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GOLD and silver are seen very often, yet their scarcity as compared with some other metals, has given to them a greater value than most other mineral substances. They are used in nearly all civilised countries as a ready means of purchasing such things as we may require.

In a great many countries the national bank circulates paper with a printed form, by which the parties issuing promise to pay a certain amount to the owners of these papers whenever presented for that purpose. Bank of England notes are of this kind, and are current in all places where there is a confidence that the bank directors can pay what they have promised. The notes are not, in themselves, of any real value; still it is a great

convenience to have them received generally, as representing a certain amount of money.

It is true there is no value received; but so long as the notes can be exchanged for gold, which has a real value of its own, they are most suitable as a means of carrying on trade and commerce.

Supposing that in some large transaction it were necessary for one merchant to pay another the sum of several thousand pounds, and there were no notes in use, the whole amount must be given in sovereigns, which would not only be very heavy and inconvenient to carry, but a great amount of time would also be lost in counting over the coins.

In this country, however, gold is the standard to which all values are referred. If we speak of the value of a note, we say it is worth one, five, ten, twenty, or some greater number of sovereigns; and a book, or a bag, or a knife is worth a certain part of a sovereign; as for instance, a shilling, twenty of which are said to have a value equal to one sovereign.

Money, after all, has only one real use it enables us to provide those things which are necessary for the sustenance and comfort of life. As such, it is the duty of every man to make some attempts to obtain it, that he may provide for his own wants, and the temporal happiness of those dependent on him. But "the love of money," the Scripture says, "is the root of all evil.”

QUESTIONS:-1. What are gold and silver when compared with other minerals? 2. What have they got in consequence? 3. By the people of what kind of countries are they used? 4. What do you mean by your answer? 5. What are they used for? 6. In many countries tell what is done by the national bank? 7. What is a bank? 8. What is meant by notes being current? 9. What gives confidence in a bank? 10. Who are the depositors? 11. Who the shareholders? 12. What is the use of notes since they have no real value? 13. For what can they be exchanged? 14. Give an illustration showing the convenience of notes. 15. What is the standard, in this country, to which all values are referred? 16. What, after all, is the only real use of money? 17. What reason can you give why a man should seek by honest means to get money? 18. What does the Bible say about "the love of money"?

WORD LESSON:

cir'-cu-late

ex-chang'-ed

na'-tion-al

civ'-il-is-ed il-lus-tra'-tion nec'-ess-a-ry

sub'-stan-ces

tem'-por-al

con'-fi-dence in-con-ve'-ni-ent pur'-chas-ing thou'-sands

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Pierce me in leading the host of the Lord,

Heed not the corse, though the king's in your

path:

Bury your steel in the bosoms of Gath!

Thou who art bearing my buckler and bow,
Should the soldiers of Saul look away from the foe,
Stretch me that moment in blood at thy feet!
Mine be the doom which they dared not to meet.

Farewell to others; but never we part,
Heir to my royalty, son of my heart!
Bright is the diadem, boundless the sway,
Or kingly the death that awaits us to-day.

BYRON.

QUESTIONS:-1. Where do we find an account of this battle? 2. Between whom was the battle fought? 3. Where? (Read the account of the battle in 1 Samuel chap. xxxi.) 4. Did the shaft pierce Saul? 5. Did the shafts kill him? 6. Was he killed? 7. By whom? 8. Who fell along with him? 9. What do you know about his sons in this battle? 10. What did Saul's enemies do to his dead body? 11. What is the meaning of the line, "Bury your steel in the bosoms of Gath"? 12. What is the one called who carries the shield and bow of his chief? 13. Why did they not fight with cannon and guns in this battle? (Read the lamentation of David over the death of Saul, and his son Jonathan, in 2 Samuel, chap. i. ver. 17-27.)

Far, far upon the Sea.

FAR, far upon the sea,

The good ship speeding free,
Upon the deck we gather young and old,
And view the flapping sail,

Spreading out before the gale,

Full and round without a wrinkle or a fold;
Or watch the waves that glide,
By the stately vessel's side;

And the wild sea-birds that follow thro' the air;

Or we gather in a ring,

And with cheerful voices sing,

Oh! gaily goes the ship, when the wind blows fair!

Far, far upon the sea,

With the sun-shine on our lee,

We talk of pleasant days when we were young,
And remember tho' we roam,

The sweet melodies of home,

The songs of happy childhood which we sung:And though we quit her shore,

To return to it no more,

Sound the glories that Britannia yet shall bear ; That Britons rule the waves !

And never shall be slaves!

Oh! gaily goes the ship, when the wind blows fair!

QUESTIONS:-1. Give another name for sea, here? 2. When is a ship far, far upon the sea? 3. Tell from what country the passengers in this ship came. 4. What lines, in this song, tell you this? 5. What class of people do you think the passengers were? 6. What reason have you for thinking so? 7. What is meant by the ship's "speeding free"? 8. When the wind is right a-head, does a ship speed freely? 9. Are all ships hindered by a "head wind"? 10. What kinds are not? 11. In the first verse, how are we told that the passengers are spending their time? 12. When does this ship go gaily? 13. What is meant by its going gaily? 14. What is meant by the lee-side of a ship? 15. What do sailors call the other side? 16. What lines in the second verse show the passengers were emigrants? 17. What is the meaning of that word? 18. What is said will cheer their hearts? 19. Why were they sorry?

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