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wordes in effect. “For as much,' quoth he, as the Queene is gone, I will, in her absence, declare unto you all, that she hath bine to me as true, as obedient, and as conformable a wife as I could wishe or desire. She hath all the virtuous qualities that ought to be in a woman of her dignity, or in any other of a baser estate. She is also surely a noble woman borne, her conditions will well declare the same.' With that quoth the Lord Cardinall • Sir, I most humbly require,'”-&c.

The arts which men even in the loftiest stations would in those times condescend to use, in order to pamper the will of the despotic sovereign on the throne, are well exemplified in the Archbishop of Canterbury's forgery of the name of his brother of Rochester. The King, in relating the rise and progress of his scruples, alludes to a license signed by all the bishops, which he proceeds to shew. “That is truth if it please your grace,”, quoth the Archbishop of Canterbury; who, himself alarmed, was anxious to bear down all opposition by a demand for consent, accompanied, perhaps, by looks perfectly well understood—“ That is truth, if it please your grace; I doubt not, but that my brethren here will acknowledge the same.”

“No sir, not so, under your correction,' quothe the Bishoppe of Rochester, for you have not mine, no.' * Ah,' quothe the King, • loke here, is not this your hand and your seale?' and shewed him the instrument with seales. No forsoothe,' quoth the Bishop. How say You to that,' quoth the King to my Lord of Caunturbury. “Sir, it is his hand, and his seale,' said my Lorde of Caunturbury. "No, my Lorde,' quoth the Bishop of Rochester. - Indeede You were in hand with me to have bothe my hand and seale, as other of my Lordes have done; but then I saide againe to you, I would never consent to any such acte, for it was much against my conscience; and therefore my hand and seale shall never be set to any such Instrument, God willing, with much more matter touching the same communication betweene us.' You say truthe,' quoth the Bishop of Caunterbury, such wordes you had unto me; but you were fully resolved at last, that I should subscribe your name, and put to your seale myselfe, and you would allowe the same.' 'All which,' quoth the Bishop of Rochester, under your correction, my Lord, is not true.' 'Well, well,' quoth the King, . it maketh no great matter; we will not stand with you


argument; you are but one man.' And with that the King rose up, and the courte was adjourned untill an other day.”

This bishop (Fisher) seems to have given the supporters of the divorce, a great deal of trouble. On another day, when the legitimacy of the marriage was debated, the question seemed so doubtful, “ that no man knew the truth.”

". Yes,' quoth the Bishop of Rochester, “I knowe the truth.' ' How knowe you,' quoth my Lord Cardinall, ‘more than any other person?

· Yes forsoothe my Lord,' quoth he, Quia ego sum profes

sor veritatis, therefore I knowe the truth. I know that God is truth itselfe, and he never sayeth but truth; and God saith, quos Deus conjunxit, homo non separet. And forasmuch as this marriage was joined and made by God to a good intent, I say that I knowe the truthe; and that men cannot break, upon any wilfull occaision, that which God hath made and constituted. Soe much doe all faithful men,' quoth my Lord Cardinall, “know as well as you. Yet this reason is not sufficient in this case ; for the King's counsell do alledge diverse presumptions, to prove that it was not lawfull at the begin. ning, ergo it was not ordained by God, for God doeth nothing without a due order. Therefore it is not to be doubted, but if the presumptions be true, which they alleadge to be most true, then the conjunction was not, ne could be, of God. Therefore I say unto you, my Lord of Rochester, ye know not the truthe, unless ye can avoide their presumption by just reasons. “Then,' quoth one Doctor Ridley, 'it is a shame and a great dishonour to this honourable presence, that any such presumptions should be alleadged in this open courte, which be too detestable to be rehearsed.' What,' quoth my Lord Cardinall, · Domine Doctor, magis reverenter.' No, no, my Lord,' quoth he, “there belongeth no reverence to be given to this matter; for an unreverent matter would be unreverently answered.' And there they left, and proceeded forthe with other matter."

The trial not proceeding in that summary way which seemed best to the royal will, the King grew angry, and then, perhaps, conceived his first distaste to the Cardinal, who, he probably began to suspect, was not in earnest in the matter.

“ Thus this courte passed from session to session, and day to day, till at a certaine day of their session the King sent for my

Lord Cardinall to come to him to Bridewell; who to accomplish his commaundement went to him, and being there with him in communication in his privy chamber from an eleven untill twelve of the clocke at noone, and past, my Lord departed from the King and toke his barge at the Blackfriars, and went to his house at Westminster. The Bishop of Carlile being in his barge at that time, saide unto him, (winding of his face), “ It is a very hot day.' • Yea, my Lord,' quoth the Cardi. nall, if ye had bine as well chafed as I have bine within this houre, ye would say it were very hot.' And as soon as he came home to his house at Westminster, he went incontinent to his naked bed, where he had not lyen fully two houres, but that my Lord of Wiltshire, Mistress Anne Bulleine's father, came to speake with him of a message from the Kinge. My Lord, understanding of his comming, commaunded he should be brought to his bedde's side; and he being there, shewed him the King's pleasure was, that he should incontinently goe with the other Cardinall to the Queene, whoe was then in Bridewell, in her chamber there, to perswade with her by their wisdomes, and to advise her to surrender the whole matter unto the King's handes by her owne consent and will; which should be muche better to her honor, than to stande to the triall of lawe, and thereby

to be condemned, which would seem much to her dishonour. To fulfill the King's pleasure, my Lord saide he was ready, and would prepare him to goe thither out of hande, but quoth he farther to my Lord of Wiltshire, · Ye and other my Lordes of the counsell, are not a little mis-advised, to put any such fantasy into the King's head, whereby you doe trouble all the realme; and at length you shall get small thankes for your laboures, both of God and the world,' with many other vehement wordes and reasons, which caused my Lord of Wiltshire to weepe, kneeling by my Lorde's bedde side, and in conclusion departed. And then my Lord arose, and made him ready, taking his barge, and went streight to Bathe Place to Cardinall Campeigne; and so they went together to Bridewell, directly to the Queene's lodging."

Then follows the interesting scene with the queen, which we have in Shakespear.

At length, on the day when judgement was anxiously expected from the Cardinals, and the king himself was stationed at a door of the court in the gallery, where he might hear the judgement given, and the king's counsel were calling loud for the sentence, Cardinal Campeggio, to the surprise of all, suddenly adjourned the court to Rome, in an impressive speech, very remarkable at such a time for its freedom and independence. He thus concludes.

“I come not to speake for favor, mede, or dread of any person alive, be he king or otherwise. I have no such respect to the person that I will offend my conscience. I will not for the favor or displeasure of any highe estate doe that thing that should be against the will of God. I am an ould man, bothe weake and sickly, that loketh daily for deathe. What should it availe me to put my soul in daunger of God's displeasure, to my utter damnation, for the favor of any prince or high estate in this world ? My being here is only to see justice ministred according to my conscience, which thing myself doe also most desyer. And forasmuch as I doe understande, having perceivance by the allegations in the matter, the case is very doubtful, and also the party defendaunt will make no aunswer here, but doth rather appeale from us, supposing that we be not indifferent, considering the king's high dignity and authority within his owne realme which he hath over his subjects; and we being his subjects she thinketh that we cannot doe justice for feare of displeasure. Therefore to avoide all these ambiguities and doubts, I will not damne my soule for any prince or potentate alive. Therefore, I intend not to wade any farther in this matter, unles I have the just opinion and assent of the pope, and such other of more auncient experience, or as be sene better in such doubtful laws, than I am. Wherefore I will adjourne this courte, for this time, according to the order of the courte of Rome, from whence semblably our jurisdiction is derived. And if we should goe further than our commission doeth warrant us, it were great folly and much to our blames; and we may be breakers of the order of the high courte from which (as I said) our authorities be derived. And with that the courte was dissolved, and no more done.”


The rage of the bluff king may be easily imagined; but he did not think it befitting his royal dignity, to make any observation, but pushed forward his friend and brother-in-law as his spokesman.

“ Then stept forthe the duke of Suffolke from the king, by his commaundement, and spake with an hault countenáunce these wordes, ' It was never merry in England, quoth he," while we had any cardinalls amongst us:' which wordes were set forthe both with countenaunce and vehemency, that all men marvailed what he intended; to whome no man made aunswer. Then the duke spake againe in great despight. To the which my lord cardinal, perceiving his vehemency, soberly made aunswer, and saide, Sir, of all men within this realme, ye have least cause to dispraise cardinalls : for, if I, poor cardinall, had not bine, you should have had at this present no head upon your shoulders, wherewith you might make any such bragge, in despight of us, who intend you no manner of damage; neither have we given you any cause, to be with such despight offended. I would you knew it, my lord, I and my brother here intend the king and this realme, as much honor, wealthe, and quietness, as you or any other, of what degree soever he be, within this realme; and would as gladly accomplish This lawful desire. Sir, I pray you my lord, shew me what you would doe in case you were the king's commissioner in a forraine country, having a very weighty matter to treat on : and upon the doubtful conclusion thereof, would you not advertise the king's majesty or ere ye went through with the same? Yes, I doubt not. Therefore put your hasty malice and despight away, and consider that we be but commissioners for a time, and cannot, ne may not, by virtue of our commission procede to judgement, without the knowledge and consent of the head of our authority, and licence of him obtained ; which is the pope. Therefore we doe neither more nor lesse than our warrant will beare us; and if any man will be offended with us therefore, he is an unwise man. Therefore hold your peace, my lord, and pacify yourselfe, and speake like a man of honor and wisdome, and speak not so quickly or reproachfully to your friends; for you know best what friendship I have shewed you, which I never yet revealed to any person alive before nowe, neither to my glory, nor to your dishonour.' And therewith the duke gave over the matter, without


further wordes or aunswer, and went his way.”

The enemies of the Cardinal seem now at last to have got the advantage over him. Anne Boleyn was an invulnerable shield. The minister so long, at the same time, the slave and the tyrant of his master, was at length tottering to his fall. Until this juncture, Henry does not appear to have even thought it possible to part with the ready instrument of his will. And it appears to have been not without considerable difficulty, that he withdrew himself from his old habits of reliance and confidence, nor without frequent relapses of tenderness, which struck the enemies of the falling favorite with con

sternation. The first pointed insult offered to Wolsey, was, when with his brother cardinal they followed the king to Grafton, in Northamptonshire, where the cardinal was told there was no room in the house for him. Nevertheless, the king received him with all his accustomed shew of kindness, and thus decided the numerous wagers which the lords and courtiers had laid on the issue of his reception.

“ Then to behold the countenaunce of the noblemen and others, that had made their wagers, it would have made you smile; and specially of those that laid their money, that the king would not speake with him. Thus were they deceived. The king was in earnest and long communication with him, in so much as I might heare the king say, ' How can that be; is not this your owne hand? and pulled a letter or writing out of his bosome, and shewed the same to my lord; and as I perceived my lord aunswered the same, that the king had no more to say; but said to him, “My lord goe to dinner, and call my lordes here to keepe you company; and after dinner I will come to you againe, and then we will commune further with you;' and so departed, and dined himselfe that day with Mrs. Anne Bullen in her chamber."

At dinner, further indications of a speedy change are given. Lords begin to speak now, who, a short time before, would have paid the price of their heads for an insinuation.

“ Then was there set up in the chamber of presence a table for my lord, and other lordes of the counsell, where they dined together, sitting at dinner and communing of divers matters. The king should do well,' quoth my lord cardinall, 'to send his bishops and chapleines home to their cures and benefices. Yea, Mary,' quoth my lord of Norfolke, and so it were mete for you to do also. I should be well content therewith,' quoth my lord, if it were the king's pleasure to licence me, with his grace's favor, to goe to my benefice at Winchester.' 'Nay,' quoth my lord of Norfolke, “to your benefice at Yorke, whereas is your greatest honor and charge.' • Even as it shall please the king,' quoth my lord cardinall, and so fell into other matters. For the lordes were lothe he should be so neare the king as to continue at Winchester. Immediately after dinner they fell to counsell untill the waiters had dined.

Anne Boleyn, during her tête-à-tête with the king, follows up the game.

“ And as I heard it reported by them that waited on the king at dinner, Mistress Anne Bullen was much offended, as farre as she durst, that the king did so gently entertaine my lord cardinall, saying as she sat with the king at dinner, in communication of my lord, • Šir,' quoth she, “is it not a marvellous thing to see, what debt and danger he hath brought you in with all your subjects? How soe

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