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Statement of the Case.

but from the reason of the thing and the proper application of the principles of the law, that the course pursued in the court below was free from error.

These are all the questions which it is deemed important to discuss, and the result is that

The judgment must be affirmed; and it is so ordered.

JACKSON V. ALLEN.

BROWN V. ALLEN.

ERROR TO THE CIRCUIT COURT OF THE UNITED STATES FOR THE

EASTERN DISTRICT OF LOUISIANA.

Nos. 44, 45. Argued October 22, 23, 1889.- Decided October 28, 1889.

When it appears from the record in this court in a cause commenced in a

state court, and removed to a Circuit Court of the United States on the ground of diverse citizenship, and proceeded in to judgment there, that the citizenship of the parties at the time of the commencement of the action, as well as at the time of filing the petition for removal, was not sufficiently shown, and that therefore the jurisdiction of the state court was never divested, the defect cannot be cured by amendment, and the judgment of the Circuit Court will be reversed at the cost of the plaintiff in error, and the cause remitted to that court with directions to remand it to the state court.

This action was commenced June 7, 1884, in the Civil District Court, parish of Orleans, Louisiana, by petition as follows:

“The petition of Allen, West and Bush, a commercial firm doing business in the city of New Orleans and composed of James H. Allen, Thomas H. West, and John C. Bush, respectfully shows

“That your petitioners sold to Alfred F. Jones, to be paid for cash on delivery, and delivered to him on the 4th day of June, 1884, certain two hundred and sixty-eight (268) bales of cotton of the price and value of twelve thousand six hundred and sixty-five 27. $12,665.25, dollars, all of which more fully ap

Statement of the Case."

pears and is set forth in the detailed account marked Exhibit A’and hereto annexed as part of this petition.

“That said defendant has failed and neglected to pay and now refuses to pay for said cotton, save and except the sum of eighteen hundred dollars ($1800) paid on account of and in deduction of said purchase price, leaving said purchase price now due and owing the full sum of ten thousand eight hundred and sixty-five 15 dollars ($10,865.25).

“That your petitioners have special lien and privilege on said cotton for the payment of said purchase price thereof; that the same is now in possession of William Jackson, master of and bailee of the owners of the steamship called the Counsellor,' lying at the port of Orleans; that petitioners fear that pending this suit the said Alfred F. Jones and said William Jackson, master of said steamship called the Counsellor,' bailee of her owners, will part with, conceal, or dispose of said cotton, which is an agricultural product of the United States, and was sold as aforesaid in the city of New Orleans, or will remove the same out of the State or beyond the jurisdiction of this honorable court, and that they will thereby lose their vendors' lien and privilege thereon.

“Wherefore, the annexed bond and affidavit considered, petitioners

pray that a writ of sequestration issue directed to and requiring the civil sheriff of the parish of Orleans to seize and to hold the cotton as aforesaid, in whatsoever hands or place the same may be found, subject to the further order of this honorable court; that said Alfred F. Jones and said William Jackson, master of the steamship Counsellor' and as bailee of her owners, be hereby cited to answer this petition, and, after due proceedings, that petitioners have judgment against said Alfred F. Jones and against the said William Jackson, master of said steamship and bailee of her owner in solido, in the sum of ten thousand eight hundred and sixty-five 17 dollars, (10,865.25,) with legal interest thereon from judicial demand until paid, and for costs, with special lien and privilege upon said cotton sold and seized for the payment of said judgment. They pray for all general relief.

“ CHAS. S. RICE,

Of Counsel."

Statement of the Case.

On the 7th of June the writ of sequestration was ordered to issue and did issue. Thereupon, on the 11th of June, the following petition was filed in the cause :

“The petition of intervention and third opposition of Brown Bros. & Co., a commercial firm domiciled in and doing business in the city of New York and State of New York and composed of citizens of said State, viz., James M. Brown, Charles D. Dickey, Howard Potter, John Crosby Brown, John Edgar Johnson, Stewart Henry Brown, Alexander H. Brown, Collett, — Chalmers, respectfully shows

“ That in the above-entitled suit Allen, West & Bush, a commercial firm of this city, brought suit against A. F. Jones, also of this city, for a balance claimed to be due upon certain cotton sold and sequestered the same in the possession of one William Jackson, master and bailee of the owners of the steamship Counsellor, on which vessel said cotton, consisting of 268 bales, fully described in plaintiffs' petition, had been laden for transportation to England.

“Petitioners represent that prior to said suit and sequestration the steamship Counsellor had issued to the defendant Jones a bill of lading for the aforesaid 268 bales of cotton, on which bill of lading, negotiable by indorsement, under the law of Louisiana, the said Jones, prior to the suit herein, indorsed over and transferred to your petitioners for the purpose of pledging said cotton for the payment of a draft for 2680 pounds sterling, drawn by said Jones, to which said bill of lading was attached, and which draft your petitioners purchased upon the faith of said negotiable bill of lading; and petitioners aver that they are innocent third holders of the same for value, and, as against all persons, are to be deemed and taken to be the owners of said 268 bales of cotton and entitled to the same..

“ Wherefore petitioners pray that this petition of intervention and 3rd opposition be filed; that the commercial firm of Allen, West & Bush and the individual members thereof, James H. Allen, Thomas H. West, and John C. Bush, and William Jackson, master of the S. S. Counsellor, be cited to

Statement of the Case.

appear and answer this petition, and that after due proceedings there be judgment in favor of petitioners and against said defendants, recognizing petitioners as the transferees and holders of the bill of lading issued by the steamship Counsellor for said 268 bales of cotton and the lawful owners and possessors of said 268 bales of cotton, and for costs; and petitioners pray for such other and further order and relief as the nature of the case may require and the court is competent to give.

“BAYNE & DENÉGRE, Attorneys."

A citation of intervention issued on the 12th day of June, and on the 26th of that month Jackson, the master of the Counsellor, appeared and made answer setting up that he was “an alien and subject of the British empire, master of the steamship Counsellor, and bailee of her owners, all of whom are aliens, subjects of said British empire.”

On the same 26th of June two petitions were filed for the removal of the cause to the Circuit Court of the United States. The first, by Brown Brothers & Co., was as follows:

“To the honorable the Civil District Court in and for the

parish of Orleans :

“The petition of Brown Brothers & Co., a commercial firm composed of James M. Brown, Charles D. Dickey, Howard Potter, John Crosby Brown, John Edgar Johnson, Frederick Chalmers, Mark W. Collett, Francis A. Hamilton, Alexander H. Brown, Stewart M. Brown, residing in and doing business in New York, and who are citizens of New York, as these petitioners aver, respectfully shows that the above-described suit of Allen, West & Bush v. A. F. Jones et als., No. — of the docket of this court, is a suit of a civil nature at law now pending in the Civil District Court for the parish of Orleans, a state court of the State of Louisiana, where the matter in dispute, exclusive of costs, exceeds the sum of five thousand dollars; that

“1st. That there is a controversy between citizens of different States.

“2nd. That there is a controversy which is wholly between

Statement of the Case.

citizens of different States, which can be fully determined between them and these petitioners.

“3rd. That there is a controversy in which these petitioners, citizens of the State of New York, William Jackson, master, and owners of the steamship Counsellor, cited as bailees, concurring, and who are aliens, citizens and subjects of the Kingdom of Great Britain, on one side, and Allen, West and Bush and the members of said firm and A. F. Jones, citizens of Louisiana, on the other side, make a controversy wholly between citizens of different States, which can be fully determined as between them, and authorizes the removal.

“4th. That there is a controversy wholly between petitioners, citizens of New York, and Allen, West and Bush, citizens of Louisiana, which can be fully determined as between them.

“Petitioners file their bond and security for entering in the Circuit Court of the United States for costs, according to law, on the first day of its next session, and for paying costs.

“And petitioners pray this court to proceed no further herein, except to make the order for removal required, to accept the bond, and cause the record to be removed to said United States Circuit Court, fifth circuit, eastern district of Louisiana, and for all equitable relief.

“ BAYNE & DENÉGRE,

Attorneys for Petitioners.

The second petition, by Jackson, was as follows:

“ To the honorable the Civil District Court in and for the par

ish of Orleans :

“The petition of William Jackson, master of the steamship Counsellor, who is an alien and a citizen and subject of the Kingdom of Great Britain, bailee of the owners of said steamship Counsellor, for whom he is cited as bailee in this suit, and who are all aliens and citizens and subjects of the Kingdom of Great Britain, respectfully represents —

“That the matter and thing in dispute in above-entitled suit exceed, exclusive of costs, the sum of and value of $500; that the controversy in said suit is between citizens of a State

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