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THE U.S. COAST GUARD will commence International Ice Patrol services to shipping for the 1963 ice season in late February or early March, depending upon ice conditions.
The primary objective of International Ice Patrol is to provide timely information and warning to shipping of the extent of the southeastern, southern, and southwestern limits of the regions of icebergs and sea ice in the vicinity of the Grand Banks.
To accomplish this objective, International Ice Patrol maintains facilities during the ice season at Argentia for
a. Collection of ice, weather, and sea temperature reports from shipping and aircraft transversing the Grand Banks area.
b. Operation of aircraft from Argentia for ice reconnaissance.
c. Operation of an oceanographic vessel for the collection of sea temperature, salinity, current,
and weather data.
d. Operation of surface patrol craft when required.
e. Evaluation of all data collected, together with weather forecasts from naval facilities and ice information from Canadian sources.
f. Disseminations of evaluated ice information by means of U.S. Coast Guard Radio Argentia (NIK) and by further dissemination via Naval Radio, Washington (NSS) and Radio Halifax (CFH).
IMPORTANCE OF ICE, VISIBILITY, SEA TEM
PERATURE, AND WEATHER REPORTS FROM SHIPPING
a. Each ice broadcast by NIK will contain a request for all ships to report any ice sighted, and when in the area between latitudes 39° N. and 49° N. and longitudes 42° W. and 60° W. to report every 4 hours ship's position, course, speed, visibility, sea temperature, and weather conditions. These reports by shipping are of the utmost importance. During periods of low visibility or low ceilings when aerial ice observation is rendered ineffective, ice reports by shipping are invaluable in aiding Ice Patrol to relocate drifting ice and to keep the position of that ice, as reported in the ice broadcasts, up to date. Visibility reports are of considerable value in planning ice observations flights. Visibility reports are also useful in determining when special warnings on ice conditions should be broadcast. Sea temperatures reported to the Ice Patrol are used to construct isotherm charts employed in estimating ice-melting rates and in detecting shifts in the branches of the Labrador Current. Wind data are useful in estimating set and drift of ice, and in forecasting weather for the purpose of planning ice observation flights.
b. In reporting ice to NIK, it is important that certain information be furnished in order that the report be evaluated correctly, especially from the standpoint of ruling out occasion
al erroneous reports and obviating unnecessary searches and warnings to shipping. The information desired is (1) the type of ice sighted, i.e., berg, growler, or sea ice (NOTE.—If a radar target is reported which is believed to be ice but is not actually sighted visually, it should be reported as a radar target, NOT as berg, growler or sea ice); (2) the position of the ice (not the position of the reporting ship); (3) the sea temperature at point of closest approach to the ice; and (4) weather and visibility conditions.
c. In view of the heavy reliance placed by Commander, International Ice Patrol, on reports of ice, visibility, sea temperature, and weather from shipping, all shipmasters are strongly urged to make these reports. It is realized that ships with but one radio operator may find it impracticable to report every 4 hours as requested. It is therefore suggested that these ships prepare 4-hourly reports, but delay transmitting them until the radio operator comes on watch. A late report is much better than no report.
COMMUNICATIONS a. Twice-Daily Ice Broadcasts
Ice broadcasts will be made twice daily, at 0048 and 1248 GMT, by U.S. Coast Guard Radio Argentia (NIK) on 155, 5320, and 8502 kc/s. Each broadcast will be preceded by the general call CQ on 500 kc/s, with instructions to shift to receive on 155, 5320, or 8502 kc/s. After shifting to these frequencies, NIK will transmit test frequency. NIK will work 427 kc/s, 8734 kc/s, 6477.5 kc/s, or 12,718.5 kc/s. The surface patrol vessel, radio call sign NIDK, when on station, will relay between NIK and ships when necessary. There is no charge for these services. f. Broadcasts by Other Stations
Throughout the ice season, U.S. Navy Radio Washington (NSS) and Halifax (CFH) will broadcast twice daily ice reports as furnished by Commander, International Ice Patrol, at 0430 and 1630 GMT, and 0200 and 1400 GMT, respectively.
Further notice will be given as to the exact date when the ice broadcasts and operations of the International Ice Patrol will commence.
Until the inauguration of International Ice Patrol services, all reports of ice sightings should be addressed to the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office, Washington, D.C., and thereafter to Commander, International Ice Patrol (NIK).
WARNING Carefully conducted tests by International Ice Patrol during the 1959 season showed that radar cannot provide positive assurance for iceberg detection. An iceberg is only onesixtieth as good a radar reflector as a comparable sized ship. Sea water is a better reflector than ice. This means that unless a berg or growler is observed on radar outside the area of sea "return” or “clutter" on the scope, it will not be detected by the radar. Furthermore, the average maximum range of radar detection of a dangerous size growler is 4 miles.
Radar is a valuable aid but its use cannot replace the traditional caution exercised in a passage across the Grand Banks during the ice season.
ICE OBSERVER at the window of a Coast Guard airplane conducting a search pattern over the Grand Banks. The observer is specially trained to determine the size, direction of trovel, and speed of the bergs.
GULF OF ST. LAWRENCE INFORMATION
Aerial ice reconnaissance and dissemination of ice information is also performed for shipping by
the Canadian Department of Transport. Ships may obtain ice information about this area by contacting Ice Information Officer, North Sidney Radio (VCO). This organization, during the period from mid-December 1962 to 30 June 1963, will operate mainly in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and approaches, and the coastal waters of Newfoundland to the entrance of Hudson Bay. Details of these services are available in the publication “Guidance to Merchant Ships Navigating in the Gulf of St. Lawrence," published annually by the Marine Operations Branch, Department of Transport, Canada.
This year marks the 49th anniversary of the International Ice Patrol; however, it is the 50th anniversary of the "Ice Patrol" which was commenced by the Coast Guard during the previous season.
Aerial Ice Reconnaissance this year will be conducted by the new SC-130 Hercules aircraft which have replaced the R5D Skymasters on this duty.
The Ice Patrol Commander for the 1963 season is Capt. J. F. Richey, USCG, with headquarters at the U.S. Naval Station in Argentia, Newfoundland.
signal and the International Ice Patrol radio call sign NIK for about 2 minutes to facilitate tuning. The ice broadcast will follow immediately at 15 words per minute and then be repeated at 25 words per minute. - Prescribed radio silent periods will be observed. b. Special Broadcasts
When deemed advisable, special ice broadcasts may be made in addition to those regularly scheduled. Such special ice broadcasts will be preceded by the International safety signal TTT. c. Facsimile Broadcasts
Ice conditions will be transmitted daily by facsimile at 1330Z on 5320 and 8502 kc/s at a drum speed of 60 rpm. All ships receiving these transmissions are requested to mail the facsimile chart copies, with notations of date received and ship's position, to the Commander, International Ice Patrol, Navy 103, FPO, New York, N.Y., for evaluation of effectiveness. d. NIK-Ship Communications
Duplex operation will be used between NIK and merchant ships for general radio communications such as requests for special information, reports made by merchant ships of ice sighted, sea temperatures, visibility and weather conditions. e. Calling-Working
Merchant ships may call NIK on 500 kc/s and 8 m/s maritime calling band at any time; also on 12 mc/s band during daylight hours and 6 mc/s band during nighttime hours. Ships work 425, 448, 454, 468, or 480 kc/s, or their assigned HF working
OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION
The following material is contained on the reverse side of the latest revision of the U.S. Naval Oceanographic pilot charts for the North Pacific and the North Atlantic Oceans (H.O. 1400 and 1401). -Ed.
THIS ARTICLE is being published to further publicize the oil pollution control regulations which were adopted and made effective for U.S. ships in December 1961. The new regulations will help to eliminate certain oil pollutions of the oceans and along the coasts of the world. Oil pollution has increased with the greater worldwide use of oil fuel for power and heat purposes, and the problem has, with the implementation of these regulations, assumed a new dimension for those in charge of the transportation of oil. Officers of ships are more affected by the regulations than anyone else and the responsibilities placed upon them should be clearly understood by all concerned.
Natural seepage of oil from submarine sources continues to account for some pollutions of the oceans in certain areas. However, the most significant cause of all pollution is from the discharge of oil by vessels. The continued growth in the importance of petroleum, both to peacetime economy and wartime potential of nations, has made oil and oil products a principal factor in international trade. Many nations are dependent for oil from outside sources. This has forced the expansion of transportation facilities and the size of the vessels to ever-increasing carrying capacities. Heavy pollution, affecting many miles of coastline, has resulted from careless handling of ship fuels, oil cargoes, and numerous ship losses during the past 25 years. These pollutions have taken place in all oceans, and the residues have remained a cause of economic loss and discomfort.
Pollution of most shorelines is seldom a continuous condition, but varies according to weather and tide combinations and may be roughly divided in effect as follows:
(1) Temporary destruction of beach or recreation areas.
(2) Injury and destruction of sea birds.
(3) Fouling of small craft, fishing gear, docks, and pier installations.
(4) Damage to fish and shellfish.
(5) Fire risk in confined harbor areas.
In addition to the permanent sources of seepage from deep positions and old wrecks, the continued increase in serious pollution has led to an investigation and critical listing of the sources of discharge resulting from vessel operation.
1. Tanker operation:
(a) Tank washings, sludge, and oil contaminated ballast water from cargo tanks.
(b) Leakage from cargo tanks or pump rooms and discharge from cofferdams.
2. Cargo and passenger vessel operation:
(a) Oil contaminated ballast water from fuel tanks.
(b) Tank washings from deep tanks used for the carriage of animal and vegetable oils.
3. Miscellaneous vessel discharge:
(a) Residue from settling tanks, fuel pumping operations, heating and filtering units, lubricating oil systems, and separators.
(b) Oil-contaminated bilge water from engine and fireroom spaces.
(c) Cleaning solutions from fuel tanks.
(d) Spills from cargo or refueling operations or from transfer operations aboard ship.
(e) Leakage through defective plating.
(f) Damage due to grounding or collisions.
(g) The spreading of oil on troubled seas in salvage and lifesaving operations.
Further investigation in pursuit of these sources and experiments has shown that the persistent oils, including crude oil, residual fuel oil, tar oils, creosote, and lubricating oil, are the cause of most of the pollution. Of less concern in long-lasting pollution, but of increased cause for immediate alarm, are the nonpersistent, highly flammable oils such as gasoline, diesel oil, and kerosene.
Oils that cause the worst pollution are very stable; oxidation may be so slow as to defy detection and the oils
float almost indefinitely. This may cause fouling of a coastline many miles away from the original source. Oil placed on water experimentally outlasted the water, which disappeared from laboratory tanks through evaporation. At sea, an experimental 15 tons of fuel covered an area of about 8 square miles and in 1 week had drifted 20 miles from the point of discharge.
Winds influence such drifts and wind combined with tide can cause a rapid advance of the oil. Shores exposed to prevailing winds are the most polluted of all areas. England's south and west coasts receive much damage in this respect, and the spasmodic pollution is closely associated with onshore gale conditions.
On the western side of the Atlantic, the exposed areas of Newfoundland and the east coast of the United States have received intermittent heavy pollution, depending upon various conditions of wind and tide. A great deal of wildlife is reported destroyed and may be washed ashore during conditions of contamination by residual, persistent oil pollution. It is estimated that over a quarter of a million sea birds were destroyed by petroleum pollution during the winter of 1959–60 in the North Atlantic off Newfoundland.
Ordinarily, birds that encounter oil are rendered flightless. Feathers lose buoyancy and insulating qualities and body weight gradually increases until the bird drowns. Those that are less contaminated may freeze to death or starve because matted feathers no longer insulate, and the bird's ability to feed is lost. Under the most adverse conditions, the marine life destroyed far exceeds the ability of the usual predators to devour, and the remainder washes up on the beach to destroy recreational facilities or to create community health problems.
Earlier conferences convened to study the problems of pollution have usually agreed that the only way to avoid polluting the sea, fouling the beaches, and destroying birds was to avoid the discharge of persistent oil or sludge into the ocean. It follows that oily wastes aboard ship must be separated and the residue discharged ashore. Agreements and acts formulated to prohibit discharge of wastes inside prescribed distances are interim steps, made necessary by the present need of the proper equipment to separate the pollutants. The final longterm remedy for the condition, after ship and shore facilities improve and become completely adequate, will be to obtain agreements for the avoid
ance of all ocean pollution of the persistent types.
Several governments working together have been able to agree essentially concerning the pollution problem. The International Convention for the Prevention of the Pollution of the Seas by Oil, 1954, came into force on 26 July 1958. In the United States, a National Committee made a careful study of the 1954 convention and, on June 23, 1959, recommended acceptance with certain reservations.
The Oil Pollution Act, 1961, Public Law 87–167, was enacted to implement the international provisions and was signed by the President on 30 August 1961. The United States became a party to the convention on 8 December 1961 and the Oil Pollution Act, 1961, became effective on that date.
The primary authority for the Administration of the Oil Pollution Act of 1961 is vested in the Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, and regulations were promulgated by that agency on 2 December 1961 to become effective 8 December 1961. Notice to Mariners No. 52, 1961, published the Oil Pollution Regulations, which had previously been promulgated in the Federal Register. The regulations provide as follows:
1. United States flag ships, subject to the act, are prohibited from discharging oil or oily wastes in any of the zones named in the act, including a zone extending 50 miles around our own coasts.
2. Oil record books shall be maintained to show where such oils or oily wastes are discharged and shall be available to employees of the Corps of Engineers employed on river and harbor works; employees of any Corps of Engineers harbor supervisor; commissioned, warrant, and petty officers of the U.S. Coast Guard; and employees of the Bureau of Customs authorized to make the inspections required under the Oil Pollution Act, 1961. Oil record books maintained on foreign vessels, whose governments
are parties to the convention, are subject to inspection by the enforcement officers while the vessel is within U.S. waters.
3. In the event of discharge or escape of oil from a ship in a prohibited zone, the Officer in Charge of the operation and the Master are required to sign a statement in the oil record book of the circumstances and the reasons therefor.
4. Failure to comply with the requirements relative to oil record books is punishable by a fine of not less than $500 nor more than $1,000. A person making false or misleading entries may, in addition, be punished by imprisonment for a term not exceeding 6 months.
5. Ship fittings, equipment, and operating requirements shall be in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Coast Guard. A civil penalty not to exceed $100 is prescribed for violations of Coast Guard regulations.
6. The license or document of any mariner found violating the provisions of the act or the regulations are subject to Coast Guard suspension or revocation provisions under Section 4450 of the Revised Statutes, as amended (46 U.S.C. 239). The regulations promulgated by the Army Corps of Engineers are found in part 212 of Title 33, Code of Federal Regulations. For ready reference the regulations may be found inside the cover of the Oil Record Book. The record books, one for tankers and one for non-tankers, are available at any Coast Guard Merchant Marine Inspection Office.
(6821) UNITED STATES-Oil Pollution Regulations.—Pursuant to the provisions of section 10 of the Oil Pollution Act, 1961, (75 Stat. 404), ##212.1 to 212.3 are hereby prescribed to implement the provisions of the Oil Pollution Act, 1961, effective on publication in the Federal Register since coordination has been effected with the parties interested in this matter, as follows:
Note.—Where used in this part, "convention" means the International Convention for the Prevention of the Pollution of the Seas by Oil, 1954.
#212.1 Prohibited zone adjacent to the United States.
(a) These waters shall be those covered by a band 50 miles wide adjacent to the coast line of the United States and will include the area now considered territorial waters of the United States.
(1) In enforcing the Oil Pollution Act, 1961, the officers and agents of the United States in charge of river and harbor improvements and persons employed under them by authority of the Secretary of the Army
and officers and employees of the Bureau of Customs and the Coast Guard shall have power and authority and it shall be their duty to swear out process and to arrest and take into custody with or without process any person who may violate any of said provisions: Provided, That no person shall be arrested without process for a violation not committed in the presence of some one of the aforesaid officials: And provided further, That whenever any arrest is made under the provisions of said sections the person so arrested shall be brought forthwith before a commissioner, judge, or court of the United States for examination of the offenses alleged against him; and such commissioner, judge, or court shall proceed in respect thereto as authorized by law in cases of crimes against the United States. Representatives of the Secretary and of the Bureau of Customs and United States Coast Guard may go on board and inspect any foreign ship to which the convention applies while the ship is within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States, and they may also go on board and inspect any United States ship to which the convention applies when in a prohibited zone or in a port of the United States as may be necessary for enforcement of the Oil Pollution Act, 1961, and the regulations of this part.
(2) Information pertaining to violations of the Oil Pollution Act, 1961, will be submitted to the Corps of Engineers District Engineer in charge of the locality, directly or through Coast Guard Representatives, where the violation occurred. If the violation is by a vessel of foreign registry, the District Engineer will forward the report to the Chief of Engineers.
(3) Nothing in the regulations of this part or in the Oil Pollution Act, 1961, will be construed to change or modify the provisions of the Oil Pollution Act of 1924.
(b) The Secretary of the Army hereby designates employees of the
#212.2 Prohibited zone adjacent to countries other than the United States.
Vessels of the United States to which the convention applies while in a prohibited zone adjacent to countries other than the United States as described in section 12 of the Oil Pollution Act of 1961, or as modified by notices, if any, of extension or reduction issued by the Secretary of the Army, shall comply with the provisions of the International Convention for Prevention of Pollution of the Seas by Oil, 1954.
#212.3 Oil Record Book.
(a) An “Official Oil Record Book” issued by the Secretary of the Army is printed by the United States Government and made available without charge to the masters or operators of all vessels subject to the Oil Pollution Act, 1961, through U.S. Coast Guard Marine Inspection Offices located in the coastal and principal Great Lakes ports.
(b) The “Official Oil Record Book” shall contain the record of certain actions in connection with the use or handling of oil or oily mixture. Each entry shall be made and dated on the day when such actions occur. When any action or operation extends over a period of more than one day the date of entry shall not be later than the date on which the action or operation is completed.
(c) The master of all vessels required to keep the “Official Oil Record Book” shall be responsible for the maintenance of such record and its delivery as required herein.
(d) Upon completion of a foreign voyage the oil record shall be delivered to the U.S. Coast Guard Marine Inspection Office in the port where the voyage is terminated.
(e) The “Official Oil Record Book” maintained on vessels when not engaged on foreign voyage shall remain on board such vessels for one or more voyages until insufficient space remains for an additional entry. When completed, the books shall be retained on board the vessel, or at the principal office in the United States of the vessels owner for a period of 2 years from the date of the last entry. At the expiration of this period they may be destroyed.
Public Law 87-167 87th Congress, s. 2187 August 30, 1961
75 STAT. 402. To implement the provisions of the In
ternational Convention for the Prevention of the Pollution of the Sea by Oil, 1954.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That this Act, to implement the provisions of the International Convention for the Prevention of the Pollution of the Sea by Oil, 1954, may be cited as the "Oil Pollution Act, 1961".
SEC. 2. DEFINITIONS.—As used in this Act, unless the context otherwise requires
(a) The term "convention" means the International Convention for the Prevention of the Pollution of the Sea by Oil, 1954;
(b) The term "discharge” in relation to oil or to an oily mixture means any discharge or escape
howsoever caused; (c) The
term “heavy diesel oil" means marine diesel oil, other than those distillates of which more than 50 per centum, by volume distills at a temperature not exceeding three hundred and forty degrees centigrade when tested by American Society for the Testing of Materials standard method D. 158/53:
(d) The term “mile" means a nautical mile of six thousand and eighty feet or one thousand eight hundred and fiftytwo meters;
(e) The term "oil" means persistent oils, such as crude oil, fuel oil, heavy diesel oil, and lubricating oil. For the purposes of this legislation, the oil in an oily mixture of less than one hundred parts of oil in one million parts of the mixture, shall not be deemed to foul the surface of the sea;
(f) The term "person" means an individual, partnership, corporation, or association; and any owner, operator, agent, master, officer, or employee of a ship;
(g) The term “prohibited zones" means the zones described in section 12 of this Act as modified by notices, if any, of extension or reduction issued by the Secretary;
(h) The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of the Army;
(1) The term "ship" means a seagoing ship of American registry except
(1) ships for the time being used as naval auxiliaries;
(2) ships of under five hundred tons gross tonnage;
(3) ships for the time being engaged in the whaling industry;
(4) ships for the time being navi. gating the Great Lakes of North America and their connecting and tributary waters as far east as the lower exit of the Lachine Canal at Montreal in the Prov. ince of Quebec, Canada.
Sec. 3. (a) Subject to the provisions of sections 4 and 5, the discharge by any person from any ship, which is a tanker, within any of the prohibited zones of oil or any oily mixture the oil in which fouls the surface of the sea, shall be unlawful.
(b) Subject to the provisions of sections 4 and 5, any discharge by any person into the sea from a ship, other than a tanker, of oily ballast water or tank washings shall be made as far as practicable from land. As from July 26, 1961, paragraph (a) of this section shall apply to ships other than tankers as it applies to tankers, except that the prohibited
in relation to ships other than tankers shall be those referred to in the schedule. Sec. 4. Section 3 shall not apply to
(a) the discharge of oil or of an oily mixture from a ship for the purpose of securing the safety of the ship, preventing damage to the ship or cargo, or saying life at sea; or
(b) the escape of oil, or of an oily mixture, resulting from damage to the ship or unavoidable leakage, if all reasonable precautions have been taken after the occurrence of the damage or discovery of the leakage for the purpose of preventing or minimizing the escape; (c) the discharge of sediment
(1) which cannot be pumped from the cargo tanks of tankers by reason of its solidity; or
(ii) which is residue arising from the purification or clarification of oil fuel or lubricating oil,
Provided, That such discharge is made as far from land as is practicable.
SEC. Section 3 shall not apply to the discharge from the bilges of a ship
(a) of any oily mixture, during the period of twelve months after the United States accepts the convention;
(b) after the expiration of such period, of an oily mixture containing no oil other than lubricating oil.
Sec. 6. Any person who violates any provision of this Act, except sections 8(b) and 9, or any regulation prescribed in pursuance thereof, is guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction shall be punished by a fine not exceeding $2,500 nor less than $500, or by imprisonment not exceeding one year, or by both such fine and imprisonment for each offense. And any ship (other than a ship owned and operated by the United States) from which oil is discharged in violation of this Act, or any regulation prescribed in pursuance thereof, shall be liable for the pecuniary penalty specified in this section, and clearance of such ship from a port of the United States may be withheld until the penalty is paid, and said penalty shall constitute a lien on such ship which may be recovered in proceed