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Changes in Voters' Issue Awareness for Level of Exposure to
Television News, Controlling for Newspaper Exposure
Changes in Voters' Issue Awareness for Levels of Exposure to
Television News and Newspapers, controlling for
Televised Advertising Exposure.
The gain for those with high television news exposure, in contrast, is +25.2 among high newspaper exposure voters and +29.3 among low exposure voters. However, level of newspaper exposure is related to increased issue awareness among voters with both low and high advertising exposure (see Table 6). In the case of low advertising exposure, voters with high newspaper exposure showed a much greater gain (+43.0) than those with low newspaper exposure (+16.5). And among those with high advertising exposure, the gain among high newspaper readers (+29.8) was again higher than the gain among the low readers (+20.3).
Televised Advertising: Level of exposure to televised political advertising is related to gain in voters' awareness on those issues heavily covered in political ads (see Table 4). The average change was +31.5 among voters with high advertising exposure and +23.7 among those with low advertising exposure.
Among voters with low television news exposure (see Table 7), those with high advertising exposure show a greater average change (+31.0) than those with low advertising exposure (+22.3). The average change for voters with high television news exposure, however, was roughly the same in both the high (+32.2) and low ad (+33.9) exposure categories.
Examining ad exposure while controlling for newspaper exposure reveals a similar pattern (see Table 7). For voters with low newspaper exposure, the average change was nearly twice as great within the high (+22.0) as within the low (+11.9) category of advertising exposure. Among high newspaper exposure voters, however, the high ad exposure group showed about the same change (+39.4) as those voters with low ad exposure (+39.7).
Summary and Elaboration
All three information sources have some impact on voters' issue
changes in Voters' Issue Awareness for Level of Exposure to Televised
and Newspaper Exposure.
awareness. However, the effects of television news, newspapers, and televised ads are unequal and occur among different groups of voters. Taken as a whole, our analyses result in two major findings. First, the impact of television news is, at best, very modest, while both newspapers and televised political ads have a clear impact on voters. Second, all three information sources show clear effects only in the absence of high exposure to one or both alternative sources.
of the two news sources, level of exposure to televised news has less impact than level of exposure to newspapers. considering all voters, level of television news exposure is unrelated to changes in voters' issue awareness, while level of newspaper exposure is strongly related to such changes. Additionally, the magnitude of change is less among those with high television news exposure than among those with high newspaper exposure.'
Level of exposure to television news has a significant impact on issue awareness only when newspaper exposure is low. Then, high television news exposure voters show almost twice as much change as low television news exposure voters. However, the effects of high newspaper exposure under comparable conditions is even greater. When television news exposure is low, high newspaper readers show three times as great a gain as low newspaper readers. Also, the magnitude · of change for high newspaper readers is (+46.8), the largest gain shown in any of the tables.
Across all voters, level of exposure to televised political advertising is clearly related to increased issue awareness. High advertising exposure voters show substantially more gain than those with low advertising exposure, and, if anything, the data underestimate televised advertising effects.