페이지 이미지

where shoot up their antique turrets! The Ruffians hold the form of their church walls as facred as their forms of religion within them. The roofs are covered with block-tin, and many of them gilded.

There are in Petersburg three imperial palaces the palace near the. admiralty, in which her imperial majefty refides, is a magnificent edifice of brick ftuccoed, and adjoining is a long range of buildings fronting the Neva, including the private theatre of the court. The Marble Palace is built of the ftone which gives it this name. The architect has made, what ought to have been the gavel, the front of this fuperb bilding, which feems itself to blush at its pofture. The third is the Summer Palace, built of timber, and yet the most regular and elegant. It is placed in the fummer gardens upon the banks of the river, and is truly a delightful refidence.

The Ruffian nobles, and even the middling ranks, exceed in the elegance of their houfes. In the Afiatic ftyle, they are all built in squares; an open court in the centre, to which is an entry by a large gate-way. With this tafte is mixed the Grecian and Italian and the Corinthian, Ionic, and other ornaments are too much crowded upon the flight fabric of brick and plaifter. It would be better to finish their houses in a plainer ftyle: and the eafier expence would enable the poffeffors to keep them in better repair. Nothing looks fo taw. dry as a Corinthian cornice of plaifter in ruins. The new church near the equestrian statue is a building of the finest Siberian marble, and will be one of the most costly and superb ftructures in the univerfe. The granite banks of the Neva, the equeftrian Statue of Peter I, and this admirable building, will deliver down to the lateft pofterity the name of Catharine II. But Catharine is imperial in every thing; and pofterity will overlook

even thefe monuments, amid the continued difplay of great actions. The palace near the Admiralty is fituate at the point of the angle which the river makes; and here the Neva rolls his tide, embracing the lodging of his fovereign. From this fpot one has the grandeft profpect imaginable: before you upon the other fide of the river, is the old city, with its citadel and gilded fpire; the houses furrounded or intermixed with woods. Williams Inland prefents another profpect of a different nature: a wood of mafts, planted in front of the ftreets. To the right and left is the Grand Million, every house in which is of elegant ftructure, and inhabited by the principal Ruffian nobility and gentlemen. The admiralty dockyards are foon to be removed to Cronstadt, a more convenient place, adapted to the fcite of the naval yards. The vacancy from the palace to the equestrian ftatue and fenate house will be filled with buildings; and the Grand Million will be one continued range of taste and fplendour.

I am at a lofs to guess what induced the emperor to pitch upon fo aukward a spot for dock-yards; from which the hips must be transported to Cronstadt, over fhoals, by means of wooden camels, when this trouble could have been so easily avoided by building his navy at the harbour where they lie, and where there is a great depth of water and every accommodation. The machines called camels are conftructed of two pieces, or a fort of half-veffels, built in the fame manner as other veffels, but of a fingular fhape. They are square at the bottom, the ends, and one fide; the other fide is hollow and rounding. These half-veffels are funk to a proper depth, one at each fide of the fhip of war they are intended to carry; and their hollow fides, being drawn close to her, form a capacious womb which embraces the fhip of war.


[ocr errors]


flower and fruit develope themselves as embryos, how there are even baftards among plants, and how the 'mixture and baftard species might be produced by putting the bloffom duft of one plant, upon the notch of fructification of another, in the fame manner as we fee the production of a mule by an ass and a mare, in the animal kingdom, This is a palpable proof of the double fex in the vegetable kingdom, which the French botanist Adanfon would not in the leaft admit. The objections and reprefentations of M. Necker at Manheim, against this difcovery, are befides many others but too well known. According to the Linnæan method all vegetable productions are propagated by feeds. He extended the fame mode of propagation to the moffes, but could not accomplish thofe inquiries which were to make him triumph over his opponents. At last Dr Hedwig of Leipfic, the Dillenius of Germany, decided the conteft in favour of Linnæus.

IN 1754 Linnæus difcovered that plants are fubject to a regular fleep, and repose by night like animals. A plant (the Lotus Ornithopodioides,) the feed of which had been fent him by Profeffor De Sauvages of Montpellier; occafioned this new obfervation. It bore two flowers. He recommended the gardener to take the atmost care of them. Two days after, Linnæus returned late in the evening to fee how they were thriving. He looked, fearched, and could discover no flowers. The next night be found them as invifible as before. The following morning he came and the flowers appeared as ufual, but the gardener thought they were fresh ones, as he had not been able to find any before, after fo many unfuccefsful fearches. This circumftance engroffed the attention of Linnæus, He vifited again the fugitive flow. ers on the third evening; they had again vanished, but he found them at laft, deeply wrapt up in, and quite covered by fome leaves. This only ferved to excite his curiofity more and more, In order to furprise Nature in her wonders, he perambulated the garden and the hot-house, in the dead of the night, with a lanthorn in his hand-and there faw that the greatest part of the flowers were contracted and concealed, and found that the vegetable reign was almost entirely in a dormant state,

One of the most ingenious obfervations of Linnæus in physical botany was his new theory of the origin of the bloffoms. He confidered them as a fudden display, happening all at once, of the leaves and the gems of plants, (Prolepfis Plantarum,) as the anticipation of a growth of five years. The lateral or fide-leaves, fpring, according to this theory, from thofe parts which would have produced the ordinary leaves in the following year, the calyx from the leaves of the third, the petals from the leaves of the fourth, the ftamina from the leaves of the fifth, and the piftilla from the leaves of the fixth year. Thus this developement, according to the fabric of nature, would only be effected after a lapfe of fix years, were it not accelerated by the covers M

The flower, as the moft admirable and most curious part of plants, had occupied him chiefly, and furnished him with the model of that new fyftem, by which the vegetable reign obtained its male and female fexes, in the fame manner as the animal kingdom. The truth of this fyftem he corroborated fucceffively by feveral irrefragable proofs and obfervations. He demonftrated, how the Ed. Mag. Feb. 1796.


the marrow of the plants, which contains too little of the alimentary juice to be able to follow its extenfion, and to prevent the thriving of the flower or bloffom.

To thefe we may add many other obfervations upon the diftinct parts and properties of plants. Thus Linnæus, for instance, demonftrated, how accurately flowers perform the fervice of a time-piece, in which the hour of the day can be precisely af certained; he compofed a calendar for the period when plants are in flower, (Calendarium Flore,) and pointed out from this calendar in what manner the time beft calculated for certain labours of rural economy may be chofen; he investigated the different forts of the natural emigrations of plants, (Colonia Plantarium,) &c.

All these, and many other remarks and fubjects which he left to the difcuffion of his pupils in the academical difputations, were collected and published by him under the title of Amoenitates Academicæ. The first part of this collection made its appearance in the year 1749, and the feventh and laft (published by himfelf) in 1769.

During his refidence in Holland, Linnæus had already given a concife theory of fyltematic botany in the work entitled Fundamenta Botanica, and completed afterwards feveral additional chapters in his academical differtations. In 1751 he published commentaries upon them, which were at the fame time a comprehen five view and juftification of his whole fyftem. This work is intituled Philofophia Botanica. After a fhort review of the principal botanists and their fyftems, he explains in twelve fections the different parts of plants, - furnishes examples to fix the characters of claffes and orders, to difcern the baftard fpecies from the common fpecies, to defcribe them accurately, and to arrange precifely their

fynonomy, &c. &c. At the end of ` this valuable work Linnæus gives advice to young botanifts, and adds inftructions how to prepare herbals, to establish botanical gardens, and the beft difpofitions to be adopted in excurfions and philofophical tours. This work remains a book of precepts for the botanical world, which becomes indifpenfibly neceffary to all those who with for a fundamental knowledge of that science.

Two years after, appeared a work" which, together with his system of nature, became the immortal monument of his diligence and ingenuity both for his own age and for pofterity, and which had occupied him. for a long feries of years. This was his Species Plantarum, published at Stockholm in 1753, with his por trait, in octavo, containing 1200 pages. It is an univerfal botanical repertory, a catalogue of all the plants till then known to Linnæus in differ. ent parts of the world, containing 7300 fpecies, without reckoning their varieties. He dedicated this work to the King and Queen of Sweden. This work of Linnæus contains an univerfal reprefentation of the most modern state of the vegetable kingdom; and of the difcoveries which had till then been made in it, or had reached the knowledge of our great luminary. To be the more accurate, he mentioned only thofe plants which he had feen in herbals or gardens on his different tours in. Sweden, Holland, England, and France, or which had been fent to him by his pupils. The reft he examined particularly, and as his work was wholly botanical, he forbore to add their fanative virtues, confining himself to mention. their native countries, their fyno nimes, &c. He also gave their most faithful reprefentation, their time of duration, and the epoch of their difcovery.

One of the chief excellencies of this work was alfo the reformation


of the botanical technology, which Linnæus effected by the energy of genius and expreffion. It confifted in the introduction of trivial names, by which one or two adjectives, at fartheft, diftinguish a plant from all its other relative fpecies. Where thefe adjectives could not be applied, he gave the plants epithets borrowed from their inventors, or the place of their growth. In the margin of the long definitions of the distinctive marks of each species (characteres fpecifici,) he added the modern trivial names. Profeffor Rivinus at Leipzic, once conceived an idea of fuch a reform. But all the honour and merit resulting from it belongs to Linnæus, and it was the more favourably received, in proportion as men felt themselves inclined to prefer cafe to difficulty and freedom to conftraint.

By this amelioration of language, by the eafe and pleasant method introduced by Linnæus, the ftudy of botany was uncommonly promoted and facilitated. It got rid of the deterring appearances of an arduous fcience. Its veftment became more appropriated to its beauty. ture now gained friends among the ladies, and even on the throne.


Linnæus had friends and correfpondents among the fex in feveral countries. Among those at Paris we reckon Madame du Gage de Pommeruil, and Mademoiselle Baffport; at London, Lady Ann Monfon; at Oxford, Mifs Blackburne; and at New York, in America, he had a most enthusiastic admirer in Mifs Colden. As flattering as the approbation of the fair muft have been to him, as gallantly did he acknowledge it. He preferved their names in the vegetable reign, and denominated among others, two beautiful plants Moufonia and.Coldenia.

The celebrity of his name and his connections in all parts of the world, were as much calculated for the ad


vancement of fcience in general, as they proved pleafant to him, and above all, advantageous to the royal botanical garden. To fend to Linnæus the feeds of rare or new plants, was both esteemed an honour and a pleasure. Thus were plants tranfmitted to him, exclufive of thofe which he received of the above mentioned perfons, from Aftrachan and Kamtfchatka by M. Demidoff, one of his Ruffian pupils, who obtained them from the collections of the two famous travellers, Steller and Lerche; from Siberia by Gmelin; from Egypt and Paleftine by the ill-fated Haffelquift; from China by Lagerftroem, Ofbeck and Toren; from the ifland of Java by Bastor and Kleinhoff; from Tranquebar by Koenig, one of his pupils; from the Cape of Good Hope, by his friend Burrmann at-Amfterdam, and by the Dutch governor Tullbagh, and his pupils Thunberg and Sparrmann; from Virginia by Gronovius; from Pensylvania and Canada by Kalm; from Jamaica by Doctor Browne,,in whose honour he called a plant Brownæa, and purchased his whole collection; from Mexico by Mutis; from the other parts of South America by Miller; from St Euftatius by De Geer, for whom they had been collected by Rolander; and even from the fifth part of the world, or the newv-difcovered countries in the South Sea, by the celebrated Forsters, who with the immortal Cooke first landed in those regions.

There was no country in Europe of which he did not poffefs the most remarkable vegetable productions. His Swedish herbal was compleater than that of his predeceffors. His pupils Bergius and Montin, and others already mentioned, augmented thefe treafures. The northern plants were feen flourishing by the fide of thofe which grow in the hotteft climates of the South. From Italy he received plants of Dr Kach



ler, of Alstroemer, and Dr Turra at Vicenza; from Venice of the Imperial Minifter Rathgeb and others; from Switzerland of Gefner; from France of Seguier at Peronne, and of De Sauvages at Montpellier, who procured him likewife the herbal of the celebrated botanist, Magnol; from Spain and Portugal of Loeffing and feveral Spanish botanists; from Iceland of Koenig, his pupil; from Great Britain, Denmark, Holland and Germany, of the numerous friends and acquaintances he had in thofe refpective countries.

Among the foreign rarities which he tranfplanted and cultivated in the North, a Chinese plant was the most remarkable, as it had never yet been feen in Europe. This was the teafhrub. Linnæus had endeavoured many years to get poffeffion of it; and took pains to raise it from feeds: he alfo hoped to obtain it by Profeffor Gmelin with the Ruffian caravans from China, but in vain; Of beck, fometime after, brought the tea-fhrub with him as far as the Cape of Good Hope, where it was loft. The with of Linnæus was, however, finally accomplished by his friend Captain Eckeberg. This Swedish navigator, at his departure from China had put tea-feeds in a flower pot, which throve fo well during the voyage, that Linnæus had the pleafure to receive a green tea-fhrub at Upfal on the third of October, 1763. Be fides the beauties of the vegetable reign, there was alfa at this univerfity a collection of curiofities of the animal reign, which were increased in process of time by a civet cat, a cafuar from Ceylon, and many others. In the poffeffion of these treasures and other conveniences of life Linnæus was now as happy as his wishes

could make him.

The royal family of Sweden, whofe favour he had particularly gained by perfonal acquaintance, and by arranging the royal cabinets of

natural hiftory, increased his happinefs, and rewarded his merits in the worthieft manner. He was called to the remote kingdom of Spain, an honour never before conferred upon any Protestant man of letters, to be botanist to his Catholic Majesty at Madrid, and the terms proposed to him were of the most advantageous kind. His Spanish Majefty would allow him an annual penfion of 2000 piafters, the free exercife of his religion, and create him a nobleman. Linnæus generously declined accepting this flattering and honourable offer. He procured it to Dr Loefling, one of his pupils, whome fate did not fuffer to enjoy it long. Propofals were made to him from St Petersburgh, in consequence of which he was to have been profeffor of bo tany, and elected an ordinary member of the imperial academy of sciences, &c. But Linnæus had his reafons for flighting all these invitations, because his country truly valued aud rewarded his merits.

He was raised to a distinction which had never before fallen to the share of any Swedish man of letters. King Frederick I. founded in 1748 the order of the Polar Star for men of merit in the civil line, and Frederic Adolophus his fucceffor, granted it on the 27th of April 1753, first to Linnæus, in preference to all other learned men. The offer made to him from Madrid was soon after realized at Stockholm. On the 4th of April, 1757, he received a diploma, which raifed him to the rank of the hereditary nobility of the kingdom, and he forthwith called himself De Linnæus. Thus, from the humble condition of the fon of a village preacher, he rose as high in rank and dignity, as the empire of the mufes could poffibly exalt him.

In 1754 he wrote a treatise on the cultivation of the Alps of Lapland. He demonftrated, how that ridge of mountains, which lay in a waste and

« 이전계속 »