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whispered in their ears, are oppofed to the intereft of the public, it would hetray an ignorance of the frailty of human nature, to conclude that the balance of the fcale would not bear to the ufual quarter.

It frequently happens, that the hor rible demon of difcord, that deftroys the peace of almost every neighbourhood at contested elections, fallies forth upon thefe occafions. If the great man, who generally takes the lead in laying out the turnpike road, has no immediate intereft himself, he has often a friend to oblige, or an enemy to mortify, by fending the road up hill, to fave the land of the one. or through the middle of a meadow, to hurt the other. A tippling houfe on the top of a hill, or a favourite piece of land at the bottom, compels the husbandman, at this day, in many parts of this kingdom, to keep one third more cattle in his team, than there would otherwife have been occafion for.

In the courfe of pretty long experience, I have, very rarely, feen a great man take it into his head to ruin a turnpike road, who did not fucceed, in the face not only of reafon, but of facts reducible to mathematical demonftration. Pride, more than intereft, often influences the conduct on fuch occafions, A majority of votes, at a turnpike meeting, keeps up the fpirit of the party, and ferves to intimidate the enemy. The fame party fpirit is fometimes vifible, in paffing the road, by the commiffioners after it has been made. If the contractor be of the ftrong party, three or four inches of gravel will do in place of twelve, to which his contract bound him; but if he gave his vote with the weak party, woe be to him!?

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The notoriety of thefe facts is unqueftionable, and the evil refulting from them is now found to be fo in fufferable, that in many parts of the kingdom they are making the roads

a fecond time, for many miles in ftretch, and thereby loading the pub lic with the annual payment of the intereft of double the fum that was really requifite, had the roads been laid out properly at first. Whoever will take the trouble of adding up the different fums paid by the public an nually, at the different turnpike gates in this ifland, will be ftruck with the immenfity of the fum total, Every mifapplication of the money expended in making the turnpike roads, through ignorance, or worfe motives, becomes an injury to that public who are bound to pay the interest of it; yet it fomehow most unaccountably hap, pens, that the government or legifla ture of thefe kingdoms have hitherto taken no more notice of the mifapplication of this portion of the public property, than if they had not been interested in the public profperity.

This evil might be removed by an act of legiflation, empowering go vernment to appoint furveyors, with falaries moderately competent to make it worth the attention of men of character. Twenty might be fuffi cient over the whole island. That ng bill, for a new turnpike, fhould be received by the Houfe of Commons, until the furveyor of the district tranf mitted an affidavit to the house, that he had marked the intended road on the ground; and that it was, in his opinion, the shortest and the levelleft that could be laid out between the two ends of the diftrict through which the road paffed. Should it be made appear by mea furement, and taking the elevations, that a fhorter or a leveller road might have been made, the furveyor fhould be difmiffed from his office, as incapable; and if it fhould be found that partiality had influenced his conduct, the ufual punishment in cafes of perjury fhould be inflicted.-Thefe remarks allude to the kingdom at large, and not to the district under review in any exclufive degree.

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Inclosures,

Inclofures. Although the inclofure of common fields will no doubt put the land, in a way, by proper managemenr, of producing double the quantity of food for fociety that they do in their prefent ftate, yet all this, in the estimation of found policy, will avail very little, if upon investigation it shall be found that inclosures, even in the smallest degree, give countenance to the introduction of so dangerous a canker worm as that of leffening the number of our people. At Grft view, inclosures do undoubtedly authorize fuch an idea. For let us suppose a township that contained 500 acres of common arable fields, beside its portion of pafture, to be inclosed, and the whole let to one man, who turas all the arable land into feeding pafture ground, and-ftocks it with bullocks and sheep. Allowing five perfons to every 100 acres of tillage, the former inhabitants amounted to twenty-five perfons, but now that the land is inclosed and stocked with live stock, five persons will be fufficient to look after them. Here we fee twenty perfons fent adrift into the wide world, without any employment or visible means of fubfiftence. The man who could behold this without being much affected, muft poffefs a very convenient portion of taciturnity. These 500 acres are now fo far loft to the community at large, that no perfon but the proprietor and the occupier can poffibly reap any advantage from them. So far the picture is unquestionably gloomy, and any further, upon this fubject, the general run of philofophers do not extend their fpeculations.

But let us fee to what ufe the owner or occupier of thefe 500 acres of tillage has applied them. To feed oxen and sheep. Well. Perhaps two hundred head of cattle, and five hundred sheep may compofe his stock. Two hundred carcaffes, to pafs thro' the butchers hands, will find bread for fome people through the whole

year: 200 hides to the tanner, to the currier, to the leather merchant, and to the fhoemaker; who again will find a fale for the buckle-makers goods, befide the tallow-chandlers, &c.

The 500 fheep, at seven pound fleece (3500 pounds of wool,) will contribute a little to the maintenance of the wool merchant, the woollen manufacturer, the comber, carder, fpinner, weaver, tucker, dyer, co lourman, dreffer, woollen-draper, tai lor, and button-maker; all these, together, with their journeymen, ap prentices, families, and the refpective tradefmen which they are enabled to employ, again will partake of, and reap an advantage from thefe 500 acres, which in a paroxyfm of miftaken patriotifm we had given up in a great measure as loft to the com munity at large. Were we to make a minute enquiry into the number of our people, that now make bread from thefe five hundred acres, we should probably find it to be double to the twenty-five that it had maintained while in tillage, moft of them bringing up young families in comfort, while by the taxes upon the various articles they confume, they contribute infenfibly their mite toward the neceffary expences of fupporting that government by which they are protected. While the wool, hides, and tallow of the produce of these 500 acres, furnish the various tradesmen, employed in the manufacturing of them, with an opportunity of getting money: nature has laid out the whole fyftem fo wonderfully exact, that the machine is ftill kept in motion, for part of the wealth acquired by the manufacturers of thefe articles, finds its way back to the original growers of them thro' the hands of the butcher. LANCASHIRE.

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class, particularly in the northern and castern borders of the county, made up in bread cakes, of which there are varieties prepared by fermentation with four leaven-others without leaven, and rolled very thin; alfo wa ter, boiled and thickened with meal into porridge; and this eaten with fuet, or butter-milk, fmall beer fweetened with treacle, or treacle only, was in many families, about forty years ago, both the breakfast and supper meal.

This cuftom was fo rigorously obferved by a certain family, three brothers, batchelors, the last of whom died only in 1792, that upon Sunday morning it was the conftant practice to make a double portion of porridge, one half of which was fet by for the fupper meal, and, to keep warm during fo long a fpace, was put within fide of a bed, and carefully covered up with the clothes; and this was for the general accommodation of the three brothers, who each went to a feparate religious meeting-house, and the female domestic to a fourth; fo that, when any one of the family came home, they might find immediate accommodation, by the meat already dreffed.

These three brothers were men of landed property, had little fociety with mankind, and lived chiefly upon the produce of their own land: they very much depreciated the custom of felling butter, to accommodate folks who indulged in tea, an article which probably none of the three brothers ever tasted. I wish the butter may run through the bottom of their bafkets,' was theirufual expreffion. They brewed their own ale, and were proud to bring a cup to cheer the heart of a friend, and to hear their ale praised. Spirituous liquors were unknown in their manfion. A couple offwine, fed and flaughtered by themfelves, fupplied the family the whole year with flesh-meat except occafionally fome neighbour might kill a beaft

for fale. Conftant attenders upon divine fervice, they brought home the texts of the different preachers, and the news of the foregoing week. The eldest brother would take an excurfion, generally to the fair at Manchefter, held upon Whit-Monday. He fauntered through the market for cattle, looked through the ftands erected for the difplay of toys for fale, purchased a pennyworth of gingerbread, and regaled himfelf with a pint of ale, then returned home, and related the adventures of the day.

Manufactures-Manufactures have been carried on to a very confiderable extent in Lancashire. The cotton manufactory through all its branches, which includes a number of leading trades, bleachers, dyers, printers, &c. has become of astonishing extent and importance. The first piece of cotton, manufactured from British growth, was at Manchester; from cotton grown in the grounds of J. Blackbourne, Efq. M. P. of Orford, in Lancashire; feven yards and a half, of one yard and a half yard-wide muflin, from four ounces of raw material. It was a most beautiful piece of cloth, proposed to have been made up into a dress for Mrs Blackbourne, in which the intended to have appeared at court, June 4, 1793, but was prevented by a change of drefs occafioned by the lofs of a relation.

To what a degree of perfection the mullin manufactory is arrived, the following may ferve to convey fome idea. In the year 1791, a fingle pound of cotton was spun to a finenefs of ninety-feven poft miles in length; the muflin, after being fpun, was fent to Glafgow to be wrought, and after that was prefented to her Majefty. Three pound of cotton, which, in its raw ftate, coft 7 s. 6d. coft the fum of 221. in this stage, when it was wrought into yarn only. It was fpun by one Lomat, at Manchefter, upon the machinery called Mules.

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The other manufactures are the been noticed: because they are the filk-trade, from the raw filk, through fame in all counties where navigation its fubfequent branches-the woollen is carried on. With respect to the manufactory, through all its branches good or bad effects that manufactures -hats the fame-cast iron, copper- may have had upon agriculture, this works, paper-manufactory, pins and important question merits much atneedles. An incorporated company tention; the anfwers to which, in for making plated glass, vitriol works, fome letters, have been concife, and glafs works, stockings, glue, lamp- discharged by one fingle word; ex. gr. black works, white-lead works, falt- one anfwer has been advantageous; works, nailers, tobacco-pipe-makers, another answer injurious;' but withtobacco and fnuff manufactories, black out either argument or proofs to fupand brown earthen ware, English port thefe laconic affertions. porcelain, clock and watch-makers, tool-makers, for both these branches for all the world, fugar refiners, long bow, &c. makers. A large manufactory, for the fabrication of fancy goods, has lately been established at Tildesley, by Thomas Johnson, Efq. where a village has been built fince the year 1780, which had then only two farm houfes, and nine cottages, and has, in 1793, 162 houfes, and a new chapel erected. The village contains 976 inhabitants, which employ 325 loots.

Manchester, being the principal repofitory for these manufactures, has become the great center, to which not only the country retailers, but merchants from all quarters of the kingdom, and foreigners refort; and this has induced several capital woollen houses to settle at that town; and this mart is chiefly confined to one ftreet (Peele-street) in which a fingle room frequently lets from fifty to eighty guineas per annum. Two cellers were let in October 1793, one fixty-three yards fquare, and the other feventy-eight yards fquare, for eighty guineas per annum.

The trades and different occupations, upon which the maritime ftate depends, have not on this occafion

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Manufactures have wrought a change in the agriculture of the county; the growth of grain is annually and gradually on the decrease. The importation from foreign countries is, of course, upon the advance; the diminished ftate of cultivation is one caufe, and the increafing population is another; and by the joint operation of these two, the impor tation of grain and flour, uled chiefly in this county, is almost incredible. The advance of wages, and the preference given to the manufacturing employment, by labourers, in general, where they may work by the piece, and under cover, have induced many to forfake the fpade for the fhuttle, and have embarraffed the farmers, by the fearcity of workmen, and, of course, advanced the price of labour. The poor rates, with equal burden, fall upon the farmer, as upon the mafter manufacturer. The water is fometimes fo damaged by dyehoufes, and other works, erected upon rivers, as to be rendered not wholefome to the cattle, and destructive to fish. On the other hand, the advantages that have been held forth, have been an increase of population; as that which conftitutes the riches and ftrength of a country.

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34

THE PARROT; A REVOLUTIONARY ANECDOTE.

FROM THE THIRD VOLUME OF LETTERS ON THE POLITICS OF FRANCE,' BY

HELEN MARIA WILLIAMS.

AMONG the numbers who were bidden words had been uttered by

facrificed to the barbarous caprices of Lebon (who has been emphatically called the Executioner of the North) fome were put to death upon pretence fo trivial, that nothing can perhaps furnish a stronger proof of the abfolute, the unblushing tyranny he exercised, than the daring effrontery with which he infulted the understanding as well as the feelings of the people, in the motives he alledged for inflicting the punishment

of death.

An old and gallant officer, for merly marquis of Viefville, had retired to end his days in privacy at a folitary fpot called Steenmonde, in the department of the North. To this retreat he was accompanied by his daughter, an only child, who watched over the infirmities of his advanced age with unwearied tendernefs, and whofe filial piety fhed a ray of happiness on thofe years which have no pleasure in them. This venerable old man and his amiable daughter were the objects of general refpect and esteem. But virtue, which was a tacit reproach to the monfters who then devaftated this unfortunate country, was as offenfive to them as the light of day to the fullen bird of darknefs. It happened that this family had for twelve years past been in poffeffion of a parrot, whom different perfons had taught its mimic leffons. The eftate of the marquis was fituated on the limits of the German Empire; part of his grounds belonged to that territory, and the parrot had been inftructed to cry Vive l'empereur! and alfo to call the petit Louis," the name of a young child who lived in the houfe. The agents of Lebon received intelligence, that thofe for

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the parrot; the bird was denounced, feized as a criminal of importance, and depofited in the house of a revolutionary commiffary, where the feathered culprit repeated the guilty founds. The tidings fpread through the city, of the arrest of an audacious counter-revolutionary parrot, who boldly cried Vive le roi !' and who, it was afferted, had even carried his effrontery to fuch a length as to exclaim, Vivent les prêtres! Vivent les nobles! So far we may fmile at the abfurdities of our tyrants; but that difpofition is converted into feelings of indignant horror, when we learn that an act of accufation was immediately iffued against Mr Viefville, his daughter, and her waiting woman, who were dragged from their retirement, and led before the revolutionary tribunal.

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The jury unanimoufly declared that thofe perfons were convicted of being the authors or accomplices of a confpiracy against liberty and the French people; and of unlawful refiftance to revolutionary and republican government; having affiduously taught a parrot to utter the deteftable phrafe of Vive le roi! Vive l'empereur! vivent nos prêtres ! et vivent les nobles!" and, by so doing, having provoked the re-establishment of royalty and of tyranny; for which reafons they were condemned to die.

The old man fummoned all his fortitude, and went to the scaffold with the calinnefs of innocence; often lifting up his head, which was bowed down with age, to gaze upon his admirable daughter, who met death with the fame courage, and who feemed to forget her own fituation in that of her beloved parent.

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