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comments reflect, in general, the opinions and conclusions of the investigative officers and boards concerned with the various casualties.

tests with true-motion radar presentation; however, for the present, ships' officers must utilize the information available from conventional radar. Properly used radar is an effective aid. However, if not used properly, it can help to cause a collision as in case 2. This is particularly

so if the available information leads to unwarranted conclusions and a false sense of security.

The above cases are based on actual casualties, but none of the accounts is to be construed as complete factual reports, for facts not essential to this presentation have been omitted. The

2 "A Statistical Analysis of Selected Marine Collisions Occurring During the Three Fiscal Years 1957, 1958, and 1959." U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, D.C., 1960.

CHANGES IN THE RULES OF THE ROAD ADOPTED BY THE FOURTH INTERNATIONAL

CONFERENCE FOR THE SAFETY OF LIFE AT SEA

ing not less than 1 million gross tons of shipping.

The section of the old rules concerning "Sound Signals for Fog, and So Forth" has been retitled “Part CSound Signals and Conduct in Restricted Visibility.”

There has been a new preliminary paragraph added, as follows:

PRELIMINARY

The Fourth International Conference for the Safety of Life at Sea, held in London, England, from May 17 to June 17, 1960, adopted several significant improvements in the Rules of the Road concerning the use of radar at sea. There are now a great number of ships of all nationalities that are equipped with marine radar. It is to be expected that many additional ships will make use of this valuable navigational instrument in the future. At present there is no specific language in the Rules of the Road concerning the proper use of radar at sea. However, during and since World War II there has been a considerable amount of experience and knowledge gained concerning the practical use of marine radar during periods of low visibility. The conference used the lessons learned through collision investigations, the decisions rendered in various admiralty court cases, and many other intensive studies concerning the proper usage of radar, as the basis for the adoption of a new paragraph (c) to rule 16 and a radar annex to the rules.

These new additions to the Rules of the road serve to clarify the use of marine radar and legalize many of the procedures now used

by

radarequipped vessels during fog and periods of low visibility. The new rule and the annex have been adopted to take full advantage of the benefits to be gained by radar navigation, to the extent that such usage will not endanger other shipping. Full compliance with the letter and spirit of these new measures, used in conjunction with the existing rules, should aid in the promotion of safety at sea by making each ship aware of the procedures to be followed by other vessels.

It should be borne in mind, however, that these new provisions to the Rules of the Road adopted by the Conference do not become binding until the convention as a whole is ratified by 15 nations, including 7 countries hav

"1. The possession of information obtained from radar does not relieve any vessel of the obligation of conforming strictly with the rules and, in particular, the obligations contained in rules 15 and 16.

2. The annex to the rules contains recommendations intended to assist in the use of radar as an aid to avoiding collision in restricted visibility.”

The new paragraph (c) to rule 16 is as follows:

"(c) A power-driven vessel which detects the presence of another vessel forward of her beam before hearing her fog signal or sighting her visually may take early and substantial action to avoid a close quarters situation but, if this cannot be avoided, she shall, so far as the circumstances of the case admit, stop her engines in proper time to avoid collision and then navigate with caution until danger of collision is over."

The new annex to the rules contains eight principles for using radar to avoid collision at sea and is as follows:

speed. In this regard it must be recognized that small vessels, small icebergs, and similar floating objects may not be detected by radar.

“Radar indications of one or more vessels in the vicinity may mean that 'moderate speed' should be slower than a mariner without radar might consider moderate in the circumstances.

“(3) When navigating in restricted visibility the radar range and bearing alone do not constitute ascertainment of the position of the other vessel under Rule 16(b) sufficiently to relieve a vessel of the duty to stop her engines and navigate with caution when a fog signal is heard forward of the beam.

(4) When action has been taken under Rule 16(c) to avoid a close quarters situation, it is essential to make sure that such action is having the desired effect. Alterations of course or speed or both are matters as to which the mariner must be guided by the circumstances of the case.

(5) Alteration of course alone may be the most effective action to avoid close quarters provided that:

“(a) There is sufficient sea room. “(b) It is made in good time.

"(c) It is substantial. A succession of small alterations of course should be avoided.

“(d) It does not result in a close quarters situation with other vessels.

“(6) The direction of an alteration of course is a matter in which the mariner must be guided by the circumstances of the case. An alteration to starboard, particularly when vessels are approaching apparently on opposite or nearly opposite courses, is generally preferable to an alteration to port.

(7) An alteration of speed, either alone or in conjunction with an alteration of course, should be substantial. A number of small alterations of speed should be avoided.

“(8) If a close quarters situation is imminent, the most prudent action may be to take all way off the vessel."

ANNEX TO THE RULES “Recommendations on the use of radar information as an aid to avoiding collisions at sea.

“(1) Assumptions made on scanty information may be dangerous and should be avoided.

“(2) A vessel navigating with the aid of radar in restricted visibility must, in compliance with rule 16(a), go at a moderate speed. Information obtained from the use of radar is one of the circumstances to be taken into account when determining moderate

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DECK Q. a. How can the weight and strength of an anchor be determined?

b. On the usual stockless anchor employed on merchant vessels, what care is necessary and what parts should be examined for signs of wear?

A. a. The weight and strength of an anchor may be determined by examining the stampings required to be made on the flukes and shank. This information may also be derived from the anchor certificates which should be among the ship's papers. The anchor has the certificate number stamped on it, so that the certificate corresponding to the particular anchor can be determined.

b. Modern stockless anchors are of rugged design and normally require little care. However, flukes should be kept free to move in their proper arc on the shank. The crown socket or pivot bar should be kept free of mud, rocks, etc. The anchor shackle pin on the bower anchors should be examined as they are subject to severe strain as well as abrasion in the hawse pipes. Should any slackness develop they must be hardened up (usually by shipyard repair gangs) by heating and peening, or be renewed. Spare bower, stream, and kedges which are seldom used should have their shackles kept free.

Q. If the temperature of the atmosphere is considerably higher than that of sea water, the depth indicated on the sounding tube will be the actual depth.

(a) Less than
(b) Greater than

(c) The same as
A. (b) Greater than

Q. The general name given to the instrument that consists of wet and dry bulb thermometers is a:

(a) Hygrometer
(b) Hydrometer
(c) Clinometer
(d) Tachometer

(e) Both (a) and (b) above
A. (a) Hygrometer

Q. The property of the gyroscope which causes it to maintain its plane of rotation is known as:

(a) Torque
(b) Spin
(c) Rigidity
(d) Precession

(e) Gravity
A. (c) Rigidity

Q. Describe the construction and operation of a "pop" safety valve?

A. In the "pop" type safety valve there is an extended curved lip on the valve disk outside of the regular beveled part which acts on the valve seat. Screwed to the outside of the valve seat is an adjustable pop ring which may be raised or lowered, and, with normal adjustment the top edge of this ring is outside of the lower edge of the pop lip, thereby forming a pop chamber under the lip. When the safety valve first begins to lift the escaping steam acts on the excess area of the pop lip, thus causing the valve to open wide very quickly and relieve the excess pressure. With high adjustment of the pop ring the back pressure in the pop chamber is higher thereby keeping the valve open longer and reducing the boiler pressure to a lower point before the valve closes. With low adjustment of the pop ring and the pop chamber open to the atmosphere when the valve is closed, the valve will act much slower in opening. A desirable feature of pop safety valves is that they do not chatter between opening and closing.

Q. What is the purpose of an accumulation test on a safety valve, and how is this test made?

A. The purpose is to insure that the safety valves have sufficient

capacity for relieving the boiler of excessive pressure under

any conditions.

Accumulation tests shall be made by shutting off the steam outlets from the boilers except such as may be necessary to operate the boiler. The fires must be forced to the maximum capacity for a period of 15 minutes for fire tube boilers and 7 minutes for water tube boilers. During this test period, the steam pressure must not at any time rise more than 6 percent above the maximum allowable working pressure. After the accumulation tests, it shall not be permissible to change the adjustment of the safety valves unless such change is authorized by the local inspectors.

Q. Describe the process known as thermit welding. Where is thermit welding usually employed?

A. Thermit welding is a method of joining ferrous metals by casting molten steel between abutting surfaces; these surfaces are surrounded by a mold over which is suspended a crucible containing the thermit mixture. Thermit is a mechanical mixture of finely divided aluminum with iron oxide in the form of magnetic iron scale. The proportions are approximately 3 pounds of iron to 1 of aluminum. An ignition powder, composed largely of barium peroxide, and a magnesium ribbon is employed to start the reaction. Thermit welding is employed for welding and repairing heavy sections, such as housings, frames, and other machinery parts.

Q. What are the data markings on approved safety valves?

A. Approved safety valves shall be marked by the manufacturer either by means of a plate attached to the body of the valve or by stamping or casting on the body of the valve itself the following data:

1. Name or registered trade

mark of manufacturer. 2. Serial number of safety

valve. 3. Inlet diameter of safety

valve. 4. Operating pressure and

guaranteed discharge capacity-pounds of steam per

hour at that pressure. 5. Safe working pressure of the

body of the valve. 6. Blowdown, in pounds per

square inch.

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There were 916 vessels of 1,000 gross tons and over in the active oceangoing U.S. merchant fleet on November 1, 1963, 5 more than the number active on October 1, 1963, according to the U.S. Department of Commerce. There were 12 Government-owned and 904 privately owned ships in active service. These figures did not include privately owned vessels temporarily inactive. They also exclude 26 vessels in the custody of the Departments of Defense, State, and Interior and the Panama Canal Company. The Maritime Administration's active fleet decreased by three, while the inactive fleet decreased by five. The total Government fleet decreased by 1 to 1,825. The total U.S. merchant fleet remained at 2,804. No contracts for new ships were awarded. The number of large oceangoing ships under construction in U.S. shipyards decreased by 1 to 50.

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DURING A RECENT meeting of the Advisory Panel of State Officials, Mr. O. B. Clark, Boating Administrator for the State of Florida, discussed the problem of motorboat number renewal system with Rear Adm. 0. C. Rohnke, Chief, Office of Merchant Marine Safety, who represented the Commandant of the Coast Guard at the panel discussion of state and federal government problems in the recreational boating field.

t t t

The U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey announced recently the release of a new edition of nautical chart 8102 for Hecate Strait to Etolin Island, Alaska. Coverage includes Ketchikan, Alaska, and the surrounding areas, including Clarence Strait, Portland Inlet, Tongass Narrows and Cholmondeley Sound.

The chart shows changes critical to navigation northward of Dixon Entrance and Hecate Strait-the inside routes to southeastern Alaska and British Columbia. Major changes indicate more accurate positioning of Cholmondeley Sound and tributaries with representative depths to reflect the shape of the bottom. Added critical depths indicate the true shape of the bottom in George and Carroll Inlets, in Twelvemile Arm, and on Dogfish Bank off Hecate Strait. Other changes include the location of additional lights, buoys, and beacons and new characteristics and positions of many existing ones.

The new edition is published at $1 per copy. It can be purchased from the Coast and Geodetic Survey, Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 20230, its District Offices, and authorized sales agents.

of the Port Series by the Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors, Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army. The report may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C., 20402, for $1 per copy.

A report entitled “United States Seaports-Atlantic Coast” has been issued by the Maritime Administration. This is the second publication in Part I of the Port Series. The first of the series covered Alaska, Pacific Coast, and Hawaiian ports, and an issue now in preparation will cover the Gulf Coast ports. The publication provides data on individual port administration.

Part I publications do not include information on detailed port subjects such as channels, anchorages, piers, maps, etc., which are published separately on individual ports as Part II

t t t Officers and men of the States Marine Lines cargo vessel Wolverine State were recently presented with the company's semiannual award for accident-free operation during the first half of 1963. The award enables the vessel to purchase extra recreational and educational equipment.

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GANGWAYMEN

AMENDMENTS TO REGULATIONS

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The gangwayman is a very important member of the gang. The safe and expeditious handling of all types of drafts is directly under his control.

His first duty, of course, is to follow the draft at all times. This means from the ship's bulwark to the hatch coaming. The practice of permitting the winchman to take over the draft while it is in the hatch should be discouraged, for in the event of an accident, it becomes quite difficult to pinpoint its cause.

Generally, signals by the gangwayman should be given by hand. They should be clear and distinct. There should never be any doubt in the winchman's mind as to what signal the gangwayman is using.

He should be sure at all times that there is adequate walkway from the rail to the coaming.

During winter weather, it is the practice of many gangwaymen to lay a floor of hatch boards from rail to coaming to keep their feet off the cold deck. There is nothing wrong with this practice as long as the boards are so placed that there are no spaces between them which might set up a tripping hazard.

Gangwaymen should avoid building temporary seats. It is obvious that if he is to follow the draft he has no need for such a seat. There is great danger connected with the erection of makeshift seats. By using such a seat the gangwayman may get himself in a position that, in the event of an emergency, he will be unable to move quickly enough and may very well be trapped.

When working heavy lifts it is most important that he be so stationed that the winchmen and the men handling the guys can see him at all times and interpret his signals correctly. There is a tendency when heavy lifts are being worked for self-appointed members of the gang to attempt to take over the function of the gangwayman. Where the size of the lift indicates, it may be necessary to have an additional man in the hold to take over the direction of the lift when it reaches close to its point of rest. This should be the only time when more than one man is used to give signals.

The gangwayman is also in a position at most times to observe the running and standing gear. He should be sure that guys and preventers are set properly and that the remainder of the gear is in good operating condition.

Courtesy of
New York Shipping Association, Inc.

Pennsalt Chemicals Corp., 2700 South Eastern Ave., Los Angeles, Calif., Certificate No. 585, dated November 1, 1963, PENNSALT 3002 SCALE REMOVER.

Parke-Hill Chemical Corp., 29 Bertel Ave., Mount Vernon, N.Y., Certificate No. 586, dated November 18, 1963, VANSULBAN.

AFFIDAVITS

The purpose for this document is to publish the determinations made by the Commandant, United States Coast Guard with respect to certain navigable waters of the United States in Michigan and Tennessee, as well as determinations that certain waters which are in Michigan and North Carolina are considered to be nonnavigable waters of the United States.

In the administration and enforcement of various navigation and vessel inspection laws, rules and regulations it was necessary to determine whether or not certain bodies of water were in fact navigable waters of the United States and subject to laws administered by the Coast Guard. The information in this document is intended also to further the development, use and enjoyment of all the navigable waters within the United States, and to clarify responsibility with respect to laws, rules and regulations intended to promote safety of life and property on those waters as further described in 33 CFR 2.10–5 and 2.15-1.

Because the rules in this document are interpretations, it is hereby found that the Coast Guard is exempt from compliance with the Administrative Procedure Act (respecting notice of proposed rulemaking, public rulemaking procedures thereon and effective date requirements). (Federal Register of November 16, 1963.)

The following affidavits were accepted during the period from October 15, 1963, to November 15, 1963:

Kraloy/Chemtrol Co., 402 West Central Ave., Santa Ana, Calif., PIPE & TUBING, VALVES, FITTINGS & FLANGES.

nith Valve Corp., 41 Jackson St.. P.O. Box 1047, Worcester 1, Mass., VALVES.

Kaiser Steel Corp., 300 Lakeside Dr., Oakland 12, Calif., PIPE & TUBING.

L & L Manufacturing Co., Box 397, Warren, Mich., PIPE FITTINGS.

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