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I. I believe,' faid he,' that there are three Gods in one perfon. 1 believe all that God believes.'

In 1447, the freeholders of Yorkfhire regained their right of electing knights, which, for near forty years, had been ufurped.

About this time the following were the ufual wages of fervants, reckoned in the money of the age, which was exactly twice the weight of that in ufe in the eighteenth century.

Bailiff of husbandry, Il. 3s. 4d. for wages yearly, befide his board, and 5s. for clothes.

Common hufbandmen, 155. and board; 4s. for clothes.

Chief carter, il. and diet; 4s. for clothes.

Woman fervant, 10s, and diet; 4s. for clothes.-Chron. Pret.

In 1449 Henry IV. granted a protection to Robert Bolton, for tranfubftantiating imperfect metals into pure gold and filver, by the art or fcience of philofophy.-Rym. Fad.

Henry had indeed need of fome fuch helps, the crown- revenue in that year only producing 10,000 modern pounds.

In the fame year, hay fold at 7s. id. per load. A fwan 6s. a goofe 6d. Three thoufand red herrings 31. 25. all modern money.-Chron. Pret.

In 1454, Sir Stephen Forfter was lord-mayor of London. He had been Jong in prifon and penury, on account of his inordinate profufenefs. It chanced that a most fantastical widow, 'who knew not how to get rid of her immenfe wealth, faw him begging at the gate; the admired his fine perfon, learnt his history, paid his debts, and married him; afking of him only this one favour, that he would lavish away her fortune as fast as he could. Forfter, probably from perverfenefs, became a fober husband and a prudent ananager; and only expended large fums in adding a chapel and other advantageous appendages to Ludgate

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In 1454, an act of parliament notices That there had used formerly fix or eight attornies only, for Suffolk, Norfolk, and Norwich together; that this number was now increafed to more than eighty, most part of whom, being not of fufficient knowledge, come to fairs, &c. inciting the people to fuits for small trefpaffes, &c. Wherefore there fhall be hereafter but fix for Suffolk, fix for Norfolk, and two for the city of Norwich,'Pub. Ats.

The elections of the Lancaftrian parliament in 1459, had fcarcely the femblance of decency. The members were pointed out by the king, in letters under the privy feal, and thefe the sheriffs returned. For this outrageous infult on the conftitution, an act of indemnity was obtained.-Parl. Hift.

In the reign of Henry VI. the commons exchanged their former method of petitioning the king, and having their petitions formed into acts, into the more manly plan of drawing up their requests in the form of acts; which, having been approved of by the Lords and confented to by the king, became firm laws.-Blackfione's Comm.

All hiftorians feem to agree in affirming that in 1464, twenty ewes and five rams were from the Cotfwold-hills, in Gloucestershire tranfported, by licence of the king, to Caftile; and that from thefe are defcended all thofe sheep who produce the fine wool of Spain.-Truffell, &c.

The tale is probably exaggerated,


yet the English fheep might be of fervice in improving the Spanish breed. -Anderfon.

In 1466, the falary of Thomas Littelton, judge of the king's bench, a mounted to 1361. 13s. 4d. modern money. Befide about 171. 75. for his fur-gown, robes, &c. Rym. Fed.

The execrable practice of torture was now in its zenith of employment. We find Cornilius Shoemaker tormented by fire in 1468.-W.de Wyrceftere.

In the tower there exifted a horrid 'brake,' or rack, called The duke of Exeter's daughter.'

Richard carter, an adept, received, in 1468, a licence to practise alchymy. -Rym. Fad.

In 1468, the now opulent fhires of Effex and Hertford were fo bare of substantial inhabitants, that the sheriff could find only Colchester and Maldon in Effex, and not one town in Hertfordshire, which could fend burgeffes. Hence, and from other inftances it appears, that it lay in the choice of the fheriff whether or no a town fhould fend any reprefentative. Nor is there any inftance of complaint cither of the Houfe of Commons or of the towns against the sheriff for any partiality on this fcore.

In the fame year, many jurymen of London were openly disgraced; by being expofed in the public ftreets with papers on their heads declaring that they had been tampered with by the parties to the fuit.-Stow.

The year 1474 fhines in the records of chirurgery as the epoch of a most important discovery, that of lithotomy. A parifian archer, much tortured by the ftone and condemned to death for a capital offence, offered to fubmit to the experiment. It fucceeded; and his example tempted others to venture the operation. It does not however appear that during the fifteenth century the knowledge of this great fecret was extended beyond France,Monftrelet. Villaret.

The fame date is also remarkable in the annals of literature for the introduction of printing into England by William Caxton. He was born in the Wealde,' of Kent, and served as an apprentice to Robert Large, an eminent mercer of London. He travelled abroad as an agent in the trading line during thirty years, and had the honour in being trufted, in concert with Mr R. Whetchill, to form a treaty of commerce, &c. between Edward IV. and the duke of Burgundy, whofe wife, the lady Margaret of York, was Caxton's patronefs. He was alfo befriended by the earl of Worcester and earl Rivers. He tranflated and continued, under the title of Fructus Temporum,' a chronicle of England, and wrote many other works. In 1491, he died and was buried at Cambden, Gloucestershire. At the clofe of an infcription, to Caxton's honour, are the following lines:

'Modre of merci, fhylde him from th orribul fyud,

And bring him lyffe eternal, that never hath ynd.'

In the reign of Edward IV. the first regular poet-laureat of England appears. His name was John Kay, and although he has left us none of his poetical compofitions, he has given to pofterity a tranflation of the fiege of Rhodes from the Latin; this he dedicates to the king, and styles himself hys humble Poete Laure


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dal times was fubdued. A family emulation had fubfifted between the Stanleys of Pipe, in Staffordshire, and the Chetwynds of Ingeftre. Sir Humphrey Stanley was one of the knights of the body to Henry VII; Sir William Chetwynd one of his gentlemen ufhers. The former, as it is faid, thro' envy, inveigled Sir William out of his houfe, by means of a counterfeit letter from a neighbour; and, while he was paffing over Tixal heath, caused him to be attacked by twenty armed men and flain on the fpot; Sir Humphrey paffing with a train at that inftant, under pretence of hunting, but, in fact, to glut his revenge with the fight. It does not appear that justice overtook the affaffin, notwithstanding the widow of Sir William invoked it. Probably Sir Humphrey had no fortune worthy of confifcation.--Pennant. In 1493 or 4, flourished Robert Fabian, who, though a mercer and fheriff of London, is ranged among the poets and hiftorians of the day. He was faid to be the most facetious and moft learned of the mercers and aldermen in his century; and remarkable among laymen for fkill in the Latin tongue. Mr Warton obferves, that in his chronicle he paid more attention to the recording each Guildhall din ner, and city pageant, than to the moft glorious victories of his countrymen in France. This was not unnatural.

Wheat fold, in 1494, at 6s. the quarter in London, a remarkably low price.-Chron. Pret.

In 1495, while digging a foundation for the church of St Maryhill, in London, the body of Alice Hackney was discovered; it had been buried 175 years, and yet the skin was whole, and the joints pliable. It was kept above ground four days, without annoyance, and then re-interred. Holing fhed.

At this period hay, too, was fold at 10s. the load, on account of a fewere drought.

• About this time (the beginning of the fixteenth century) there was a great marvel feen in Scotland.. A bairn was born, reckoned to be a manchild, but from the waift up was two fair perfons, with all members pertayning to two bodies; to wit, two heads, well-eyed, well-eared, and well-handed. The two bodies, the one's back was faft to the other's, but from the waist down they were but one perfonage; and it could not be known by the ingene of men from which of the two bodies the legs, &c. proceeded. Nothwithstanding, the king's majefty caused take great care and diligence on the up-bringing of both their bodies; caufed nourish them, and learn them to fing and play on inftruments of mufic. Who within fhort time became very ingenious and cunning in the art of mufic, whereby they could play and fing two parts, the one the treble, and the other the tenor, which was very dulce and melodious to hear; the common people (who treated them alfo)wondered that they could fpeak diverfe and fundry languages, that is to fay Latin, French, Italian, Spanish, Dutch, Englifh, and Irish. Their two bodies long continued to the age of twenty-eight years, and the one departed long before the other, which was dolorous and heavy to the other; for which, when many required of the other to be merry, he anfwered, "How can I be merry which have my true marrow as a dead carrion about my back, which was wont to fing and play with me: when I was fad he would give me comfort, and I would do the like to him. But now I have nothing but dolour of the bearing fo heavy a burden, dead, cold, and unfavoury, on my back, which taketh all earthly pleasure from me in this prefent life; therefore I pray to Almighty God to deliver me out of this prefent life, that we may be laid and diffolved in the earth, wherefrom we came,' &c. -Lindsay of Pitfcottie.


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Buchanan, who relates the fame ftrange tale, avers that he received it from many honeft and credible perfons, who faw the prodigy with their own eyes.' He adds, that the two bodies difcovered different tastes and appetites; that they would frequently difagree and quarrel; and fometimes would confult each other, and concert measures for the good of both; that when any hurt was done to the lower parts, each upper body felt pain; but that when the injury was above the junction, then one body only was affected.

This monfter (he writes) lived 28

years, but died wretchedly; one part expiring fome days before the other, which, half putrified, pined away by degrees.-Hiftory of Scotland.

In 1500, there was a great plague, which thewed its virulence chiefly in London, where 30,000 perfons are faid to have died within a short space of time.-Holingfhed.

In 1503, January 24, the firft ftone of Henry the feventh's chapel was laid. The fame year, Henry conferred the name of Merchant Taylors on the Taylor's company, of which he was a member, as many kings had been.


[Attempted after the Manner of Sterne.]


I HAD juft quaffed my laft glass of claret, and being determined immediately to leave the tavern, was going to raise out of my arm chair, when the notes of a Highland bagpipe faluted my ear, wild and rural indeed; but the notes, though wild and rural, were pleafing to my imagination, which they wafted in a moment from Calcutta to a Highland heath!


With my right elbow leaning on a table, and my right cheek fufpended on my right hand, after having liftened for fome time, to the tune of Over the hills and far awa,' in a kind of tranfport, impelled by curiofity, I gently raised my head to gaze at the mufician, who thus chanted His wood notes wild!'-Philo Yorick! -the figure which then prefented itfelf to thy view, will not readily be effaced from thy remembrance !-A Reynolds, indeed, might do it juftice, yet, if thy pen but feebly attempts to do fo, the attempts, perhaps, may be pardoned.

He was a venerable figure, whofe face difcovered the rofes of youth,

blushing among the forrows of old age. His filver hairs flowed in cluftering ringlets down his neck, and reached forward half way over his brows, which rofe loftily above a pair of eyes, from which benignance delighted to glance, and which sparkled with youthful animation. Every feature of his face indeed, expreffed amiability, and almoft feemed to glow with tranfport and pleafure, while in a foreign land he played the antique tunes of his native country.

Thus far, Philo Yorick, thy foul was pleafed with a furvey of the venerable mufician; till cafting a glance downward, and beholding he had loft a leg-fomething caufed a figh to rife from thy bolom, and a tear to fteal into thine eye.-The musician, as he watched my motions, obferved this, his fingers and elbow forgot to move, the notes of his pipes ceased, and with a flow, modeft carriagehe approached me.

We gazed infenfibly at each other; fympathy-bleffed fympathy-caufed a fecond figh to efcape my bofom, and another to rife from his :Young man, faid he, looking earneft


ly in my face,-preffing one of my hands between his-and holding up his wooden ftump,-young manfaid he-you feem to be affected at feing this!

account? rejoined he-Remember, the limb was loft when fighting for my country!

The queftion-joined to the admonitory obfervation which followed I was just thinking-returned I, it-had fuch an effect upon me-that that in your fituation-fo far from a conscious blufh ftole into my cheeks, home-you are much to be pitied-and-but my pen fails!-this man And did you drop a tear on that was an old foldier!



IN Turkey, where the art of printing has not yet been known, where the circulation of literary productions is chained down within the narrow compafs of manufcript, and where therefore the efforts of genius are repreffed by difcouragement, the bu finefs of ftory-telling makes in itself a profeffion, which, as it is acquired by study and profecuted with art, is follawed with confiderable profit.

One day a friend (a French gentleman) who escorted me through the town, called to draw me out with him for a walk; he faid he wished to fhew me fome of the caravanferas, obferving that he thought I fhould be entertained with a view of them. I agreed to go; and he brought me to two, which, after he had fhewn to me and explained their principle, police," and etiquette, I could not help admiring and approving. To both thefe were attached eating-houses and coffee-houses, and every appendage that could render them convenient and comfortable. As we were about leaving the laft, I obferved my friend ftop and liften attentively. Come hither,' faid he, after a minute's paufe

come into this coffee-house, here is fomething going forward that may amufe you.'

We accordingly entered the coffeehoufe, where we faw a number of people, fome feated in the Turkish fashion, fome on low ftools, and fome ftanding; and in the middle a man

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walking to and fro, fpeaking in an audible voice, fometimes lowly, fometimes with rapidity, varying his tones occafionally with all the inflexions of a correfponding fenfe. I could not understand him, but he seemed to me to fpeak with good emphafis and good difcretion; his action was easy to him, though expreffive and em phatical; and his countenance exhibited ftrong marks of eloquent expreffion. I could not help ftaring with astonishment at a fcene so new to me, and felt great approbation of the tones and manner of this extraordinary orator, though I could not understand a single word he faid. He was liftened to by all with great attention, and the Turks (albeit not used to the laughing mood) frequently betrayed ftrong fymptoms of rifibility: but in the height and torrent of his, fpeech he broke fuddenly off, fcampered out of the door and disappeared. I fet it down that he was a maniac or lunatic of an ingenious kind, and was for going away. Stay, fays my friend,reft where you are for a few minutes, let us hear further.

The orator had fcarcely been gone three minutes, when the room was filled with the buzz of converfation, a word of which I could not understand, but which my guide liftened to very attentively. At length the buzz began to grow loud, and foon increased into clamour; when a fcene enfued of fo very ludicrous a kind as forced me


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