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on merchant ship bridges. The future success of TRUMOT is, for the most part, in the hands of the mariner-operator. His understanding, prudent use and acceptance of TRUMOT equipment will not only mean better

equipment with which to work in the future, it will also mean that one of the uses for which RADAR was intended that of SAFE NAVIGATION AND SAFETY AT SEA-is nearer accomplishment.

RULES OF THE ROAD

origin is 4 to 5 miles from the top of the scope.

Own Ship Course Changes are dealt with on the California's unit by physically rotating the scope, azimuth scale, and reflection plotter simultaneously, not only to gain a "head up" presentation on the scope but also so that a continuous plot of targets can be retained on he RADAR plotting head.

Own Ship's Speed is quite important in order that a correct solution can be found. Errors in this preset speed should be determined as quickly as possible. Computers used in the TRUMOT mode probably will have an error of some kind. Adjusting these computers seems to be a tricky item for service personnel especially when the ship is stationary and does not have any movement on which to base these adjustments. Computer error, however, can be determined by the operator and a correction applied to ship's speed. With the computer set at ship's speed, place the unit in the TRUMOT mode and mark a nearby land mass (or stationary object) having a well-defined point. If this point can be observed to fall astern, the computer is actually moving your ship at too great a speed. The same idea applies in the case of points that move ahead or the computer is then moving the ship at too little speed. The effects of wind and current should also be taken in account. By trial and error the operator can get a reasonable idea of what correction will be necessary to correct computer speed.

Rules of the Road are safety measures which were devised by seamen after vessel traffic grew to the extent that the dangers of collision became very real. The rules have one objective: The prevention of collisions.

To enable the Rules of the Road to be effective wherever the vessels of all nations may navigate, they must be simple, straightforward, and uniform. These universal rules must be disseminated to and understood by all mariners; finally, there must be strict adherence to them.

Throughout history various maritime codes have been compiled by the mercantile powers. The codes merely followed the customs and practices of international shipping. The customs used by seamen to avoid collisions made up the general maritime law as applied by the courts of all maritime nations that were sitting in admiralty. Great Britain, which provided the body of law adopted by this country, did not enact statutes following the general maritime law until 1846. This country followed Britain's example in 1864, at which time the existing International Rules adopted by Congress for all U.S. waters.

The first step away from uniformity of the Rules of the Road for U.S. waters occurred in 1885, when Congress made the then current revised International Rules apply to inland and international waters. This left the International Rules of 1864 applicable to the Great Lakes and western rivers. The Great Lakes rules were changed by Congress in 1895, while western rivers rules essentially have remained based upon the 1864 rules, with some amendments.

Additional complication of our rules occurred in 1897, when Congress enacted a set of rules for navigation in the Inland waters that differed from the current International Rules. Divergencies, which initially crept into our navigation rules during the latter 19th century, have increased steadily up to the present time.

The maritime nations of the world, through their delegates at the 1960

Safety of Life at Sea Conference, recognized that special local rules, under International Rule 30, exist throughout the world and are necessitated by circumstances and conditions. These delegates recommended that local rules be reviewed and that those which prescribe lights, shapes, and signals be brought into as near agreement as practicable with International Rules. The International Maritime Consultative Organization, which coordinates the maritime activities of the nations participating in the Conference, has questioned the various governments as to whether the steering and sailing rules should be included in the recommendation above. At its meeting in London during January 1963, this matter was discussed, but not resolved. In order to carry out the intention of Recommendation 53 with the inclusion of the steering and sailing rules, and attain some measure of uniformity, some degree of alteration or revision of presently existing rules would of necessity have to be considered.

A comparison of the existing U.S. rules and the 1960 SOLAS Convention Rules will be presented in forthcoming issues of the PROCEEDINGS.

IN CONCLUSION

were

Your judgment as to which mode in which to operate your radar(s) will have a definite effect on the outcome of the problem you are solving. Frequently one finds it necessary to use all the radars at his disposal if the ship is so equipped. An example (in a triradar installation) might be to use the 3-cm. console strictly for an uncluttered, high definition navigation picture while using the 10-cm. console for RM plot and TRUMOT unit in that mode for true direction and true speed problems.

After the mechanics of operating a new installation have been gradually mastered one will find that he is spending more time at the front windows than he ever did before in keeping a personal lookout for the safety of the ship. This is due in part to the elimination of certain primitive display transferral techniques, described earlier.

It is the author's feeling the TRUMOT is the long-awaited answer (or a “giant step' toward this answer)

RECOMMENDATION NO. 53–1960 SOLAS

CONVENTION "The Conference, recognizing that, whilst the local Rules referred to in Rule 30 of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions At Sea must necessarily take into account particular circumstances and conditions prevailing in the waters in which they apply, such rules should, so far as is practicable, not be confusing to mariners, recommends that Contracting Governments should endeavour (a) to bring all special local rules which prescribe lights, shapes and signals for vessels in as near agreement as may be practicable with those in the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea; and (b) the Organization should initiate a study into the possibility of achieving further unification of local special rules."

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There were 902 vessels of 1,000 gross tons and over in the active oceangoing U.S. merchant fleet on March 1, 1963, 2 less than the number active on February 1, 1963, according to the Merchant Marine Data Sheet released recently by the Maritime Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce.

There were 20 Government-owned and 882 privately owned ships in active service. These figures did not include privately owned vessels temporarily inactive, or Governmentowned vessels employed in loading storage grain. They also exclude 23 vessels in the custody of the Departments of Defense, State, and Interior, and the Panama Canal Company.

There was an increase of one active vessel and an increase of two inactive vessels in the privately owned fieet. A combination passengercargo-containership, Santa Magdalena, and three freighters, African Neptune, American Courier, and C. E. Dant were delivered from construction. A freighter and a tanker were transferred from inland to oceangoing service. One freighter was scrapped, and one transferred foreign, and one tanker was a marine casualty. This made a net increase of 3 to a total of 979. Of the 97 privately owned inactive vessels, 4 combination passenger-cargo ships, 9 freighters, and i tanker were under going repair conversion. The others were laid up or temporarily idle.

There was a decrease of three in the Maritime Administration's active fleet and a decrease of four in the inactive fieet. Six freighters were sold for scrap and 1 freighter was transferred to the Navy, making a net decrease of 7 in the total government fleet to 1,880. The total U.S. merchant fleet dropped by 4 ships to a total of 2,859.

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The National Fisheries Institute estimates that the 1962 fish catch of the United States will be the second highest in history. The Institute placed last year's fish and seafood catch in the neighborhood of 5.25 billion pounds as compared with 5.155 billion pounds in 1961.

While many curious craft-ranging from family rafts to palatial steamers—floated on the western rivers in the last century, one of the oddest products of the naval architect's art during that period was probably the Western Engineer, launched in Pittsburgh during the Spring of 1819.

This vessel, according to the contemporary New York Commercial Advertiser, was "well armed," equipped with “an elegant flag" and "is 75 feet long, 13 feet beam, draws 19 inches of water with her engine which, together with all machinery, is placed below deck entirely out of sight.

“The steam," the Commercial Advertiser continued “passes out through the mouth of the figurehead, a large serpent." Why? It seems the Western Engineer was to carry into the Missouri country a surveying party which wished to discourage the attentions of hostile Indians.

or

United States plans to complete a new 1,200-foot lock connecting Lake Huron with Lake Superior by 1967. With an anticipated 100-foot beam and 30-foot depth, the new lock will handle ships up to 1,000 feet and will be the longest link in the seaway chain. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers stated that the Government is spending $154 million to deepen and improve Great Lakes Harbors for domestic seaway traffic.

The U.S. Merchant Marine Cadet Corps celebrated its 25th anniversary last March. Organized in 1938 with less than 100 cadets, it reached a high of 7,780 men in 1943. That same year the Merchant Marine Academy at Kings Point was established.

During 1962, 122 new ships arrived in New York on their maiden voyages, according to the maritime association. Of the new vessels, 110 were dry cargo or passenger ships for a total of 901,810 gross tons and 12 tankers of 260,978 gross tons. Norway accounted for the majority of the maiden voyages with 32, followed by Great Britain with 15, Germany with 9, and Denmark and Sweden with 8 each.

The first commercial shipment of one of the world's oldest building materials was delivered in Baltimore last February with the unloading of 20,000 tons of pumice at the Canton Railroad Ore Pier. The pumice comes from a volcanic island in the Mediterranean and is recognized a superior "lightweight aggregate" which can be used instead of sand, gravel, or cinders to make lightweight concrete and concrete blocks. Pumice is so light that lumps of it will float on water.

nautical queries

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Q. Sketch the “No Delivery," "Half Delivery," and "Full Delivery” positions of the plunger for the constant stroke, variable delivery fuel pump shown below.

Q. Rocking the sextant to determine if the horizon remains continuous is done to detect:

(a) Perpendicularity of the index glass to the frame of the sextant

(b) Perpendicularity of the horizon glass to the frame of the sextant

(c) Perpendicularity of the index glass to the horizon glass

(d) Error of collimation

(e) (c) and (d) above

A. (b) Perpendicularity of the horizon glass to the frame of the sextant.

Q. Gyroscopic inertia is one of the two properties upon which the gyro compass is based. Which of the following also describes this property?

(a) Torque
(b) Ballistics
(c) Rigidity
(d) Precession

(e) Gravity
A. (c) Rigidity

Q. In the sperry gyro compass the wire suspension is considered a part of the:

(a) Sensitive element
(b) Phantom element
(c) Mercury ballistic

(d) Spider element
A. (a) Sensitive element

Q. When a Loran set is tuned to the wrong basic pulse recurrence rate, the signals which appear to flicker and which are unbroken at the base of the pip are known as:

(a) Ghost pulses
(b) Double pulses
(c) Homing signals
(d) Grass

(e) Sweep signals
A. (a) Ghost pulses

Q. What provisions are made in the telemotor system for automatic operation of the following:

(a) Replenishing leakage oil? (b) Quick centering of the sys

tem?

A. (a) Leakage oil is automatically replenished by the springloaded valve on the forward telemotor, which is opened by a cam whenever the steering wheel is brought to the amidships position; thus permitting oil to flow from the supply tank to the top of both cylinders.

(b) The after telemotor has two strong centering springs which permit quick centering of the system whenever the steering wheel is released.

Q. Briefly describe the final alignment of the line shafting of a new vessel. Where and why is this accomplished?

A. The actual final alignment of the line shafting is accomplished by slightly shifting the bearings, with the coupling flanges open, until the peripheries of the mating shaft section flanges are concentric and the flange faces are truly parallel. The alignment of the shafting is not the same when the vessel is waterborne as when it is in drydock, hence the final alignment and bolting up of the main propulsion shafting should always be done when the vessel is waterborne.

Q. What precautions should be taken in the use of the filling hose and other connections to the potable water system?

A. A separate hose should be kept on each vessel and used only for loading potable water. The hose should be handled so that the ends are not dragged through or accidentally dropped into contaminated water, or otherwise contaminated. The hose should be stored near the vessel's filling line, preferably in a closed cabinet. If the hose is not stowed in a closed cabinet, the ends should be plugged or capped to minimize contamination of the inside surfaces. Potable water filling lines should be connected only to potable water tanks and should not be cross connected to any line of a nonpotable system. The potable water filling line should be located at least 18 inches above the deck and should be fitted with a screw cap.

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ENGINE

Q. What would be the result of opening a hand expansion valve too much on a refrigeration system:

(a) No effect, as the automatic valve would control

(b) Head pressure will be increased

(c) Evaporator will freeze back to compressor

(d) Such an action would be handled by the relief valve

A. (c) Evaporator will freeze back to compressor

Q. In normal automatic operation of a refrigeration system, the following valves are open except:

(a) Before and after strainer (b) Receiver liquid outlet

(c) Before and after dehydrator

(d) Expansion valve

(e) None are exceptions

A. (c) Before and after dehydrator

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70 103

51 174 254

A. Access to Vessel
Gangways, accommodation ladders, etc...

1. Length, width, strength, etc., inadequate-
2. Rigged or secured improperly.
3. Angle too steep-
4. Not clear at either end.
5. Water discharging onto.
6. Hand ropes or rails not provided or inade-

quate
7. Insufficient number
8. Lifeboat or other object suspended over

access 9. Ring life buoy with lanyard not provided

or inadequate...
10. Other
B. Access to Spaces on Board Vessel
Ladders..

11. Rigged improperly.
12. Rungs, steps, or treads missing or loose.
13. Deteriorated or weakened..
14. Handrails missing or inadequate.
15. Doors or passages cluttered...
16. Escape means blocked or locked.

17. Other
C. Deck and Hull Openings

18. Hatch covers, dangerously piled or placed..
19. Hatch covers, missing or defective.
20. Hatch covers, securing means defective.
21. Hatch beam locking lugs missing or defec-

tive.
22. Lifelines, chains, rails, or guards missing

or inadequate
23. Other
D. Decks and Platforms

24. Slippery due to oil, grease, etc.
25. Cluttered.
26. Floor plates or gratings loose or not in place.
27. Rails and guards missing or inadequate.-

28. Other
E. Cargo Handling

29. Safe load not marked on booms.
30. Guys, falls, booms, etc. improperly rigged.
31. Overloading gear.
32. Jury rig winch controls.
33. Failure to use guards and gates of cargo

elevators and escalators.
34. Using defective cargo gear.
35. Smoking prohibition disregarded
36. Stowage or handling of cargo or gear.

37. Other
F. Lifesaving Equipment

38. Not ready for use.. Lifeboats39. Hoisting fully loaded... 40. Personnel riding to fully stowed position. 41. Preventive lashings not used when work

ing in boat. 42. Winch power not shut off when using hand

crank or performing maintenance 43. Starting engine without ventilating44. Bypassed safety devices. 45. Tricing and frapping lines improperly used 46. Davit span lifelines not ready for use 47. Other

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G. Firefighting Equipment

48. Not ready for use.
49. Fire screen doors blocked.

50. Other H. Ventilation 51. Neglect to observe safety precautions prior

to entering . 52. Use of toxic solvent in confined spaces. 53. Grease, dust, litter in ventilation system. 54. Cowls, mushrooms, etc., frozen.

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Marine Technical Division. Its intention is to combine the most up-to-date technical information available with the best inspection procedures. However, it is expected that with experience in the use of these guides, need for amendments or additions may be evidenced. Constructive comments and suggestions will be welcome, and as necessary, revisions will be issued.

The "Guide for Inspection and Repair of Lifesaving Equipment” is intended to disseminate to Coast Guard marine inspectors, shipping companies, and vessel owners general information relating to acceptable procedures to be followed in the inspection and repair of lifesaving equipment.

DISCUSSION For some time there has been evidence of the need for the promulgation of guidance material for the inspection and repair of lifesaving materiel. Although some of the guides were derived from previously issued instructions and circulars, most have been collected from the experiences of marine inspection personnel throughout the country. This circular was prepared by the Merchant

ACTION

This information is furnished for guidance purposes and as such is not intended to be a directive. Nothing herein shall be taken as amending the applicable regulations or as prescribing or limiting the authority and responsibility of the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, in the exercise of his good judgment.

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furnished to all who had indicated an interest in the subjects set forth therein.

This document is the eighth of a series regarding the regulations and actions considered at the March 12, 1962, Public Hearing and Annual Session of the Merchant Marine Council. This document contains the final actions taken with respect to "Inspection and certification of seagoing barges” (CG-249, pp. 145–147), and "Inspection and certification of manned seagoing barges” (CG-249, p. 148) in "Item III—Vessel Operations and Inspections.” In response to a number of comments and requests, an additional time for submittal of data was granted and final actions on these proposals and comments were deferred until after June 15, 1962. This action was also taken

TITLE 46-SHIPPING

Chapter Coast Guard, Depart

ment of the Treasury

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