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Opinion of the Court.

was held that Congress intended to impose the duty prescribed by section 99 upon bankers doing business as brokers, although a person, firm or company, having a license as a banker, might be exempted by subdivision nine of section 79 of the act of 1864, as amended by the act of March 3, 1865, 13 Stat. 472, from paying the special tax imposed upon brokers. Nothing more is decided in that case.

In Selden v. Equitable Trust Co., the question was whether corporations whose business was to invest their own capital

not that of others — in bonds secured by mortgage upon real estate, and to negotiate, sell and guarantee such bonds, were banks or bankers within the meaning of section 3407 of the Revised Statutes. It was held that they were not; that Congress did not intend that a person or corporation selling its own property, not that received from other owners for sale, should be classed as a banker or bank for the purposes of taxation. The court, in that case, referred to section 3407 as describing three distinct classes of artificial and natural persons, distinguished by the nature of their business ; first, those who have a place of business where credits are opened by the deposit or collection of money or currency, subject to be paid or remitted upon draft, check or order; second, those having a place of business where money is advanced or loaned on stocks, bonds, bullion, bills of exchange or promissory notes; third, those having a place of business where stocks, bonds, bullion, bills of exchange, or promissory notes are received for discount or for sale. In respect to the third class it was said: “The language of the statute is, where such property is received' for discount or for sale. The use of the word received' is significant. In no proper sense can it be understood that one receives his own stocks and bonds, or bills or notes, for discount or for sale. He receives the bonds, bills, or notes belonging to him as evidences of debt, though he may sell them afterwards. Nobody would understand that to be banking business. But when a corporation or natural person receives from another person, for discount, bills of exchange or promissory notes belonging to that other, he is acting as a banker; and when a customer brings bonds, bullion or stocks

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Opinion of the Court.

for sale, and they are received for the purpose for which they are brought, that is, to be sold, the case is presented which we think was contemplated by the statute. In common understanding, he who receives goods for sale is one who receives them as agent for a principal who is the owner. He is not one who buys and sells on his own account.”

This language embraces the present case. The plaintiff was not a broker who, without employing capital of his own, simply negotiated purchases and sales of stocks for others, receiving only the usual commissions for services of that character. In his business of buying and selling stocks for others, he regularly employed capital, by the use of which interest was earned upon moneys advanced by him for his customers, substantially as it would be earned by a bank upon money loaned to its customers. In the parlance of the Stock Exchange, he might be called a stock broker; yet, here were all the conditions, which, under the statute, made the case of a banker, whose capital, employed in his business, was liable to a tax of one twenty-fourth of one per centum each month. It is not a sufficient answer to this view to say that the business of a stock broker is ordinarily distinct from the business of a banker, or that according to the common understanding a stock broker is not a banker. A stock broker

may

do some of the kinds of business that are usually done by bankers, and many banks and bankers do business which, as a general rule, is only done by stock brokers. Congress did not intend that the question of taxation upon capital employed in the business of banking, should depend upon the mere name given to such business, either by those engaged in it or by others. When the plaintiff admits, as he does, that his business was that of buying and selling stocks for his customers, and that in such business he employed capital, he proves that he was a banker within the statutory definition, and that, within the meaning of section 3408, his capital was employed in the business of banking. He brings himself within the rule that Congress prescribed for determining who, for the purposes of the taxation in question — though not necessarily in the commercial

were bankers and what was banking business. That

sense

Statement of the Case.

rule is expressed in words that leave no doubt as to what was the intention of Congress. The judgment below gives effect to that intention, and it is

Affirmed. MR. JUSTICE FIELD, with whom concurred MR. JUSTICE MILLER, dissented.

LOUISVILLE AND NASHVILLE RAILROAD COM

PANY v. WANGELIN.

ERROR TO THE CIRCUIT COURT OF THE UNITED STATES FOR THE

SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF ILLINOIS.

No. 169. Submitted December 19, 1889. - Decided January 6, 1890.

Under the act of March 3, 1875, c. 137, § 2, one of two corporations sued

jointly in a state court for a tort, although pleading severally, cannot remove the case into the Circuit Court of the United States, upon the ground that there is a separable controversy between it and the plaintiff because the other corporation was not in existence at the time of the tort sued for — without alleging and proving that the two corporations were wrongfully made joint defendants for the purpose of preventing a removal into the federal court.

The original action was trespass, brought in a court of the State of Illinois on May 10, 1883, by Lucinda Wangelin, a citizen of Illinois, against the Louisville and Nashville Railroad Company, a corporation of Kentucky, and the Southeast and St. Louis Railway Company, a corporation of Illinois, for breaking and entering her close, and tearing up and carrying away a railroad switch, and thereby destroying the connection between a coal mine of the plaintiff and the St. Louis and Southeastern Railway, and injuring the value of the mine, to her damage in the sum of $6000. The defendant corporations, after being duly served with process, severally pleaded not guilty.

The case was removed into the Circuit Court of the United States upon a petition of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad Company, alleging that there was a separate controversy

Statement of the Case.

between it and the plaintiff, which could be fully determined between them; and specifically alleging that the St. Louis and Southeastern Railway Company, an Illinois corporation, built and owned the railway and the switch mentioned in the declaration in 1870, and operated the railway until November 1, 1974; that thenceforth that railway was held and operated by a receiver appointed in a suit to foreclose a mortgage from that company until January 1, 1880; then by the Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railway Company under a lease from such receiver until May 1, 1880, and by the Louisville and Nashville Railroad Company under an assignment of that lease until January 27, 1881; and on November 16, 1880, was sold under a decree of foreclosure to purchasers for the Southeast and St. Louis Railway Company, and by such purchasers conveyed on January 27, 1881, to that company; that the Southeast and St. Louis Railway Company was incorporated under the law of Illinois on November 12, 1880, and not before; that the supposed trespasses alleged in the declaration were committed, if at at all, in August, 1880; that at that time “the defendant, the Southeast and St. Louis Railway Company, had no corporate or legal existence, and no existence in

, fact, had no stockholders, officers, agents, employés or servants, and had taken no steps whatever to become a corporation, and was not in any way acting as a corporation or otherwise;" that that company never came into possession of that railway until January 27, 1881, when it entered into a contract with the Louisville and Nashville Railroad Company, under which this company had since operated that railway; and that, at the time of the supposed trespasses, this company was in the sole and exclusive possession of that railway, operating it under the aforesaid assignment of lease.

Annexed to the petition for removal was an affidavit of the vice-president of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad Company to the truth of its allegations.

In the Circuit Court of the United States, the Louisville and Nashville Railroad Company, by leave of the court, filed additional pleas, setting up, among other things, the matters alleged in the petition for removal.

Opinion of the Court.

Upon a motion of the plaintiff to remand the cause to the state court “for reasons apparent upon the face of the record,” the court on April 7, 1886, ordered it to be remanded; and on April 9, 1886, the Louisville and Nashville Railroad Company sued out this writ of error.

Mr. J. W. Hamill, for plaintiff in error, cited; Wood v. Davis, 18 How. 467; Carneal v. Banks, 10 Wheat. 181; Browne v. Strode, 5 Cranch, 303; Boon's Heirs v. Chiles, 8 Pet. 532; McNutt v. Bland, 2 How. 9; Walden v. Skinner, 101 U. S. 577, 589; Arapahoe County v. Kansas Pacific Railway Company, 4 Dillon, 277, 283; Removal Cases, 100 U. S. 457; Bacon v. Rives, 106 U. S. 99; Hartog v. Memory, 116 U. S. 588, 591; Morris v. Gilmer, 129 U. S. 315, 329.

Mr. Charles W. Thomas for defendant in error.

MR. JUSTICE GRAY, after stating the case as above, delivered the opinion of the court.

It often has been decided that an action brought in a state court against two jointly for a tort cannot be removed by either of them into the Circuit Court of the United States, under the act of March 3, 1875, c. 137, § 2, upon the ground of a separable controversy between the plaintiff and himself, although the defendants have pleaded severally, and the plaintiff might have brought the action against either alone. 18 Stat. 471; Pirie v. Tvedt, 115 U. S. 41; Sloane v. Anderson, 117 U. S. 275; Plymouth Co. v. Amador & Sacramento Co., 118 U. S. 264; Thorn Wire Hedge Co. v. Fuller, 122 U. S. 535.

It is equally well settled that in any case the question whether there is a separable controversy which will warrant a removal is to be determined by the condition of the record in the state court at the time of the filing of the petition for removal, independently of the allegations in that petition or in the affidavit of the petitioner - unless the petitioner both alleges and proves that the defendants were wrongfully made joint defendants for the purpose of preventing a removal into the federal court.

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