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"Baptized, we are enlightened-enlightened, we are adopted as sons-adopted, we are perfected-perfected, we are immortalized." "And baptism is called enlightening, because thereby we are admitted to gaze upon that holy and saving light:" the "saving light" is the "knowledge of the glory of God in Christ;"-to "know the only true God and Jesus Christ whom he hath sent." This, and this alone, is "life eternal."

5. We have seen no evidence whatever, hitherto, for the outrageous, anti-scriptural, and destructive sentiment of Dr. Pusey, which makes baptism to "convey" regeneration. We have admitted that baptism, ecclesiastically taken according to our Lord's words, "water and the Spirit," is a part, though the last, and infinitely the least part of that regeneration. It, therefore, properly completes or finishes the amount of qualifications, being itself the "outward and visible sign of the inward and spiritual grace" which is gone before, under "repentance towards God, and faith towards our Lord Jesus Christ." But forasmuch as baptism is the last ingredient in the required character, it would be senseless to consider it the cause of that which was had before.

This is the grand error which Antichrist began pretty early to introduce into the Christian Church. And when the "sign" was once allowed to "convey" the thing signified, the "inward and spiritual" grace soon began to dwindle and die.


This Father was a disciple of Polycarp, the disciple of the apostle John. We do not find in the writings of Irenæus, which have descended to us, anything material expressly upon the subject of baptismal regeneration: nor do we find him quoted by Dr. Pusey and the advocates of that side of the question, to prove their essential point respecting the interpretation of John iii. 5, "Water and the Spirit." But Irenæus is referred to as sanctioning traditionary interpretations of Scripture. The general subject of Tradition, we shall leave to younger writers, whose health, and habits of reading, render them more adequate to so extensive an undertaking. But we cannot allow our special discussion to pass by without some notice. Tertullian, Pantænus, and Clement of Alexandria, as well


as Irenæus, all belonged to the second century, and died in the third; but Irenæus alone had particular acquaintance with Polycarp, who was the last of the apostolic fathers; and is relied upon as a great father of tradition. We have long ago seen that Dr. Pusey's system is entirely suspended upon his ability to trace his meaning of John iii. 5, “ Water and the Spirit," quite up to the apostles themselves. We have shewn his failure, both as it respects the apostles and the apostolic fathers. The only chance which now remains for him,—to prove even the shadow of a tradition, rests with our present writer. If Irenæus fail him, all fail him herein.

1. Then, does Irenæus tradit from the mouth of Polycarp, anything about John iii. 5, "Water and the Spirit?" No, nothing whatever. He speaks of "water" sometimes, as Justin does, as regeneration; but nothing further. No explanation, no tradition respecting it.

We admit that Irenæus says, "Baptism, which is our birth unto God," (as Bingham quotes him, 481.) "is to be administered to children as well as to adult persons. For," says he," He came to save all persons by Himself; all, I say, who by him are regenerated unto God, infants and little ones and children, and youth and elder persons. Therefore He went through the several ages, being made an infant for infants, that He might sanctify infants," &c.

This is, we believe, the first instance in which infants are referred to by the Christian Fathers. But Irenæus has various passages in which he speaks of grace, the operations of the Holy Ghost, and of salvation, independent of baptism. In lib. v., cap. 11, he comments on I Cor. vi. 9-11: "He (the apostle) most clearly shews by what things man perishes, if he should persevere to live after the flesh;" and again, by what he is saved. "Those things which save," he says, "are the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the Spirit of our God." In referring to 1 Cor. xv. 49, "If ye have borne the image of the earthy," &c., he adds, "This is like that sentence, And such were some of you; but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus and by the Spirit of our God.' When, therefore, have we borne the image of the earthy? Even when those forementioned works of the flesh were done by us. But when, again, (bear we) the image of the heavenly? Even when, as he says, ye are

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washed, believing in the name of the Lord, and receiving his Spirit. But we are washed, not as to the substance of our body, nor the image of the creature, but as to our old vain conversation."

2. Was he likely to have heard the opinion of the apostles at the mouth of Polycarp? Yes, beyond oubt: because when he reproved his former acquaintance, Florinus, who once professed the true faith, and had now declined, he says, "These doctrines-those who had walked with the Apostles did not deliver to you. I can mention the very spot in which Polycarp sat and expounded ;how he described to us his converse with John, and with the rest of those who had seen the Lord;' how he related to us their expressions, and what things he had heard from them of the Lord, and of his miracles and of his doctrine. As Polycarp had received from the eye-witnesses of The Word of Life,' HE TOLD US ALL THINGS AGREEABLE TO THE SCRIPTURES. These things are written on my heart; —and I can witness before God, that if that blessed apostolical presbyter had heard any such thing (as you teach), he would have cried out, and stopped his ears, and left the place."-Milner, 300.

3. In disputing also against the heretics, who pretended tradition for their falsehood, he reminds them how some barbarous nations had received the truth from the " mouth of those to whom the Apostles had committed the care of the churches, and through them had believed in Jesus without paper or ink, having the doctrine of salvation written on their hearts by the Holy Ghost, and faithfully keeping up the doctrine concerning one God, the Creator, and his Son Jesus Christ. These would immediately stop their ears at heretics and flee-their blasphemies."-(Ibid. 296-7.)

Thus Irenæus testifies the use of tradition in the absence of the written word,-reproves its abuse when contrary to the Scriptures,-speaks of the Holy Ghost writing Divine truth on the heart;-but not one word of tradition about "water conveying the Holy Ghost," as Dr. Pusey insists upon it.

4. We cannot help recording one of the earliest and most deplorable effects of a professed traditional observance, not among heretics, but in the christian church; and one in which Irenæus was for the time very successful as No. 6.


a moderator. The Asiatic churches differed from the Roman, respecting the day of celebrating Easter, in commemoration of our Lord's suffering. The former professed to derive their custom from the Apostles JOHN and PHILIP; while Rome, on the other hand, pleaded the example of ST. PETER and ST. PAUL. Thus fortified by an appeal to practices handed down to them by tradition, each contended so sharply for the priority, that they divided one from the other, and even proceeded to excommunication. Hence, through their fiery zeal, in adhering to a pretended tradition, the charity of the Church was, for some centuries, nearly annihilated. We say pretended, for how could it be otherwise, unless the apostles themselves were divided in their practice and instruction. This supposition, however, would destroy the ground of all appeal to Apostolic tradition.

Examples of Regeneration independent of Baptism.

1. "Clemens Alexandrinus," speaking of the injunction in the Law of Moses, as compared with what our Saviour says on the subject of the adultress, (Matt. xix. 9,) uses the term ayyevɛoía and its kindred language in the sense of being" born again by her repentance and conversion," and not by baptism, as our authors contend.

2. "Eusebius," speaking of the apostle John's restoring to the Church one of his disciples, who had deserted, and become the leader of a band of robbers, "calls the young man's repentance and restoration to the church, a great example of regeneration." A few lines above, he speaks of the same young man, where, as the Bishop observes, he "evidently calls his conversion a new birth.”

3. In another passage, referring to the restoration to the faith of some martyrs at Lyons, who through fear of death had drawn back for a time, he speaks of their return, as that of new born babes into the Church of God.-(Bp. 6, 7. Dr. Pusey, 72-74.)

4. If to these we add what Clement de Romana has said, in the application of the term "regeneration" to the preaching" of righteousness," by Noah, to the unbelieving world in his days, we shall see reason to be assured (though the samples, in the midst of such paucity of holy writers, may not be large) that the teaching of "SPIRITUAL RE


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GENERATION to persons who had been BAPTIZED or circumcised, was not confined to Christ and his Apostles; but was a thing no way uncommon among the APOSTOLIC FATHERS!!

Dr. Pusey also in the same place quotes St. Chrysostom and St. Jerome, as speaking of a "second regeneration," by "repentance," in persons who had backslidden from their first love.

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Notwithstanding, however, what Irenæus says, as above, in reproof of those arrogant heretics who contravened the written word of the apostles by their pretence of tradition, and notwithstanding he gives no tradition from St. Polycarp respecting John iii. 5, "Water and the Spirit," Dr. Pusey contrives to make Irenæus, from "oral teaching,' to limit, if not directly to contradict the apostle's writings. He quotes a long piece, sufficiently unintelligible about the old fathers," who lived before Christ, obtaining cure and remission" by his death; while for "those who now sin, Christ shall not now die;"—that is, shall not now die a second time, to save such as have apostatised from faith in his true suffering. And the same teacher concludes, "We ought not then, to be proud, nor to blame the ancients; but ourselves to fear, lest after we have acknowledged JESUS CHRIST, if we do anything displeasing to God, we may have not remission of sins, but be excluded from his kingdom." This, with a similar quotation from his great favourite Hermas, Dr. Pusey speaks of as "limiting very awfully what their (the apostles') written teaching has left undefined." (66, 67.) Let the reader take notice that Irenæus says he heard the above "from a certain presbyter, who heard it from those, who had seen the apostles, and learnt it from them!" Never let THIS be forgotten, while Dr. Pusey's writings remain unrepented of, that he hereby attempts the LIMITING VERY AWFULLY" the obvious meaning of the "WRITTEN "instruction of the apostles, from his confidence in "ORAL" instruction derived through FOUR reporters in succession!!!


The unintelligible and contradictory jargon which Dr. Pusey quotes from Hermas, does not far exceed in mysticism and absurdity, his own mode of putting the case,Limiting very awfully what the apostles' written teaching has left undefined." Is this intelligible? "Undefined," we suspect is not the idea we are intended to gather


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