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TABLE OF CONTENTS.

REPORT.

Page.

The free ship bill......

IX

Present state of American over-sea navigation........................

Substitution of steam and steel for sail and wood...

XII

Increase in ocean-carrying trade, consequent upon the new tariff act.. XIII

Operation of the registry law.......

XIV

Fear of old vessels ..

XVI

Policy of other nations..

XVI

American ownership under foreign flags........

XVII

Charter of foreign vessels............

XVII

Value of the carrying trade.........

XVIII

Free registry and subsidies not conflicting or alternative propositions. XVIII

Subsidies and mail compensation ....

XVIII

Subsidies not clear profit..

XVIII

Forms of bounties and subsidies......

XIX

British mail payments....

XIX

Adiniralty subventions......

XXI

French and Italian bounties.......

XXI

Discriminating taxes on shipping........

XXI

Not a practical measure...

XXII

Purpose of such taxes in early American history ........

XXII

Cost of construction .......

XXII

Average valuation of merchant steamships ......

XXIII

Cost of operation and maintenance...

XXIV

Percentage of chief factors ....

XXV

XXV

Repairs, depreciation, insurance, interest...

XXVI

Taxation ...........

XXVI

Decrease of American seameil .........

XXVII

Nativity of merchant crews.....

XXVIII

Apprentices....

XXVIII

School-ships ........

XXIX

Reserve of merchant seamen ..

XXIX

Wages..................

XXIX

Bases of comparison ....

XXX

Abolition of registry b

XXXII

Remission of penalties ....

XXXIII

Tonnage tax ........

XXXIII

Operation of reciprocity section...

XXXIV

Disadvantages of net tonnage as basis of tax...

. XXXV

Advantages of gross tonnage as basis of tax...

XXXVII

Proposed law reducing rate and levying tax on gross tonnage..

XXXVIII

Net tonnage..............

XXXIX

Proposed change in law increasing deductions

XXXIX

International appendix......

XLI

Repaired foreign wrecks .........................

XLI

United States shipping commissioners .....

XLII

Purpose, extent, and cost of service...

XLII

Increase of facilities and powers desirable..

XLIII

State taxation of shipping......................

XLIII

Decisions of U. S. Supreme Court

XLIV

Nature and effect of taxes on shipping ...

XLV

Taxes paid by foreigu steamships.....

XLVI

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APPENDIXES.

A. Suggested legislation.........

1 Free ship bill........

2. Tonnage tax bill.....

3. Net tonnage bill......

4. Remission of penalties....

5. Abolition of registry bonds...

6. Admission of foreign wrecks..

B. Shipping commissioners' reports ..

Explanatory .........
Shipments before collectors of customs....

Shipments before U.S. consuls........

1. Shipments before U.S. commissioners......

Table of number of crews and men shipped on steam and sail vessels

in foreign and domestic trade, by ports.......

2. Nationality of seamen......

Foreign element in British merchant marine....

Foreign element in German merchant marine....

Table of wativity of seamen shipped, by ports...

3. Available seamen, classed by nationality, in American ports ....

4. Discharges of seamen, expenses of commissioners....

Table showing discharges of crews in foreign and coasting trade,

total shipments and discharges, total expenses of shipping com-

missioners, and per capita cost of services by ports .............

5. Manning of vessels....

Manning of British vessels.........

Table of average number of crew and average number of men per

100 tous shipped on steam and sail vessels in foreign and coasting

trade by ports .....

6. Report of New York shipping commissioner.......

Shipments and discharges.........

Crows and parts of crews for registered steamships .....

Nationality of seamen .........

Manning of vessels...

Scarcity of American seamen..

Remarks on wages.

Advantages of American vessels.

Protection of sailors.

Allotment notes.....

British system....

Sailors' unione...

Apprentices ...

7. Decrease of American seamen ........

8. Causes of the decrease of American seamen....

12

B. Shipping commissioners' reports-Continued.

9. Remedies for decrease of American seamen ........

10. Apprentices.............................................

Apprentices in British merchant marine.....

Boys in German merchant marine...........

11. American seamen on foreign vessels.............

12. Preferences shown for Scandinavian seamen .....

13. Advantages of American vessels....................

14. Complaints and abuses........

15. Suggestions upon legislation for shipment of seamen...

C. Wages of seamen (American and foreign).........

1. Wages on American vessels..............

Comparative wages on Americau and British vessels.......

Tables showing monthly wages paid at American ports on Amer-

ican steam and sail vessels of various tonnages to able seamen,

boatswains, carpenters, first and second mates, firemen, first and

second engineers on voyages to Great Britain, continent of Europe,

South America, West Indies and Central America, Atlantic and

Gulf coasting trade, Atlantic and Pacific coasting trade, Asia,

Australia, Pacific coasting trade, and Hawaii.....

2. Wages on British vessels .......

Comparison on steam and sail vessels since 1870 ..

Comparison of American and British wages ...

Wages in the hold and on deck......

Efficiency of labor..............

Rise and decline of British wages.......

Table (1) showing maximum, minimum, and ordinary wages for

1893 of able seamen, first mates, second mates, and boatswains on

British sailing vessels, cargo steamers, and passenger steamers on

_voyages to the several continents ............

Table (2) showing wages as in table (1) of first and second engi-

neers, firemen and trimmers on British steam vessels ........

Table (3) showing wages paid to British able seamen on steam and

sailing vessels in 1870, 1880, 1891, 1892, 1893.........

Table (4) showing British wages, as in Table (3), of first and sec-

ond mates, boatswains, carpenters, sailmakers, quartermasters,

engineers, and firemen

3. Table of wages in the German and French merchant marine...

4. Wages paid crews of foreign vessels at American ports....

5. Reports of consuls.

Southampton: Wages and nationality of crews shipped for Ameri-

can vessels, and British wages ......

Liverpool: Wages and nationality of crews shipped for American

vessels...................................

Hamburg: Condition of American merchant marine ...

Havre: Shipments and wages .............

Victoria, British Columbia: Wages on American vessels, on British

vessels to Australia and China, fare on American vessels. ........

Panama: Shipments for American vessels, wages and nationality of

seamen ......................

Curaçoa: Shipments for American vessels.......
Valparaiso: Wages paid on British steamships, nationality of

men, desertions....

Hong Kong: Wages paid on American steamships .

D. Admeasurement.........

Gross and net tonnage ........

French snbsidy report on net tonnage, and French law.......

British, German, and Danube measurement rules ...

Gross and net tonnage and percentage of deduction of various nations
Gross and net tonnage and dimensions of type vessels ................
Tonnage certificates of type steamships .....
Changes in French, German, Belgian, Dutch, Spanish, and Russian

nage laws ...
Net tonnage law of the United States (text)..........
Net tonnage law of Great Britain (text)....
Net tonpage law of Norway (text) ......
Met tonnage law of Denmark (text)............
Net tonuage law of Sweden (text)........

Hanty of sea-

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E. Tonnage-tax collections for the fiscal year..........

Text of present law......

Exempted ports........

Annual tonnage taxes since 1885........

Collections for 1893–'94 by flag, steam, or sail, and 6-cent or 3-cent rates

('ollections for 1893-'94 by ports..........

F. State taxes on shipping.....

Laws of the States arranged in order of customs districts from Maine

down the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, up the Pacific and through

tbe Great Lakes, with occasional observations by collectors of

customs and local assessment boards on operations of the laws.

G. Port charges in American ports by State law or local ordinance, including

pilotage, quarantine, whariage, towage, harbor-masters' fees,

etc., arranged by States as above.....

H. Foreign taxatiou of shipping....

.......

Synoptical table of taxes on shipping as property, port charges, object

of tax, and flag discriminations under laws of Great Britain, Ger-

many, France, Italy, Netherlands, Greece, Spain, Sweden, Denmark,

China, Japan, Dominion of Canada...

1. American shipping entered during the last fiscal year at 45 principal sea-

ports of the world ...

K. Ocean mail compensation, subsidies, admiralty subventions, and foreign

merchant marines..

United States: Ocean mail compensation for fiscal year ended June 30,

1894 ...............

Great Britain ....

Prefatory.....

Admiralty subventions.....

Mail compensation for fiscal year ended March 31, 1894...

Relative land and sea mail expenditures of Great Britain..

Dividends of mail and merchant lines.....

Stock quotations of mail and merchant lines for 1893....

Naval reserve expenditures.........

Genesis of British mail payments (extract from article on subsidies

by Hon. A. T. Hadley) ...

Statistics of British nierchant marine

Germany ...

Postal subsidies......

Statistics of German merchant marine.....

Domestic construction and foreign purchase...

Norway and Sweden .....

Mail compensation ....

Statistics of Norwegian and Swedish merchant marines

France.....

Mail subsidics ......

Bounty laws of 1881 and 1893....

Construction bouties ........

Navigation bounties.......

Construction with and without bounties.

Extracts from French parliamentary report (M. Siegfriedi) on opera-

tions of bounty law of 1881.......

Navigation and bounties paid.......

Statistics of French merchant marine .....

Conclusions ............

Italy ............

Bounty law of 1885..

Expenditures for bounties from 1886 to 1892 ..

Construction before and after booty act........

Statistics of Italian merchant marine .............

Operations of Società Navigazione Italiana.

Austria-Hungary ........

Subsidy law of 1891..

Statistics of Austro-Hungarian merchant marine .......

Dominion of Canada.............

Purpose of Canadian sulsidies....................................

Statistics of Canadian merchant marine..

Trade on Great Lakes loetween United States and Canada..........

L. Reports of principal steamehip companies........

Number, gross tonnage, horse power, and value of merchant steam fleets.

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New Orleans................................

Pensacola ...............................

Tam p a ......................................

San Francisco..

Tacoma.................

San Diego...............................................

Los Angeles ....

X. Grain export and fruit import iradle......

Shipping employed in export of grain from New York....

American ownership under foreign flags....

Shipping employed in import of fruit from Central America and West

Indies .......

0. The world's tonnage ......

1. World's steam and sail tonnage for 1850, 1860, 1870, 1880, 1890, 1892, by

countries .........

2. World's steam and sail tonnage for 1893–94, by countries (Bureau

Veritas) ..........:

3. World's steam and sail tonnage for 1894, by countries (Lloyd's Reg-

ister)........

4. Total tonnage, and proportions of steam and sail as power, wood,

iron, and steel as material of construction in world's tonnage, for

1890, 1891, 1892, 1893, 1894 (Lloyd's Register), with British, French,

and German in detail .....

5. Total tonnage and proportions of steam and sail, and potential ton-

nage from 1886 to 1893 (Bureau Veritas)......

6. Annual construction of the world, steam and sail, wood, iron, and steel,

for 1889, 1890, 1891, 1892, and 1893 (Lloyd's Register) ........

7. Details of world's construction, output of foreign yards for 1893,

construction during 1894 (Lloyd's Register).....

P. Progress and changes of American shipping during the decade 1881–1894...

1. Composition of American merchant fleet, classed by motive power

(steam or sail) and material of construction (wood, iron, steel), for

1885, 1890, 1891, 1892, and 1893.

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