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her; upon

might so contrive it, as never to do the service of the

“ The widow Fidget being cited into court, insisted that she had done no more since the death of her husband than what she used to do in his lifetime; and withal desired Mr. Steward to consider his own wife's case if he should chance to die before her.

“ The next in order was a dowager of a very corpulent make, who would have been excused as not finding any ram that was able to

carry which the steward commuted her punishment, and ordered her to make her entry upon a black ox.

The widow Maskwell, a woman who had long lived with a most unblemished character, having turned off her old chamber-maid in a pet, was by that revengeful creature brought in upon the black ram nine times the same day.

“ Several widows of the neighbourhood, being brought upon their trial, they showed that they did not hold of the manor, and were discharged accordingly.

“A pretty young creature, who closed the procession, came ambling in, with so bewitching an air, that the steward was observed to cast a sheep's eye apon her, and married her within a month after the death of his wife.

“N. B. Mrs. Touchwood appeared, according to summons, but had nothing laid to her charge; having lived irreproachably since the decease of her husband, who left her a widow in the sixty-ninth year

of her age.

I am, sir,” &c.

No. 624. WEDNESDAY, NOV. 24, 1714.

Audire, atque togam jubeo componere, quisquis
Ambitione malâ, aut argenti pallet amore ;
Quisquis luxuriâ.-

HOR. SAT. ii. 3. 77.
Sit still, and hear, those whom proud thoughts do swell,
Those that look pale by loving coin too well ;
Whom luxury corrupts.


MANKIND is divided into two parts, the busy and the idle. The busy world may be divided into the virtuous and the vicious. The vicious again into the covetous, the ambitious, and the sensual. The idle part of mankind are in a state inferior to any one of these. All the other are engaged in the pursuit of happiness, though often misplaced, and are therefore more likely to be attentive to such means as shall be proposed to them for that end. The idle, who are neither wise for this world nor the next, are emphatically called by doctor Tillotson 'fools at large.' They propose to themselves no end, but run adrift with every wind. Advice, therefore, would be but thrown away upon them, since they would scarce take the pains to read it. I shall not fatigue any of this worthless tribe with a long harangue; but will leave them with this short saying of Plato, that • labour is preferable to idleness, as brightness to rust.'

The pursuits of the active part of mankind are either in the paths of religion and virtue ; or, on the other hand, in the roads to wealth, honours, or plea

I shall, therefore, compare the pursuits of avarice, ambition, and sensual delight with their op


posite virtues; and shall consider which of these principles engages men in a course of the greatest labour, suffering, and assiduity. Most men, in their cool reasonings, are willing to allow that a course of virtue will, in the end, be rewarded the most amply ; but represent the way to it as rugged and narrow. If therefore it can be made appear, that men struggle through as many troubles to be miserable as they do to be happy, my readers may, perhaps, be persuaded to be good when they find they shall lose nothing by it.

First, for avarice. The miser is more industrious than the saint: the pains of getting, the fears of losing, and the inability of enjoyings, his wealth, have been the mark of satire in all


Were his repentance upon his neglect of a good bargain, his sorrow for being over-reached, his hope of improving a sum, and his fear of falling into want, directed to their proper objects, they would make so many different Christian graces and virtues. He may apply to himself a great part of Saint Paul's catalogue of sufferings. “In journeyings often; in perils of waters, in perils of robbers, in perils among false brethren. In weariness, and painfulness, in watchings often, in hunger and thirst, in fastings often."—At how much less expense might he' lay up to himself treasures in heaven !' Or, if I may in' this place be allowed to add the saying of a great philosopher, he may provide such possessions as fear neither arms, por men, nor Jove himself.'

In the second place, if we look upon the toils of ambition in the same light, as we have considered those of avarice, we shall readily own that far less trouble is requisite to gain lasting glory than the power and reputation of a few years; or, in other words, we may with more ease deserve honour than

obtain it. The ambitious man should remember Cardinal Wolsey's complaint, Had I served God with the same application wherewith I served my king, He would not have forsaken me in


age.' The Cardinal here softens his ambition by the specious pretence of serving his king ;' whereas his words, in the proper construction, imply, that, if instead of being acted * by ambition, he had been acted * by religion, he should have now felt the comforts of it, when the whole world turned its back


him. Thirdly, let us compare the pains of the sensual with those of the virtuous, and see which are heavier in the balance. It may seem strange, at the first view, that the men of pleasure should be advised to change their course, because they lead a painful life. Yet when we see them so active and vigilant in quest of delight ; under so many disquiets, and the sport of such various passions ; let them answer, as they can, if the pains they undergo do not outweigh their enjoyments. The infidelities on the one part between the two sexes, and the caprices on the other, the debasement of reason, the pangs of expectation, the disappointments in possession, the stings of remorse, the vanities and vexations attending even the most refined delights that make up this business of life, render it so silly and uncomfortable, that no man is thought wise till he hath got over it, or happy, but in proportion as he hath cleared himself from it.

The sum of all is thisMan is made an active being. Whether he walks in the paths of virtue or vice, he is sure to meet with many difficulties to prove his patience and excite his industry. The same, if not greater, labour is required in the ser

For actuated.

vice of vice and folly as of virtue and wisdom; and he hath this easy choice left him, whether with the strength he is master of, he will purchase happiness or repentance.

No. 625. FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 26, 1714.

- Amores De tenero meditatur ungui.

HOR. CAR. iii. 6. 23, Love, from her tender years, her thoughts employ'd. The love-casuist hath referred to me the following letter of queries, with his answers to each question, for my approbation. I have accordingly considered the several matters therein contained, and hereby confirm and ratify his answers, and require the gen. tle querist to conform herself thereunto :


SIR, “ I was thirteen the 9th of November last, and must now begin to think of settling myself in the world; and so I would humbly beg your advice what I must do with Mr. Fondle, who makes his addresses to me. He is a very pretty man, and hath the blackest eyes and whitest teeth you ever

Though he is but a younger brother, he dresses like a man of quality, and nobody comes into, a room like him. I know he hath refused great offers, and if he cannot marry me he will never have any body else. But my father hath forbid him the house, because he sent me a copy of verses ; for he is one of the greatest wits in town. My eldest sister, who with her good-will would call VOL, XII,


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