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TABLE OF CONTENTS.

The free ship bill......

Present state of American over-sea navigation...

Substitution of steam and steel for sail and wood.

Increase in ocean-carrying trade, consequent upon the new tariff act

Operation of the registry law.

Fear of old vessels.

Policy of other nations.

American ownership under foreign flags.

Charter of foreign vessels.

Value of the carrying trade.

Free registry and subsidies not conflicting or alternative propositions.

Subsidies and mail compensation..

Subsidies not clear profit..

Forms of bounties and subsidies.

British mail payments.

Admiralty subventions.

French and Italian bounties.

Discriminating taxes on shipping.

Not a practical measure.

Purpose of such taxes in early American bistory.

Cost of construction ....

Average valuation of merchant steamships

Cost of operation and maintenance.

Percentage of chief factors
Coal....
Repairs, depreciation, insurance, interest.

Taxation
Decrease of American seameni

Nativity of merchant crews.
Apprentices.
School-ships

Reserve of merchant seamen
Wages...

Bases of comparison
Abolition of registry bonds.
Remission of penalties
Tonnage tax.

Operation of reciprocity section..
Disadvantages of net tonnage as basis of tax.
Advantages of gross tonnage as basis of tax.

Proposed law reducing rate and levying tax on gross tonnage
Net tonpage,

Proposed change in law increasing deductions

International appendix..
Repaired foreign wrecks
United States shipping commissioners

Purpose, extent, and cost of service.

Increase of facilities and powers desirable.
State taxation of shipping..

Decisions of U. S. Supreme Court
Nature and effect of taxes on shipping
Taxes paid by foreign steamslips...

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A. Suggested legislation..

1 Free ship bill..

2. Tonnage tax bill

3. Net tonnage bill..

4. Remission of penalties..

5. Abolition of registry bonds..

6. Admission of foreign wrecks.

B. Shipping commissioners' reports

Explanatory

Shipments before collectors of customs.

Shipments before U.S. consuls.....

1. Shipments before U. S. commissioners.

Table of number of crews and men shipped on steam and sail vessels

in foreign and domestic trade, by ports..

2. Nationality of seamen.

Foreign clement in British merchant marine.

Foreign element in German merchant marine.

Table of nativity of seamen shipped, by ports...

3. Available seamen, classed by nationality, in American ports.
4. Discharges of seamen, expenses of commissioners..

Table showing discharges of crews in foreign and coasting trade,

total shipments and discharges, total expenses of shipping com-

missioners, and per capita cost of services by ports

5. Manning of vessels..

Manning of British vessels..

Table of average number of crew and average number of men per

100 tous shipped on steam and sail vessels in foreign and coasting

trade by ports

6. Report of New York shipping commissioner.

Shipments and discharges..

Crows and parts of crews for registered steamships

Nationality of seamen

Manning of vessels....

Scarcity of American seamen

Remarks on wages.

Advantages of American vessels.

Protection of sailors.

Allotment notes.

British system..

Sailors' unione.

Apprentices

7. Decrease of American seamen.

8. Causes of the decrease of American seamen

B. Shipping commissioners' reports-Continued.

9. Remedies for decrease of American seamen

10. Apprentices....

Apprentices in British merchant marine.

Boys in German merchant marine.

11. American seamen on foreign vessels..

12. Preferences shown for Scandinavian seamen

13. Advantages of American vessels..

14. Complaints and abuses..

15. Suggestions upon legislation for shipment of seamen.

C. Wages of seamen (American and foreign).

1. Wages on American vessels...

Comparative wages on Americau and British vessels.

Tables showing monthly wages paid at American ports on Amer-

ican steam and sail vessels of various tonnages to able seamen,
boatswains, carpenters, first and second mates, fi remen, first and
second engineers on voyages to Great Britain, continent of Europe,
South America, West Indies and Central America, Atlantic and
Gulf coasting trade, Atlantic and Pacific coasting trade, Asia,

Australia, Pacific coasting trade, and Hawaii..

2. Wages on British vessels

Comparison on steam and sail vessels since 1870

Comparison of American and British wages

Wages in the hold and on deck.

Efficiency of labor..

Rise and decline of British wages.

Table (1) showing maximum, minimum, and ordinary wages for

1893 of able seamen, first mates, second mates, and boatswains on

British sailing vessels, cargo steamers, and passenger steamers on

voyages to the several continents

Table (2) showing wages as in table (1) of first and second engi-

neers, firemen and trimmers on British steam vessels

Table (3) showing wages paid to British able seamen on steam and

sailing vessels in 1870, 1880, 1891, 1892, 1893..

Table (4) showing British wages, as in Table (3), of first and sec-

ond mates, boatswains, carpenters, sailmakers, quartermasters,

engineers, and firemen

3. Table of wages in the German and French merchant marine.

4. Wages paid crews of foreign vessels at American ports..

5. Reports of consuls..

Southainpton: Wages and nationality of crews shipped for Ameri-

can vessels, and British wages

Liverpool: Wages and nationality of crews shipped for American

vessels..

Hamburg: Condition of American merchant marine

Havre: Shipments and wages.

Victoria, British Columbia : Wages on American vessels, on British

vessels to Australia and China, fare on American vessels.....

Panama: Shipments for American vessels, wages and nationality of

Curaçoa : Shipments for American vessels..

Valparaiso: Wages paid on British steamships, nationality of sea-

men, desertions...

Hong Kong: Wages paid on American steamships

D. Admeasurement.

Gross and net tonnage

French subsidy report on net tonnage, and French law.

British, German, and Danube measurement rules

Gross and net tonnage and percentage of deduction of various nations.

Gross and net tonnage and dimensions of type vessels

Tonnage certificates of type steamships

Changes in French, German, Belgian, Dutch, Spanish, and Russian ton-

Net tonnage law of the United States (text).

Net tonnage law of Great Britain (text).

Net tonnage law of Norway (text)

Net tonnage law of Denmark (text).

Net tonnage law of Sweden (text)..

nage laws ..

48

49

50

52

54

56

Page

E. Tonnage-tax collections for the fiscal year.

56

Text of present law.

57

Exempted ports...

57

Annual tonnage taxes since 1886

58

Collections for 1893–'94 by tag, steam, or sail, and 6-cent or 3-cent rates 59

('ollections for 1893–'94 by ports..

..

60

F. State taxes on shipping

61

Laws of the States arranged in order of customs districts from Maine

down the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, up the Pacific and through

tbe Great Lakes, with occasional observations by collectors of

customs and local assessment boards on operations of the laws. 61

G. Port charges in American ports by State law or local ordinance, including

pilotage, quarantine, whariage, towage, harbor-masters' fees,

etc., arranged by States as above..

68

H. Foreign taxatiou of shipping...

82

Synoptical table of taxes on shipping as property, port charges, object

of tax, and flag discriminations under laws of Great Britain, Ger-

many, France, Italy, Netherlands, Greece, Spain, Sweden, Denmark,

China, Japan, Dominion of Canada..

83

1. American shipping entered during the last fiscal year at 45 principal sea-

ports of the world

87

K. Ocean mail compensation, subsidies, admiralty subventions, and foreign

merchant marines..

89

United States: Ocean mail compensation for fiscal year ended June 30,
1894

89

Great Britain

91

Prefatory.

91

Admiralty subventions..

92

Mail compensation for fiscal year ended March 31, 1894.

93

Relative land and sea mail expenditures of Great Britain.

Dividends of mail and merchant lines...

Stock quotations of mail and merchant lines for 1893.

Naval reserve expenditures.....

96

Genesis of British mail payments (extract from article on subsidies

by Hon. A. T. Hadley)

97

Statistics of British merchant marine

99

Germany.

99

Postal subsidies.

99

Statistics of German merchant marine.

100

Domestic construction and foreign purchase.

101

Norway and Sweden

101

Mail compensation

101

Statistics of Norwegian and Swedish merchant marines

102

France....

102

Mail subsidics

102

Bounty laws of 1881 and 1893.

103

Construction bounties

108

Navigation bounties...

104

Construction with and without bounties..

105

Extracts from French parliamentary report (M. Siegfried) on opera-

tions of bounty law of 1881.

106

Navigation and bounties paid.

106

Statistics of French merchant marine

107

Conclusions

108

Italy

108

Bounty law of 1885

108

Expenditures for bounties from 1886 to 1892

109

Construction before and after bounty act.

109

Statistics of Italian merchant marine

111

Operations of Società Navigazione Italiana..

112

Austria-Hungary

112

Subsidy law of 1894.

112

Statistics of Austro-Hungarian merchant marine

113

Dominion of Canada.....

114

Purpose of Canadian sulsidies..

114

Statistics of Canadian merchant marine..

114

Trade on Great Lakes loetween United States and Canada.

115

L. Reports of principal steamship companies....

117

Number, gross tonnage, horse power, and value of merchant steam fleets. 117

L. Reports of principal steamsbip companies-Continued.

Page.

Dividends, value per ton, receipts from passengers, freight, and mails.. 118

Expenditures for coal, wages, provisions, depreciation, repairs, insur-

ance

118

American lines.

118

Pacific Mail Steamship Company,

119

British lines.

123

Cunard Steamship Company

123

Peninsular and Oriental Steamship Company.

127

Pacific Steam Navigation Company.

131

German lines

136

North German Lloyd..

136

Hamburg-American Packet

144

French lines....

148

Compagnie Générale Transatlantiqne..

148

Messageries Maritimes .

156

Italian lines.

162

Società Navigazione Generale Italiana

162

Austro-Hungarian lines ..

167

Società del Lloyd Austriaco.

167

Netherlands lines...

173

Netherlands-American Steamship Company

173

Canadian lines ...

174

M. Steam communication with foreign countries, showing established steam-

ship lines, ports of entry and clearance, nature of service, average

period of voyage, with lists of steamships, gross tonnage, flag,

year and material of construction, approximate number of crews,

and value of vessels..

175

New York

176

Philadelphia

190

Baltimore

191

Boston

193

Portland, Me.

195

Eastport, Me..

196

Newport News.

196

Savannah..

197

New Orleans..

197

Pensacola

199

Tampa

199

San Francisco

200

Tacoma...

201

San Diego

201

Los Angeles

202

N. Grain export and fruit import i rade..

204

Shipping employed in export of grain from New York.

204

American ownership under foreign flags.

204

Shipping employed in import of fruit rom Central America and West

Indies.

205

0. The world's tonnage

208

1. World's steam and sail tonnage for 1850, 1860, 1870, 1880, 1890, 1892, by

countries..

209

2. World's steam and sail tonnage for 1893–94, by countries (Bureau

Veritas)

211

3. World's steam and sail tonnage for 1894, by countries (Lloyd's Reg-

ister)......

212

4. Total tonnage, and proportions of steam and sail as power, wood,

iron, and steel as material of construction in world's tonnage, for

1890, 1891, 1892, 1893, 1894 (Lloyd's Register), with British, French,

and German in detail

213

5. Total tonnage and proportions of steam and sail, and potential ton-

nage from 1886 to 1893 (Bureau Veritas).

215

6. Annual construction of the world, steam and sail, wood, iron, and steel,

for 1889, 1890, 1891, 1892, and 1893 (Lloyd's Register)

216

7. Details of world's construction, output of foreign yards for 1893,

construction during 1894 (Lloyd's Register).

217

P. Progress and changes of American shipping during the decade 1881–1894... 221

1. Composition of American merchant fleet, classed by motive power

(steam or sail) and material of construction (wood, iron, steel), for

1885, 1890, 1891, 1892, and 1893..

222

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