage.
I enclose for your information both a chronology and a set of transcripts of various editorial broadcasts by CBS dealing with this subject. This editorial material is of course in addition to the considerable hard news and documentary coverage, on both a network and local basis, which has been broadcast through the years dealing with particular legislative issues, as well as interviews with Members of Congress touching on the subject.
The enclosed material includes both radio and television broadcasts and goes back as far as 1954. I think you will find it consistently representative of the view that Mr. Taylor expressed in his testimony, namely that free access of broadcasting microphones and cameras to the legislative proceedings of government is the best way to help broadcast journalism professionals provide what is worthy of public interest. With all good wishes, Sincerely,
RICHARD W. JENCKS.
COLUMBIA BROADCASTING SYSTEM, INC.,
Washington, D.C., March 18, 1974. Hon. LEE METCALF, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C.
DEAR MR. CHAIRMAN: In the course of testimony by Arthur R. Taylor, President of CBS, before the Joint Committee on Congressional Operations last month, Representative Cleveland requested information as to editorials broadcast by CBS on the subject of access to legislative proceedings.
A copy of Mr. Taylor's response to that request is enclosed herewith for the Committee's information. With all good wishes, Sincerely,
RICHARD W. JENCKS.
CBS BROADCAST EDITORIALS ABOUT ACCESS TO LEGISLATIVE PROCEEDINGS
August 26, 1954. CBS President Frank Stanton delivered an editorial on the CBS Radio and Television Networks, dealing with a ruling that a Senate committee hearing on censure of Senator McCarthy (R., Wis.) would not be open to broadcast coverage. The editorial urged that broadcasting be allowed to cover, legislative proceedings.
March 11 & 14, 1966. WCBS-TV New York broadcast an editorial calling for “full access to Senate procedures" in the New York State Legislature, and seeking similar access to City Council sessions.
January 18, 1967. KMOX Radio St. Louis broadcast an editorial defending the broadcasters' right to uncensored coverage of legislative proceedings.
December 9, 1972. KMOX-TV St. Louis broadcast an editorial entitled “Open the Doors,” supporting a bill requiring open meetings of all public agencies in the State, and commending the idea that legislative proceedings be open.
May 30 & 31, 1973. KNXT Los Angeles broadcast an editorial protesting the closing of a California State Senate hearing to television cameras."
July 10, 1973. WCAU-TV Philadelphia broadcast an editorial entitled “Let's Get Government Out into the Open" opposing "closed door executive sessions” of legislative bodies.
July 30, 1973. WCAU-TV Philadelphia broadcast "It's Time to Follow Florida's Lead," an editorial urging other states to adopt Florida's "sunshine law" that all meetings of public agencies be open to the public.
September 10 & 11, 1973. KNXT Los Angeles broadcast an editorial urging that U.S. Senate and House floor proceedings "open up for cameras and let every American see what goes on.”
December 20, 1973. KMOX-TV St. Louis broadcast an editorial praising the Missouri Attorney General's outlawing of "secret meetings of public bodies."
January 4 & 5, 1974. WCBS Newsradio New York broadcast an editorial reiterating its long-standing position that all legislative committee meetings be open to the public.